Rebellion

Confidence in the swift success of the uprising was quickly dispelled when the rebels were defeated in most of the big cities. The combined resistance of the security forces loyal to the Republic and militants of political and syndicalist organisations was crucial in crushing the revolt in Barcelona, Madrid, M laga, Valencia, Gij n and San Sebasti n. However, wherever this combination was absent (such as Seville and C rdoba) or the Civil Guard and Assault Guard backed the actions of the rebels...

In the service of Spain and Christian civilisation

The repression dealt out by the military rebels was of a selective nature from the outset. The first to fall were the political authorities, distinguished republicans and political and trade union leaders. They were public figures, who appeared in the papers, with known addresses, and who, in most cases (particularly civil governors and mayors), had attended the same events, meetings and even parties as some of the military personnel who ordered their liquidation. They were intellectuals,...

Religious zeal satanic rage

On 20 July 1936, General Emilio Mola arrived in Burgos, a city that since Sunday 18 July had been experiencing a wave of patriotic and religious fervour, with solemn masses and the pre-Republic red and gold flag on every mast. The cathedral bells announced the general's arrival to the population. 'Traditionalist and Fascist squads' escorted the procession to the Palace of the 6th Division, in the Plaza Alonso Mart nez. This was followed almost instantly by the arrival of the archbishop of the...

Unification

By the end of 1936, all the political forces that backed the military uprising, once they had accepted the supreme command of Franco, were in favour of some kind of unification, although the problem lay in figuring out which force would predominate. In this aspect, everyone feared it would be the Falange. Such was the opinion of the Alfonsines, led by Antonio Goicochea, what was left of Gil Robles' CEDA, and particularly the Carlist sectors who supported the Prince Regent, Don Javier de Borb...

Epilogue Why did the Republic lose the war

'Italy and Germany did a great deal for Spain in 1936 Without the aid of both countries, there would be no Franco today', said Adolf Hitler to Galeazzo Ciano, the Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs and son-in-law of Benito Mussolini, in September 1940.1 It is an opinion that sums up perfectly what many contemporaries believed then, and studies have confirmed decades later that the German and Italian intervention had been decisive in the defeat of the Republic or the victory of the rebel...

Religion the seed of discord

In the years prior to the proclamation of the Republic, the Catholic Church, under the protective mantle of Primo de Rivera's dictatorship, envisaged no serious changes in store for its privileged position. In spite of the disentailments of Church property and the liberal revolutions of the nineteenth century, the confessional state had remained intact. Catholicism saw itself as the historical religion of the Spanish. As custodian of the highest virtues and a perfect society, in close harmony...

Coalition government

On 4 September 1936, Largo Caballero, who had opposed the idea of Indalecio Prieto forming a government of republicans and socialists in May 1936, and who had refused to do so after the coup d' tat in July, finally agreed to lead 'a coalition government', on the advice of Lu s Araquistain, in which he himself would also be the Minister for War. It was a government with a socialist majority, with Indalecio Prieto as Navy and Air Minister Julio Alvarez del Vayo as Foreign Minister Juan Negr n,...

Info

Government victory would 'reinforce Spain's link to France and the USSR, the two powers that surrounded Germany from the east and west, and which opposed the Nazis' expansionist plans'.5 Mussolini, who received repeated calls for help from Franco through the Italian consul in Tangier and his military attach , also decided to help the rebels for geostrategic reasons he would gain an ally in the western Mediterranean and thereby weaken France's military position. On 28 July, he sent a squadron of...

Crisis

On 12 March, in Madrid, several Falangist gunmen fired on Luis Jim nez de As a, a prominent socialist leader and a professor of law, one of the main drafters of the 1931 republican Constitution. He was unharmed, but his police escort, Jes s Gisbert, was killed. The funeral of the police officer gave rise to displays of condemnation and serious incidents, including the burning of churches and the premises of the right-wing newspaper La Naci n. The police arrested various Falangists, although the...

Franco

Francisco Franco was born in El Ferrol on 4 December 1892, and was 43 years old at the time of the rising against the Republic. Almost all his military service had been in Africa, and this provided him with rapid promotions for his exploits in battle, and a good number of decorations and distinctions. He entered the Military Academy in Toledo in 1907, and despite passing out 251st of the 312 officers in his year, by 1915 he was a captain, and in February 1926, at the age of 33, he had risen to...

The Spanish Republic and Civil

JULIAN CASANOVA Translated by Martin Douch Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, Sao Paulo, Delhi, Dubai, Tokyo The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York www.cambridge.org Information on this title www.cambridge.org 9780521493888 Juli n Casanova 2010 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provision of relevant collective licensing agreements, no...

Introduction

Until the beginning of the Second Republic, Spanish society seemed to have managed to avoid the problems and troubles that had beset most other European countries since 1914. Spain had not taken part in the First World War, and therefore had not undergone the upheaval that this war had caused, with the fall of empires and their subjects, the demobilising of millions of ex-combatants and massive debt caused by the vast spending on the war effort. The Spanish Monarchy was overthrown not by a war,...

Revolts Death in Casas Viejas

On 19 January 1932, miners from the mining camp of San Cornelio, in F gols, came out on strike they disarmed the somat n local civilian defence force and the conflict spread to other areas of the Alto Llobregat and Cardoner. This was a wildcat strike and thus bore no relation to subsequent uprisings in 1933, which were planned and organised by leading members of the CNT and the Federaci n Anarquista Ib rica FAI . The harsh conditions in the mines, with long hours and unsafe pits, the frustrated...

Juan Negrn

Largo Caballero was not the right man to impose unity in the republican agricultural sector and order away from the front, or to win the war. Such was the opinion of the republicans, the Communists and Prieto's socialists, who 'were sticking together', as Jos Giral said to Manuel Aza a, 'to facilitate any solution'. The Communists 'could no longer put up with Largo making random decisions without consulting the government'. The former trade union leader was 'in the pocket' of the CNT.32 With...

Nationalist Spain

Those who rose against the Republic did not have so much difficulty finding a single military and political leader. As of 1 October 1936, Francisco Franco was 'Head of Government of the Spanish State'. His military colleagues who put him there thought that this post would be temporary, that the war would soon be over with the conquest of Madrid and that then would be the time to think of the political framework of the new State. However, after various frustrated attempts to take the capital,...

From Madrid to the Ebro

Madrid Surrendering Francos Authority

By the middle of October 1936, the rebel troops, now well equipped with Italian artillery pieces and armoured vehicles, had occupied 1 Quoted in Jos Andr s Rojo, Vicente Rojo. Retrato de un general republicano, Tusquets, Barcelona, 2006, p. 270. most of the towns and villages around Madrid. The militiamen, cowed by the advance of the Africa army, withdrew to the capital, and they were joined there by hundreds of refugees fleeing from the occupied localities. Franco announced that he would take...

Nonintervention

Barely two weeks after the military rising, the governments of the principal European powers had already shaped their policies with regard to this fledgling conflict in Spain. The British Foreign Office declared 'strict neutrality' and asked the French to do the same. In Paris, L on Blum went back on his original decision to help the government of the Republic and opted for non-intervention. Germany and Italy were 2 Enrique Moradiellos, El re idero de Europa. Las dimensiones internacionales de...

Cntfai

The situation to escalate from anti-militarist protests to desertions was something that caused concern to those in favour of discipline and was hard for them to accept. Their methods of persuasion failed, and there were no other ways, except armed confrontation, to halt this trend. Many of these deserters and dissidents brandished their arms in the streets of Barcelona in May 1937. And it was there that they finally realised that they were now on their own. The reconstruction of central power...

The road to authoritarianism

The brunt of the blame for the rebellion was placed, at the instigation of the CEDA and one sector of the Partido Radical, on Manuel Aza a, the socialists and the Statute of Catalonia as a symbol of the 'disunion of the Fatherland'. Aza a had gone to Barcelona on 28 September to attend the funeral of Jaume Carner, his ex-Finance Minister. There he met Indalecio Prieto, and he tried to 'caution him against' the proposed revolution, as he 'considered that it lacked any chance of success'. In his...

Spanish Republic And Civil

The Spanish Civil War has gone down in history for the horrific violence that it generated. The climate of euphoria and hope that greeted the overthrow of the Spanish monarchy was utterly transformed just five years later by a cruel and destructive civil war. Here, Juli n Casanova, one of Spain's leading historians, offers a magisterial new account of this critical period in Spanish history. He exposes the ways in which the Republic brought into the open simmering tensions between Catholics and...

Reforms

The reform and reorganisation of the army was implemented by Manuel Azana barely a week after he had been sworn in as the Minister for War in the provisional government. The army that the Republic inherited in 1931 had a history that abounded with interventions in politics, occupied a privileged position within the State and society, lacked modern armaments and was top-heavy with officers, many more than were necessary. Excluding the security forces, which were also militarised, the armed...

Insurrection

The revolution, according to the socialist revolutionary committee, should have started with a general strike in the main cities and industrial centres, followed by sympathetic sectors of the armed forces. There were major strikes in Madrid, Seville, C rdoba, Valencia, Barcelona and Zaragoza, with brief outbreaks of armed uprising in certain locations in the latter province. In the mining area to the west of Bilbao, the army and the Civil Guard fought the insurgents for a few hours, and in...

The antirepublican offensive

There had already been some sabre-rattling in the summer of 1931, when the first measures of Manuel Azana's military reform became known. In June of that year, two monarchist generals, Emilio Barrera and Luis Orgaz, were arrested due to rumours of a conspiracy against 10 Bruce Lincoln, 'Revolutionary exhumations in Spain, July 1936', Comparative Studies in Society and History, 27, 2 1985 , pp. 241-60. the republican regime, and a few days later, a group of generals who had been appointed by...

The Republic between two pincers

Lerroux and the radicals had left the government in December 1931, after the passing of the Constitution, when they had asked Aza a to form a government without the socialists. As Aza a ignored their request and kept the socialists, the radicals withdrew and broke the coalition that had governed the Republic since 14 April. Lerroux was to wait for the moment to present himself as an alternative to the government made up of leftist republicans and socialists. As Aza a noted in his diary on 14...

Spain split in two

Giral Mine Map

The coup d' tat and the subsequent civil war had disastrous effects for the Republic. Its administration went to pieces, as did its army and police forces. Jos Giral's government, which lasted barely a month and a half, took some very important decisions, in spite of appearing to be a makeshift government with no support it authorised the civil governors to distribute arms to the political and trade union organisations, asked for aid from abroad aware that this was the only way of defeating the...

Opposing worlds

In some of the cities where the uprising had been defeated, the war seemed far away for months. Away from the front, their inhabitants made the most of the revolutionary celebrations, the enthusiasm for the destruction of order and its symbols, and they knew nothing of the harshness of the trenches or the bombings. This enthusiastic atmosphere, with armed people in the streets, the requisitioning of luxury cars and houses belonging to aristocrats and the middle classes, the abundance of food,...

The gold of Moscow and the financing of the war

The Republic and its government had to defend themselves after 18 July 1936 in a war that they had not started. And they had the resources to do so. They had the gold and silver reserves of the Bank of Spain, which, as Indalecio Prieto said shortly after the start of the conflict, belonged to the legitimate Spanish government, the only entity that could touch them. This money was vital for waging a war lasting nearly three years against the military rebels and the backing of their German and...

The Frente Popular and the return of Azaa

In February 1936, 72 per cent of the Spanish population, men and women, voted - the highest turnout of the three general elections held during the Second Republic. As Javier Tusell showed years ago, it was also a clean election, in a country with democratic institutions and with many sectors of the population believing that this election was decisive for the country's future.1 This is why the election campaign 1 Javier Tusell, Las elecciones del Frente Popular en Espa a, Edicusa, Madrid, 1971....

Republican dawn

The Republic was welcomed by celebrations in the streets, a great deal of rhetoric and a holiday atmosphere that combined revolutionary hopes with a desire for reform. Crowds thronged the streets, singing the 'Himno de Riego' the republican anthem and 'La Marseillaise'. Workers, students and professional people all joined in. The middle class 'opted for the Republic' because of the 'disorientation of conservative elements', wrote Jos Mar a Gil Robles a few years later. And the scene was...

The breakdown of order

The coup did not overthrow the Republic, but by opening a wide breach in the army and the security forces, it did destroy its cohesion and caused unrest. The Prime Minister, the republican Santiago Casares Quiroga, fearful of revolution and the popular unrest that might break out, ordered the civil governors not to distribute arms to the workers' organisations. There was little else he could do, because events very soon overtook him. He resigned on the night of 18 July. The person who might...

Why did the Republic not survive

Up to the beginning of the Second Republic, Spanish society seemed to have managed to avoid the problems and troubles that had beset most European countries since 1914. Spain had not taken part in the First World War, and therefore had not undergone the upheaval that this war had caused, with the fall of empires and their subjects, the demobbing of millions of ex-combatants and massive debt caused by the vast spending on the war effort. But it did share the division and tension that accompanied...

The winds of change

'The elections held last Sunday clearly show me that I do not have the love of my people today', wrote King Alfonso XIII in a farewell note to the Spanish people, before leaving the Royal Palace on the night of Tuesday 14 April 1931. According to Miguel Maura, 'the Monarchy had committed suicide', so he, the son of Antonio Maura, former leader of the monarchist conservatives, had decided 'to join' the Republic almost a year before it was proclaimed, as he stated in an address in the Ateneo...