CPrivate Company A

The 4th Texas Volunteers were organised in October 1861 at 'Camp Texas' near Richmond, Virginia, from the volunteer companies which had arrived from Texas, command of the regiment going to Colonel John Bell Hood, later promoted to General. Including volunteer companies named the Austin City Light Infantry, the Mustang Greys and the Grimes County Greys, the plate illustrates the uniforms of three com panies the Hardeman Rifles ('A'), the Tom Green Rifles ('B'), and the Porter Guards ('H'). The...

CPrivate 114th Pennsylvania Volunteers

Collis, an Irish-born captain, organised an independent company of Pennsylvania Zouaves to act as bodyguard to General N. P. Banks, the company containing a large number of Frenchmen who had served as Zouaves in the French army. Banks' Bodyguard, or the Zouaves d'Afrique, so impressed General Banks that Charles Collis was sent back to Philadelphia to recruit a full regiment, based upon his original company, which became Company 'A' of the new regiment, the 114th Pennsylvania Volunteers...

CCaptain Invalid Corps

In April 1863 the Invalid Corps was established, consisting of officers and men of the Union army unfit for full combat duty due to injury or illness but who could perform limited infantry service. A total of twenty-four regiments and 188 separate companies were established, who performed guard and garrison duty to relieve front-line soldiers. The name was changed on 18 March 1864 to The Veteran Reserve Corps, as the previous initial of the Invalid Corps coincided with those stamped on worn-out...

USA Brigadier Generals Service Dress

Both figures on this plate are taken from original photographs, and show how the personal whim of individual officers led to numerous non-regulation styles being worn on active service. The black felt hat could be 'punched up' in the crown to resemble a dunce's cap, which style, though appearing slightly ridiculous, was favoured by General Burnside and extensively copied by his staff. The more usual method of wearing the hat as shown on the other figure resembled the full dress style. General...

Bist Lieutenant

The Louisiana Zouave Battalion was raised from Europeans in New Orleans, and wore a typical Zouave-style costume the main difference between the uniforms of the officers and men was in the style of jacket, the rank and file having proper 'Zouave' sleeved waistcoats, while the officers had a type of shell-jacket with standing collar, bearing the rank markings on the cuffs and collar. The regiment was nicknamed 'The Pelicans' from the design of the State seal often borne upon the waist-belt. The...

CCadet Virginia Military Institute

Both Zouave units illustrated in this plate were raised in Charleston, South Carolina. Little is known about the organisation of McClellan's Zouaves, though the corps might have had some connection to Captain C. E. Chichester's volunteer company of Zouave Cadets who garrisoned Castle Pinckney when it held Federal prisoners after Bull Run. The uniforms of both corps were similar in style, consisting of grey jackets and trousers with red facings the Zouave Cadets also wore tan leggings in their...

Virginia Volunteers Full Dress

A militia company raised in Norfolk, Virginia, in 1858, the Woodis Rifles were named after a mayor of the city, Hunter Woodis. Originally forming part of the 3rd Battalion, 54th Virginia Militia, they were called out on 18 April 1861 and designated Company 'C' of the 6th Virginia Regiment upon that unit's organisation. From the Seven Days Battle in 1862, the Woodis Rifles were in continual action until the surrender at Appomattox, notably distinguishing themselves in action. Their uniform was...

B Private Infantry with Battle Flag

Sergeant South Carolina Volunteers 1861

The corporal illustrated wears an all-grey Federal-style fatigue uniform of Confederate grey, with only the chevrons in the infantry distinctive colour, and knapsack replaced by a green civilian blanket. His colour is the First National Flag of the Confederacy adopted 4 March 1861 , known as the 'Stars and Bars' from the three large stripes and from the seven white stars arranged in a circle on the blue canton. There were numerous variations on this design, the number and arrangement of stars...

BOfficer 9th Vermont Cavalry

The figures on this plate all taken from contemporary photographs show variations of the cavalry uniform as worn on campaign. The officer of the 1st U.S. Cavalry wears a civilian, fur-collared overcoat and civilian hat, with no visible badges of rank, only his pistol identifying him as a soldier. The officer of the 9th Vermont Cavalry wears a type of 'patrol jacket', the other items of uniform being of the regulation pattern. The General of Cavalry, taken from a photograph...

US Navy Summer Dress

Cloth jackets and trousers or grey woollen 'frocks' with white duck collars and cuffs, black hats and black handkerchiefs the rating illustrated, however, shows the dress common to both navies in action, allowing both comfort and freedom of movement. Confederate petty officers wore black 'fouled anchor' rank badges on the right or left sleeve depending on rank as in the Federal Navy dark blue badges when white summer dress was worn . In both navies, chief petty officers wore jackets like those...

CPrivate Iron Brigade Service Dress

The private of the 20th Maine illustrated wears the ordinary fatigue uniform, but with the official regulation dark blue trousers the regiment was one of the few to adhere to the original trousers rather than adopt the light blue ones authorised in December 1861. The figure shows the regulation infantry equipment, consisting of a waist-belt and small cap-pouch to the right of the brass plate, and a shoulder-belt supporting the cartridge-pouch on the right hip, the pouch having a tin liner and...

Army of the Potomac MGen G G Meade

REYNOLDS ist Division B.Gen. J. S. Wadsworth ist Bde B.Gen. S. Meredith - 2nd, 6th and 7th Wis. 19th Ind. 24th Mich. 2nd Bde B.Gen. L. Cutler - 14th, 47th, 76th and 95th N.Y. 7th Ind. ist Bde B.Gen. G. R. Paul - 94th and 104th N.Y. nth and 107th Pa. 16th Maine 13th Mass. 2nd Bde B.Gen. H. Baxter - 83rd and 97th N.Y. 19th and 88th Pa. 12th Mass. 3rd Division M.Gen. A. Doubleday ist Bde B.Gen. T. Rowley - 20th N.Y. 121st, 142nd and 151st Pa. 2nd Bde Col. R. Stone - 143rd,...

CPrivate Company B 15th Virginia Infantry

This plate shows the regulation double-breasted overcoat and elbow-length cape with standing collar. Greatcoats of completely regulation pattern were scarce, numerous semi-regulation styles being the most common. One of the privates illustrated wears a regulation kepi complete with regimental number on the front, an ornament frequently not issued the other wears a home made cloth or woollen cap, and a knitted 'muffler'. Company.'B' of the 15th Virginia Infantry, the 'Virginia Life Guard', wore...

CPrivate Infantry Volunteers

Confederate Navy Officer

The figures illustrated in this plate taken from contemporary photographs and engravings show typical volunteer and militia uniforms worn in the early months of the Civil War by the Confederacy. One uniform is based upon a much earlier style, including a flat-topped forage cap covered with black 'waterproof' as worn during the U.S.-Mexican War, and braided shell-jacket. The rifleman wears a leather 'hunting shirt', a traditionally-American garment worn by 'backwoodsmen' and pioneers for more...

CSergeant New York Militia

Tracing their descent to 1806, the title of the 7th New York National Guard was adopted by the regiment in 1847. An active force in city riot- control, the more unruly members of the mob christened the 7th 'the old greybacks', their dislike of the part-time soldiers being increased by the fact that all ranks were drawn from the highest-ranked members of the community, enlistment in the 7th being considered more like an exclusive club. Under the command of Abram Duryee later of Zouave fame from...

B General of Cavalry

Though officially required to wear the regulation frock-coat, many Confederate cavalry officers preferred short jackets, often double-breasted with yellow-lined lapels which could be buttoned back to give the garment an almost eighteenth-century appearance. Collar, cuffs and piping were also in the yellow distinctive colour of the cavalry, with rank badges and cuff-lacing as per regulations. Underneath the jacket was worn any type of waistcoat, shirt and cravat. Officially, the k pi was the...

BGunner Service Dress

Artillery Shiloh

Confederate Artillery uniforms supposedly conformed to the regulation style worn by other branches of the army, with the red distinguishing colour worn on the kepi, facings and trimming. In practice, however, it is possible that few enlisted men ever wore the prescribed frock-coat, a variety of non-regulation styles being worn on active service. The officer in this plate wears the regulation uniform on campaign, brimmed felt hats and short jackets were more commonly used. The gunner is shown in...

CCompany Officer Infantry Service Dress

Infantry Frock Coat

Although the 'Hardee' hat was the prescribed wear, many officers adopted the kepi on active service. In the early stages of the war, the white linen cap-cover and neckcloth, named a 'Havelock' after the British general of the Indian Mutiny, was issued to many regiments, often two per man one Connecticut unit received six per man . Intended to be a protection against the heat of the sun, the 'Havelocks' were universally unpopular and were worn for only a short time 'As it is made sufficiently...

CBrigadier General

Marine Dress Uniform

Confederate General officers wore a frock-coat for full dress, not dissimilar to that of the Federal regulations, but of grey with buff facing-colour on the collar, cuffs and piping. Their buttons were arranged in pairs, eight per row. Rank was indicated by an embroidered badge on either side of the collar, consisting of three stars within a laurel wreath, by cuff-lacing of four thicknesses wide, and by the buff waist-sash. A small bicorn 'chapeau' was authorised for full dress wear, but in...

Hamptons Legion b 1 st Sergeant Beaufort Troop

Soon after the State's secession, Wade Hampton, an immensely rich and aristocratic South Carolina plantation owner, raised largely at his own expense a volunteer 'legion' with an original strength of six infantry companies, four cavalry companies, and a battery of artillery equipped with six English Blakely fieldpieces, purchased from Hampton's own pocket. There was no difficulty in raising recruits - more than twice the required number volunteered. In common with many other volunteer corps,...

CPrivate 2nd New Hampshire Volunteers

2nd New Hampshire

The 1 st Rhode Island Volunteers was organised around Providence, and commanded by Ambrose Everett Burnside, later to become General. The 1st Rhode Island engaged for a three-month enlistment beginning 20 April 1861 and ending on 2 August of the same year. It served at First Bull Run, where, though performing well in the early stages of the action, became entangled in the general rout which followed. The uniform was remarkably different from other Union volunteer corps, both 1 st and 2nd Rhode...

BCorporal

Colored Infantry

Riflemen always having been a legendary American arm of service, the idea of forming two regiments of outstanding marksmen was conceived by Hiram Berdan, himself a champion rifle-shot for fifteen years prior to the war, who, though con sidered 'thoroughly unscrupulous and unreliable' by some was an outstanding inventor whose various gadgets included a repeating rifle, a 'submarine gunboat' and a distance-fuze for shrapnel. Organising his two regiments, Berdan was appointed Colonel of the 1st...

B Captain Sussex Light Dragoons 1861

The Sussex Light Dragoons wore a most distinctive uniform, their kepi being of such a height as to almost qualify for the name 'shako' of blue cloth with yellow braid, it bore a brass badge of the letters 's.l.d.' over crossed sabres. Officers wore a variation of regulation frock-coat, but considerably longer than usual, and distinguished by a grey collar. Other ranks wore shirts with 'plastron'-style front panels, which may have been reversible to show a yellow panel for full dress. Trousers...

CPrivate 8th Wisconsin Service Dress

39th New York Regiment

The figures of the 21st Michigan and 8th Wisconsin both taken from contemporary photographs show typical variations of the campaign uniform. The 21 st Michigan almost entirely wore battered black 'slouch' hats with or without leather bands the fatigue-blouse in this case worn with the top button unfastened and the lapels turned back, though a number of full dress frock-coats were also worn. The 8th Wisconsin apparently largely retained the frock-coat with the ubiquitous battered hat. The...

Butternut 1865

Flag 3rd Texas Infantry

As the Confederacy declined and the Federal blockade tightened, the Confederate uniform underwent a gradual change in colour from grey to that illustrated in this plate. Once the supply of grey cloth had run out, the material was dyed with 'butternut' nut-shells and rust being a common concoction which produced an endless variety of brown, buff and light khaki shades. This dress, often combined with captured Federal items and pieces of civilian clothing, was in a way a rudimentary form of...

CSA Private Infantry Service Dress

Csa Infantry

This plate illustrates two versions of the semi-regulation service uniform worn by the rank and file of the Confederate infantry, before the shortages of material led to the complete degeneration of uniform into semi-civilian and home-dyed costume. The authorised fatigue uniform consisted of a grey double-breasted, blouse with two rows of seven buttons but it seems likely that the single-breasted version illustrated was more common. This uniform was worn with or without light blue facings, and...

CCorporal Vermont Brigade

Army Uniforms Mexican War

Many of the New York regiments were organised on a 'national' basis, companies being composed of men of the same national origin - for example, part of the 36th New York was known as The British Volunteers. Most famous was the 39th New York, known as The Garibaldi Guard or the 1st Foreign Rifles. Mustered on 28 May 1861, the regiment included one company of Italians, one of French, 3 German, 3 Hungarian, one Spanish and one Swiss, named after the famous Italian patriot and uniformed in a...

CSA Private Cavalry Campaign Dress

Csa Uniforms

This plate shows a typical Confederate trooper of about 1863, before the most severe shortages of uniforms and equipment led to the virtual disappearance of anything resembling regulation styles. Though many militia units had good horse-furniture of pre-war vintage, there was little uniformity in the type of saddle used, varying from the U.S. McClellan pattern or its Confederate copy, the older Grimsley and Jennifer patterns, with numerous imported models and civilian saddles. A large number of...

CPrivate US Coloured Infantry

Parliament Infantry Uniforms

Beginning with the Corps d'Afrique Louisiana Native Guards and the ist Louisiana National Guard, the first 'black' regiment in U.S. service mustered 27 September 1862 , about 300,000 coloured troops were enrolled in Federal service following the Emancipation Proclamation I January 1863 in 166 regiments 145 infantry, seven cavalry, twelve heavy artillery, one field artillery, one engineer , of which about sixty were employed in the field. Officers were white negro regiments, though they behaved...

COfficer nth Indiana Volunteers

114th New York Volunteers

The 4th Michigan Volunteers were organised at Adrian on 16 May 1861, and served throughout the war with a distinguished record, winning particular distinction in the five days of action at Gaines' Mill and Malvern Hill where the regiment sustained 252 casualties , and at a desperate hand-to-hand fight in 'The Wheat Field' at Gettysburg, where the 4th lost 165 men and Colonel Harrison Jeffords, killed defending the regimental colours. The 4th Michigan were distinguished by the Zouave-style...

BPrivate Regulation Dress

Union Cavalry Uniform

The Texas Rangers were originally raised during the War of Texan Independence as a quasi-military mobile police force to protect the settlers from the depredations of marauding Indians. Reorganised by Sam Houston, the Ranger companies acted as State Militia during the Civil War, but their name was transferred to the 8th Texas Cavalry, raised by B. F. Terry and Thomas S. Lubbock, generally known as the ist Texas Rangers or 'Terry's Texas Rangers'. Officially, the uniform consisted of grey k pi...

CSA Privates Louisiana Tiger Zouaves

1st Louisiana Confederate Zouaves

Chatham Roberdeau 'Rob' Wheat led a varied career son of an Episcopal minister, he served in the U.S. Mexican War at the age of twenty, after which he settled in New Orleans as a criminal lawyer. The call of adventure being too strong, he went to South America as a mercenary, finally being commissioned in the Mexican army. Seeking fresh fields, he joined the English Volunteers of Garibaldi's army in Italy, but returned to America upon the outbreak of war. He raised a unit mostly from Irish...

COfficer Infantry Full Dress

Officer Hardee Hat

The regulation 'Hardee' hat, complete with plume, was worn in full dress by infantry officers, the badge on the front consisting of an embroidered hunting-horn badge with b Officer, 9th Vermont Cavalry. 12 a Officer, Infantry, Campaign Dress. b Sergeant, 2nd Infantry, Full Dress. c Officer, Infantry, Full Dress. 13 a Corporal, Infantry, with National Flag. b Musician, Infantry, Full Dress. c Private, Infantry, Full Dress. or without regimental identification . The frock-coat was double-breasted...

USA a 1st Lieutenant

Union Cavalry Uniform

3 a 1 st Lieutenant, Cavalry, Service Dress. b Private, Cavalry, Service Dress. c Corporal, 2nd Cavalry, Full Dress, 1860-61. n.b. Figures should be identified from left to right throughout this section. b Private, Cavalry, Service Dress. c Corporal, 2nd Cavalry, Full Dress, 1860-61. When the U.S. Cavalry was reorganised in 1861, the two dragoon regiments became the 1st and 2nd Cavalry. Prior to this reorganisation, they had been distinguished by orange braid and trimming, which was changed to...