Ordnance 3inch Rifles

Confederate Armored Trains

A pair of 3-inch (76mm) Ordnance Rifles keep guard on a Civil War battlefield. Almost 1,000 3-inch Ordnance Rifles went to the Union armies during the war, and testimony to their accuracy came from all parties, including their targets. The Yankee three-inch rifle was a dead shot at any distance under a mile, proclaimed a Rebel artilleryman. No wonder that the Southerners emulated the weapon as best they could, but more often than not made use of captured guns and ammunition.

Lt Gen A P Hill s Saber

Foreign Legion Recruit Training

Ambrose Powell Hill was a lieutenant in the United States Army at the time of Secession, but having opted for the Confederacy he rose rapidly, distinguishing himself in fighting at the Seven Days' Battle (June July 1862), An-tietam (September 1862), Fredericksburg (December 1862), Chan- cellorsville (May 1863), Gettysburg (July 1863), the Wilderness (May 1864). He became a lieutenant general before his death in battle in the final days of the war, at the same time that he was dying of...

Private Maryland Guard

The zouave phenomenon has already been described and some of the many Northern zouave units have been mentioned. There were also zouave units in the South, one of the most prominent being the Maryland Guard Zouaves. Organized from some of the better families of that bitterly divided state, these zouaves served well throughout most of the campaigns of the Army of Northern Virginia. They were easily identified by their dark blue baggy trousers with red stripes, and the red shirts beneath short...

Union Officers Headgear Epaulettes and Sash

Amunition Sash

As in any army, the officers' dress and accouterments were to a higher standard than those of the enlisted men Shown here are the epaulettes and waist sash of a first lieutenant of the 143rd Infantry Regiment, together with his forage cap, which carries the corps badge. The album contains photographs of other officers, probably cartes-de-visite of fellow officers of his own regiment.

US Midshipman in Service Dress 1862 and West Point Cadet

Representing long-held traditions when the Civil War broke out, the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland, and the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, both offered a small but steady supply of educated and trained young officers for the Union war effort. The midshipman at left displays the traditional Naval Academy dress of short blue jacket and blue trousers, with naval cap- and collar-badges. Next to him stands a cadet sergeant from West Point, considerably...

Colonel and First Lieutenant 16th Virginia Volunteer Infantry CSA

Infantry well illustrate the divergent uniforms to be found within many Confederate units. The standing colonel, commanding the regiment, wears essentially the regulation field officer's blouse in Confederate gray, with sky-blue trousers. His saber, however, is just as likely to have been made by Ames of Chicopee, Mass, as by one of the Southern swordsmiths, especially if he was a militia officer before the war and brought his favorite sidearm with him into Confederate service. The First...

Personal Memorabilia of Brig Gen John Hunt Morgan CSA

One of the most feared Confederate Cavalry leaders. His raids into Kentucky, Tennessee, Ohio, and Indiana caused great concern, and although he was once captured and interned in the Ohio State Prison, he quickly escaped and returned to duty. In September 1864 while en route to attack Federal units at Knoxville, he was surprised by Federal cavalry and killed. He is buried in his home town of Lexington. 3 Model 1851 Federal officer's sword belt Brig. Gen. Morgan was born in Huntsville, Alabama on...

Private 56th US Colored Infantry

56th Colored Infantry

T was inevitable that the Union government would find a way to enlist former slaves, whose cause had played so great a part in starting the war, and turn them into a weapon for winning it. Thousands wanted to take up arms to fight for their brothers still in bonds in the Confederacy, and eventually several tens of thousands were enlisted in more than one hundred all-black regiments although at the beginning they were regarded more as laborers than combat soldiers. The uniforms and equipment for...

First Lieutenant 9th New York Infantry Hawkin s Zouaves

A first lieutenant of the 9th New York Infantry, one of the more colorful zouave regiments, whose Enlisted man's uniform has already been shown on page 44. In fact, in most zouave outfits the officers wore fairly standard Union Army dress, the flamboyant short jackets and other zouave trappings being re-served for the men in the ranks, but this particular officer wears a very elaborate jacket and a striking gold and scarlet kepi. Side arms were almost universally the same, however, with almost...

Union Mountain Howitzer

1863 Mountain Howizter

The rough terrain of some of the war zones required the use of special light artillery pieces, while the defense of bridges and entrances to fortifications also needed a field piece that could easily be shifted out of position to allow free passage. One result to fill this need was this 12-pounder mountain howitzer and such guns were used in sally ports of Washington fortifications, as well as on campaign in mountainous territory. The barrel of this small gun weighs only about 2101b 95kg and...

Surgeons Uniform

Union Surgeon Uniform

The green sash of a surgeon with his leather belt and sword buckles. The shoulder straps bear the golden leaves denoting a lieutenant colonel, together with green backing and the letters MS denoting medical staff. The kepi has no badges or unit numbers, but has a cloth band in the same shade green as the sash. Finally, there is a Surgical Staff arm-band. complete with scabbard and shoulder harness belt for carrying 10 Baton as used by Union band leaders In armies of both sides, military bands...

Second Lieutenant The Washington Artillery CSA

The prewar militia and private units that came into the Confederate service rarely adopted the national uniform regulations entirely, and the Confederate government never made any really concerted attempt to enforce them to do so. Indeed, in the hard-pressed Rebel service, any uniform, even one with improper insignia, was better than none at all. The Washington Artillery of New Orleans, whose gunners have already been seen on an earlier page, enjoyed a long and distinguished history, and...

Civil War Corporal Uniform

Civil War Marine Uniforms

Federal Cavalry Uniforms and Equipment Federal Artillery Uniforms and Equipment Federal Siqnal Corps Uniforms and Equipment Confederate Weapons Pistols and Revolvers 288 Federal Medical Staff Uniforms and Equipment Federal Musicians' Uniform and Equipment Federal Commanders' and Staff Uniforms and Equipment 98 Confederate Uniforms and Equipment Overview Confederate Infantry Uniforms and Equipment Confederate Cavalry Uniforms and Equipment Confederate Artillerymen's Uniforms and Equipment...

Union Revolvers

Weapons Used Union Army

Revolvers, like swords and rifles, appeared on the battlefield and in the camps in a bewildering variety of makes and models. The Colt .44in Model 1860 Army revolver right was the most commonly seen sidearm during the Civil War, both among Union officers and among those Confederate officers who could get hold of one. A percussion weapon, it used rammer loading from the front of the cylinder, with the wiser shooters having a ready-prepared stock of paper cartridges to hand. The weapon was made...

Union Sabers

Curved Saber Line Drawing

Federal weapons, with few exceptions, exhibited advanced manufacturing techniques and excellent quality, as shown by these curved-blade, cavalry sabers. The weapons are shown in close-up 1 to 3 , while the photograph shows a group of Ohio cavalrymen, rugged western Yankees, typical of many in the ranks of Union cavalry regiments, with their sabers very much in evidence. They were young, lean, and hardy young men, well-used to the outdoor life, and meant business. The great cavalry tradition was...

Union Longarms and Accouterments

Probably the three most widely used arms of the war were the U.S. Army's Springfield Model 1842 musket 4 and Model 1861 rifle-musket 10 , and the British Enfield Pattern 1853 13 which was imported from England in large numbers. Despite the availability of these relatively modern weapons, such antiques as the Model 1816 1 were still in use. 12 Socket bayonet and scabbard for item 10 13 British Enfield Pattern 1853 muzzle-loading rifle-musket 14 Tompion, plug for top of barrel for item 13 15...

Brig Gen John H Winder GSA

General John Winder Civil War

It would have been difficult to find a Confederate general more universally unpopular, North or South, than Brig. Gen. John H. Winder, who was responsible for overseeing all prisons holding Federal captives. His administration of the prisons, while never deliberately cruel, was very badly mismanaged, resulting in untold hardships for the prisoners in his charge. He was also the chief provost for Richmond, controlling the issuing of passes into and out of Rebel lines and there were widespread...

Union Zouave Uniforms and Equipment

Zouave uniforms originated among native North African troops recruited to serve in the French Army in the 1830s and the superb esprit de corps and elite status among these units, and their distinctive dress, soon came to the notice of foreign military observers. Elmer E. Ellsworth, a young amateur soldier is credited with raising the United States Zouave Cadets in Chicago in August 1859, his mentor being a former French surgeon and veteran of Zouave service, Charles Q. Devilliers. The unit...

Civil

Army Revolver Reproduction

This edition first published in 2001 by MBI Publishing Company, 729 Prospect Avenue, PO Box 1, Osceola, Wl 54020-0001 USA Salamander Books Limited 2001 A member of the Chrysalis Group pic All rights reserved. With the exception of quoting brief passages for the purpose of review no part of this publication may be reproduced without prior written permission from the Publisher. The information in this book is true and complete to the best of our knowledge. All recommendations are made without any...

Colonel of Engineers CSA

Confederate Engineer Officers

In the years before the Civil War, graduates of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point who finished at the top of their class invariably went into the Engineer Corps, so prestigious was that service. This attitude continued during the Civil War where, whether supervising the construction of a pontoon bridge, a railroad bridge, or a corduroy road, or building field fortifications and battery emplacements, the engineer officer was always one of the most valued on any general's staff. This...

Private North Carolina Infantry CSA

Csa Ironclad

The troops from the State of North Carolina were among the best clothed of all Confederates, and enjoyed perhaps the greatest degree of uniformity of dress among their regiments. These Tar-heel infantrymen are quite typical in their gray sack coats, reaching halfway down the thigh, with loose collars that were just as often worn turned down as standing up. On their shoulders they wear strips of cloth in colors denoting branch of service, but contrary to the usual Confederate regulations calling...

Union Heavy Artillery Projectiles

Different Fuses For Schenkl

With the advent of armored vessels, projectiles capable of penetrating or crushing such armor had to be developed. The breaking of masonry forts was also accomplished by the use of similar projectiles fired from large bore rifled guns. Many of these projectiles had specially hardened noses designed to punch through armor. Excellent examples are to be seen at West Point and the Washington Navy Yard. The result of bombardment by such projectiles can be seen at Fort Sumter, Charleston, and Fort...

Private 140th Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry USA

Confederate Army Cavalry Uniforms Plate

The 140th Pennsylvania Infantry carried with it the unusual nickname, the Walking Artillery. They got the name because of the old Belgian-copied French 0.69 caliber Vincennes muskets with which they were issued. The huge bore of the guns led to the joke about these infantrymen being 'artillery, and fellow soldiers taunted them with questions such as do you shoot solid shot or shell out of those pieces Worse than this, the Pennsylvanians also carried massive sword-bayonets that others teasingly...

Union Hardee Hat and Branch Indicative Insignia

Ratings Enlisted Branch Badges

Gen. William J. Hardee, who was respected throughout both Union and Confederate armies as the author of a widely used drill manual, which was known simply as Hardees Tactics. Shown here are a number of badges suitable for such a hat for the major arms-of-service mounted infantry 2, 3 foot infantry 4, 5 ordnance 6 engineers 8 artillery 9. 10 , and cavalry 12, 13, 14 . Alternative patters of officers cap badges, in black velvet with silver wire embroidered...

Cavalry Rushs Lancers

Rush Lancers

Oddly enough, the state of Pennsylvania attained a degree of notoriety during the Civil War for some of its unruly cavalry regiments. Arguably the worst disciplined regiment in the Union army was the 3rd Pennsylvania Cavalry, which had rather more than its fair share of courts-martial, desertions, insubordinate enlisted men, and incompetent officers, although the last-named may well have been the root cause of the other problems. Perhaps it was in reaction to such a poor reputation that the 6th...

Locally Made Weapons

Confederate Army Revolvers

Handguns were actually made in the Confederacy in very limited quantities, one of the most common being the Griswold and Gunnison 3 , and only about 3,500 of those were produced. All Confederate handguns are considered rare. 1 U.S. Government Model 1836 pistol made by A. Waters at Milbury, as used by Confederate forces 3 Griswold and Gunnison late model revolver, used by Confederates Confederate Weapons Pistols and Revolvers

Starr 44 Caliber Army Revolver

Colt Patent 8774 Percussion Pistol

Manufactured by the Starr Army Company of New York, the Starr Army .44 caliber, single-action revolver operated in much the same fashion as the Colt, using the same ramrod-under-barrel layout and the same size copper percussion caps on the nipples. Unlike the Colt it had a top strap, resulting in a stronger weapon which has a much more twentieth century' appearance than contemporary Colts. The revolver was a particularly well-balanced weapon. It was made of steel, with a one-piece walnut butt...

Artillery Ammunition

Parrott Shell

The photograph shows a further selection of the artilleryman's wares, as listed below. Civil War projectiles differed little from those of earlier generations, being only sometimes larger and a bit more reliable. There was the solid shot, literally a round ball of iron, and of little effect except when it hit an opposing artillery piece - and, of course, any unfortunate soldier in its path. Other loads were designed to be more effective as anti-personnel weapons. The shell, either round or,...

1

Railroad Telegraph Relay

At the outbreak of war, the Confederates became the first into the field with their own corps of signalers. They also became adept practitioners of telegraphy. Indeed, so handy did some Rebs become with the telegraph key that they were perhaps the first in peace or war to wire tap. Some former railroad telegraphers riding with Rebel partisans learned how to throw a wire across telegraph transmission lines, cut one, and tap into the break with a portable key. The consequence was a breach of...

Infantry CSA

Maynard Tape Primer

The 11th Mississippi Infantry presented one of the handsomer variations on the standard gray uniform of the Confederacy. The regiment was made up chiefly of prewar volunteer militia companies, many of which wore entirely different garb. Most eventually wore slight variations of the state militia dress, the mid-thigh length gray blouse with red collar and red frogging on the breast, red cuffs and trouser stripes. Their headgear was predominantly the Hardee-style hat, as worn by this enlisted...

The Supply Train and the Six Mule Army Wagon

1st Team Mounted Cav Mule

Had to become involved - Ordnance, Commissary, Cavalry Bureau for the animals, adjutant to produce the orders detailing wagon-masters and teamsters, and more. Once the Troops and artillery had priority of movement on the march, while ammunition wagons took precedence over other supply vehicles. Keeping the wagons rolling was a priority for the staff of every army. For this reason, as seen in this example, the unit insignia and contents were usually displayed on the canvas top, which, among...

Union Signal Pistols

Cavalry Uniforms The West

One of the great battlefield problems in the Civil War was that the numbers of troops involved had increased greatly but the means of controlling them had scarcely improved at all. Communications between headquarters still depended upon horsed messengers and aides-de-camp, while with brigades and battalions the main systems were runners, drums and bugles. One new system, however, was the use of pyrotechnics with multi-colored lights according to a pre-arranged code. One of the means of...

Private and Mascot of the 8th Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry USA

8th Wisconsin Infantry

Quite a number of regiments went to war with special mascots -little drummer boys, vivandieres women in military costume , and most of all pets. Dogs, cats, raccoons, even small bears, went to war, but no mascot was as distinctive as Old Abe, the war eagle that went into battle with the 8th Wisconsin Infantry of the old Iron Brigade. All across the battlefields of Tennessee and Georgia, Old Abe soared into the air when the bullets started to fly, hovering over the fighting until it was done. In...

Private Washington Light Infantry

Composed of young men from the best Rebel families, the Washington Light Infantry of Charleston, South Carolina was typical of the more high-minded companies to volunteer for Confederate service at the war's outset. When the call finally came, some of Charleston's finest went off to war in 1861 accompanied by servants, picnic hampers, and ornate tents. It was July 1963 after they had served n and around Charleston after Fort Sumter, that the WLI was merged into the 25th South Carolina Infantry....

Bummer Army of the Tennessee USA

Army The Tennessee

For all the differences between the Billy Yanks of the Eastern Theater and those of the West, no soldier was so distinctive to his army and region as the lean, hardened and ever-resourceful 'bummer' of the Army of the Tennessee. His uniform may have been outwardly similar to that of his eastern counterparts, but the differences showed in the hundreds more miles he marched, the greater variations of climate and weather he endured, and the increased uncertainties of re-supply available to this...

Captain Rutledges 1st Tennessee Light Artillery

Sometimes volunteer Confederate outfits combined their own uniform regulations with those of their enemy's. One result is seen here with this captain of Rutledge's 1 st Tennessee Light Artillery, who is wearing both collar insignia and epaulettes shoulder straps , each carrying badges of his rank. The style of his cuff facings is also different from prescribed design. In time, and thanks to the idiosyncratic nature of Confederate uniforms in general, men and fellow officers came to recognize...

Field Artillery Projectiles and Fuzes

Military Insignia Pack Artillery

The general acceptance of rifled artillery, and advances in projectile design and technology, made artillery of both sides much more effective. The importation of advanced English guns and projectiles by Federal and Confederate ordnance also furthered these advances. The 1980s saw an enormous increase in interest in a long-neglected subject and i collecting projectiles has become I increasingly popular today, withl some excellent books written on I the subject. The projectile collection at West...

Union Officers Presentation

Infantry Officers Sabre 1850 Model 110

Most of the swords seen here were probably the outcome of a subscription among fellow officers or soldiers and are of much better quality than the regulation swords they were based on. However, the two swords 7 and 8 , presented to Generals Meade and Blair, while of essentially similar design to each other, are spectacular and with sufficient differences to make them truly individual items. Both were made by Bailey and Company of Philadelphia, with inset semiprecious stones and enamel...

Berdans 1st US Sharpshooters

Picture Berdan Sharpshooters Rifle

A few US units won special notice for their rifle-skills, none more so than the 1st and 2nd Regiments of U.S. Sharpshooters, commonly known as Berdan's Sharpshooters after the colonel of the 1st Regiment. Hiram Berdan. Seeing their role as skirmishers and special marksmen, Berdan selected experienced men and armed them with the best weapons available, the Sharps Rifle in 0.52in caliber. Many also carried telescopic sights. With a view towards camouflage, Berdan clothed his men in green kepis or...

Second Lieutenant 5th New York Infantry

5th Infantry Civil War

This second lieutenant of the 5th New York Infantry, otherwise popularly known as Duryee's Zouaves, represents one of the more colorful of the Union regiments. His bright red kepi and trousers differ distinctly from the regulation, but otherwise there is nothing unusual in his outfit. His commander Colonel Abram Duryee was a flamboyant type, exactly the kind to organize and lead one of the dramatic zouave regiments, which, apart from their uniforms, also made their mark with intensively precise...

Second Lieutenant The Sumter Light Guard

Military Collar Bars

Like so many of the Confederate volunteer outfits, the Sumter Light Guard of South Carolina came to war with its own arms and uniforms. Unlike the Washington Artillery, however, it adapted its specifications to be compatible with Confederate regulations and the cadet gray color of this uniform is right within regulations, as is the red sash. Only the absence of the stripe on the trouser legs is it in substantial variance from regulations. This second lieutenant wears the single collar bar of...

Gen John Bell Hood CSA

John Bell Hood

Short of actually losing his life, Gen. John Bell Hood gave up about as much of himself as any officer who made sacrifices for the Confederacy. He lost the use of one arm after being wounded at Gettysburg, but then had to have a leg amputated following another desperate wound at Chick-amauga. Any uniform for one who suffered what he had would most certainly need to be tailor-made. In this portrait, Hood wears the regulation general officer's frock coat, with the buttons in parallel groups of...

Union Rifles

Springfield 1855 Musket Patent

Although the rifle-musket was the primary shoulder weapon of the Union soldier, substantial numbers of rifles, both muzzle- and breech-loading, were issued to troops in the field. Of primary significance in firearms development were the magazine-fed Spencer 7 and Henry 8 . There was a frenzy of invention in the North, spurred on by the war and lucrative government contracts, but only a few of the newly invented and patented guns ever saw as much service as the single-shot Springfield. The...

Swords

Swords Made Germany

The presentation of ornate, deluxe swords to prominent politicians and local favorite sons, and, in particular, to war heroes was a recognized tribute in the 1860s. The majority of such presentation swords were enhanced models of swords then in current issue to the Army, but there were exceptions where no expense was spared. In the latter case, the result was a sword of exquisite quality and craftsmanship, such as those shown here. Some were even made by jewelers, such as Bailey and Co., of...

Confederate Cavalry Artifacts

1859 Sharps Cavalry Carbine

No soldier of the war caught more of the dash and the flair of the era than the cavalryman, and especially the Confederate trooper, whose exploits were celebrated in both song and legend. He became the beau sabreur, the knightly paladin riding through the smoke of battle in daring raids against hopeless odds, to defend his country, home, hearth and honor. Indeed, at the beginning of the conflict, the Confederate cavalry was considerably superior to its Union counterpart, primarily due to the...

Sergeant US Army

Army Coat Arms

The typical field uniform for a sergeant in the United States Army. His smart coat is in regulation blue, the only decoration being white piping on the cuffs, while his sergeant's chevrons are carried on both arms in the same color. The leather belt has a buckle carrying the Federal coat-of-arms, with a pouch for carrying percussion caps on the left. Not visible in this picture is the bayonet in its scabbard, which is on the right. The leather shoulder straps and cross straps support his...

Th Virginia Infantry CSA

5th Georgia Clinch Rifles

The 15th Virginia Infantry was formed, in part, by amalgamating companies from other regiments, in particular the 33rd Virginia and the 179th Militia. The soldiers of the new units were given a fairly regulation issue uniform of gray, with blue piping. The wounded field officer at left wears a two-piece Virginia State seal belt-plate, and is partially supporting himself on the private soldier's Virginia Manufactory converted flintlock musket, which has been altered to use the Maynard...

Union Handguns

1 Uhlinger pocket revolver in .32in rimfire 2 Army revolver by the Starr Arms Company of New York 3 Remington-Beals Army revolver 4 Remington-Beals Navy revolver 5 Remington New Model Navy revolver 6 Manhattan Pocket Model revolver 8 Smith and Wesson No. 1 Second Issue revolver 9 Colt Model 1862 Police revolver The U.S. Army had continuing access to the gunsmiths and the mass-production resources of the North, and used a wide variety of handguns. Most of these were government-issue, of which...

Enlisted Men 4th Texas Volunteer Infantry CSA

Civil War Infantry Hardee Hat

Few Rebel units achieved the reputation of the gallant Texans of Hood's Brigade, among them the 4th Texas Volunteer Infantry. Tough and rugged fighters, they became the shock troops of the Army of Northern Virginia when they came North to fight the Union's Army of the Potomac. The basic uniform shown here has some variations from the regulation Confederate pattern, the most noticeable being the black insignia of rank and the black piping, rather than the more customary blue although this is the...

St Cherokee Mounted Rifles CSA

Stand Watie

By far the Confederacy's most unusual soldiers were its Indian allies. At least fifteen regiments and battalions were enlisted from the Cherokee, Choctaw, Osage, Creek, Chicksaw, and Semin les of the South. They proved to be indifferent soldiers, unused to the discipline of the military and often enlisting for private reasons of their own, which had little or nothing to do with the Confederate cause. Despite being troublesome they were very effective when they chose to fight. Best known amongst...

Uniform of Major General George G Meade

General George Mead Civil War

Meade was given command of one of the Pennsylvania brigades and promoted brigadier general. He fought under General McClellan during the Peninsula Campaign and was severely wounded at the Battle of Glendale June 30, 1862 . Barely recovered, he fought at Second Manassas, South Mountain, and Antietam. Meade commanded a division during the failure at Fredericksburg, performed well at Chancellorsville the following spring, and was placed in charge of the Army of the Potomac actually while on the...

Personal Effects and Decorations of Major General Galusha Pennypacker

General Pennypacker

Army Model 1896 Medal of Honor, complete with case, formerly the possession of General Pennypacker 1 U.S. Army Model 1904 Medal of Honor complete with case, belonging to General Pennypacker. The Medal of Honor at this time did not feature the neck suspension ribbon 2 Double-breasted frock coat with velvet collar and cuffs, formerly the possession of General Pennypacker 3 U.S. Army Model 1896 Medal of Honor, complete with case, formerly the possession of General Pennypacker The personal...

Private Guthrie Grays USA

Guthrie Grays

It was commonplace among pre-Civil War local militia units to adopt cadet gray as the color for their uniforms, which led to some confusion when they first faced Confederate forces. Formed in 1854, the 6th Ohio Volunteer Infantry was also known as Guthrie's Grays from its uniforms. Raised in Cincinnati, the outfit looked magnificent on parade. The gray uniform was trimmed with black on the collar, and frogging all across the breast, as well as on the sleeves. The short shako was particularly...

Captain 1st Dragoons 1858

1858 Jeff Davis Hardee Hat

The pre-war Old Army was always a pitifully small organization and with a strength of about 16,000 men in 1860, it was hardly larger than it had been thirty years before. Only a handful of infantry, cavalry, and artillery units made up its ranks, but one of the newer regiments was the 1st Dragoons, created in 1834 as the Regiment of Mounted Dragoons -one of its officers was the young Jefferson Davis, later President of the Confederated States. The dragoons had been popular in European armies in...

First Lieutenant 2nd Rhode Island Infantry

Full Dress West Point 1850

This first lieutenant of the 2nd Rhode Island Infantry shows the distinctive early war uniform of this state's first 90-days regiments. The pleated blouse with the full skirt and the rolled collar, would be very little seen after 1861, and future Rhode Island outfits opted for the more traditional Union Army uniform. Again, like most infantry officers, he carries the .44 caliber Colt New Model Army pistol, which, while a powerful percussion weapon, was not terribly accurate. Just firing it...

Confederate Medical Equipment

Surgeon Field Medical Kit

The Confederate Medical Department fought a hopeless battle against disease and infection in a war in which twice as many soldiers died of disease as became battlefield casualties, and commonplace childhood illnesses became fatal epidemics, incapacitating whole regiments. On the surgical side, amputation was the accepted procedure for wounds affecting the arms and legs, while body wounds were considered inoperable, and usually fatal given the high incidence of infection. Fighting for a cause in...

Confederate Medical Officers Uniforms and Equipment

Cavalry Medical Doctor Dress 1865

Many features of the Confederate Medical Corps were the same as its Federal counterpart. Ranks were the same, as were the facings and the green sash. Most surgeons' kits were made in the North or imported, and many Southern doctors had been trained in Baltimore, Philadelphia or New York. The major difference was the ever-increasing lack of drugs and medial supplies faced by the Southerners as the war progressed. 1 Lieutenant colonel's frock coat of surgeon Lt. Col. Samuel Bemiss 2 Epaulettes of...

Officers

Union Army Colonel John Gordon Uniform

Mosby below wears no chevrons, but displays three stars on his collar. The buttons on his jacket signify that he is ranked as a colonel. Although commissioned as a Confederate officer, John Singleton Mosby made a terror of himself as leader of the 43rd Virginian Partisan Rangers. His raids, including the capture of two Yankee generals, became legendary, and it is reported that he even donned Federal uniform at his feet during his raids behind enemy lines. Right until the end of the war,...

Pounder Gun Howitzer Model 1857 Napoleon

Napoleon Cannon 1857 Sponge

The 12-pounder gun-howitzer was the work-horse cannon for both sides throughout the conflict, but it is indicative of its obsolete design that it was popularly known as the Napoleon. Indeed, despite being designated the Model 1857 there does not appear to have been a single technological advance over the weapons used by Napoleon and Wellington at the Battle of Waterloo on June 18, 1815. This light, durable, smooth-bore weapon had a range of 2,000 yards 1,830m , was served a by a crew which...

Gunners Washington Artillery CSA

Washington Artillery New Orleans

The Washington Artillery of New Orleans was among the oldest and proudest of the private or fraternal artillery companies. All told, it comprised five companies, four of which went to Virginia in the first days of the war and remained there thereafter. The fifth company served with the Army of Tennessee. Like many units, their uniforms and equipment evolved as the war progressed. Originally they wore dark blue frock coats or short artillery jackets with scarlet collars and cuffs over light blue...

Union Cavalry Carbines

Revolver Joslyn Carabine Spencer

Almost all Union carbines were breech-loading and fired special ammunition peculiar to each weapon, with calibers varying from .36 to .69. While great advances in small arms were made during the war, the lack of standardization created major problems. Most companies manufacturing these arms' ceased to exist after hostilities came to an end. The Sharps carbine 1 was one of a relatively small number of capping breech loaders, in which a made-up cartridge of powder and bullet was wrapped in some...

Confederate Artillery Artifacts

Confederate Artillery Officer

Red piping and facings on uniforms of Confederate and Union uniforms indicated the artillery branch. As in other branches of the Confederate Army, many of the weapons and much of the equipment was captured from the other side, as I indicated in this photograph by the I Colt Model 1851 Navy revolver 121,1 and the U.S. Foot Artillery sword 151,1 which is so short that it is virtually a I dirk. Typical trousers, as worn by enlisted 1 Short-style jacket as worn by enlisted Model 1833 U.S. Foot...

Projectiles

Old 76mm Projectile

These projectile cutaways show that even the much less advanced Confederate arsenals were producing sophisticated projectiles to a wide variety of designs. Unfortunately, a failure to standardize on just a few calibers meant that there were significant inefficiencies in manufacturing and excessive complications in the supply of the correct ammunition to artillery units in the field. 1 A 96lb 44kg shell with a copper base, and featuring radial grooves to grab rifling 2 Solid wrought iron 40.5lb...

Lyois

Confederate States Naval Ensign

This Confederate States Navy Ensign of the Second Pattern was captured on the CSS Florida, a fully-rigged steamer, which served as a commerce raider, taking thirty-seven prizes, while her two sailing tenders added a further twenty-three. She was seized under cover of darkness in the neutral harbor of Bahia, Brazil, on October 17, 1864, by sailors from the USS Wachusett, a wooden-hulled screw sloop. Half of Florida's crew were ashore at the time of the attack, but the remainder were seized and...

Introduction

Civil War Cartridge Box Csa

In the American Civil War the enemy were not outsiders from over the border or across the sea, but fellow citizens of the same country, and often brothers, cousins or friends from the same town or county. The conflict was bloody and bitter, and caused deep wounds, but although time has exerted its usual healing effect, the memories linger on, and the campaigns, uniforms, and above all the people, remain a source of endless fascination. Many artifacts remain to provide substance to those...

Captain Co G 11th Virginia Infantry Lynchburg Home Guard CSA

Pensylvania Infantry Regiment

This captain in Company G, 11th Virginia Infantry, the Lynchburg Home Guard, wears the regulation gray frock-coat, trousers, and forage cap specified for his regiment. The black trim on the trouser seams, cuffs and collar differs from the blue used on many other Virginia regimental uniforms. His sword belt has the handsome two-piece Virginia State seal beltplate, supporting the scabbard for his Model 1850 foot-officer's sword. An unusual feature is the brass shoulder scales with bullion...

US Model 1841 6Pounder Smoothbore James Rifle

Coehorn Mortar Civil War

Armas courtesy ol Milwaukee Public Museum. Milwaukee. W I US Aimy Ordnance Museum. Aberdeeri Proving Ground. Md 2. Wast Armas courtesy ol Milwaukee Public Museum. Milwaukee. W I US Aimy Ordnance Museum. Aberdeeri Proving Ground. Md 2. Wast Bronze field guns were the most widely used artillery pieces of the mid-nineteenth century and many survived the Civil War. Unfortunately, the majority of these historical objects were lost in scrap drives during World Wars One and Two, but surviving...

Sergeant and Private 22nd Regiment New York National Guard USA

Chasseur Uniform 1861

With red cuffs, collar and cap band, but after this uniform had caused confusion with similarly dressed Confederate units at First Manassas and elsewhere, the regiment switched to the regulation blue chasseur blouse, seen here worn by the sergeant. The regiment did, however, keep its distinctive 2-banded Enfield rifles and sword bayonets, and carried the regimental number on the kepi and the company letter on the beltplate. The regiment saw service between May to September 1862, and again in...

Trooper 1 st Virginia Cavalry Regiment CSA 18612

Texas Cavalry The Civil War

The 1st Virginia Cavalry began the war as a group of independent companies of horse from the Shenandoah Valley, organized into a regiment by J. E. B. Stuart, later of course to become a major general. At the First Battle of Bull Run in July 1861, they achieved renown as the dreaded Black Horse Cavalry, though the origin of the sobriquet is obscure. For the remainder of the war they performed outstanding service with the Cavalry Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia. Stuart's horsemen wore...

Union Artillery Projectiles

Hotchkiss Common Shell

Enjoying a superior technological capability in iron, casting capabilities, powder making and more, the Union armaments industry produced a consistently higher grade of artillery ammunition than the Confederacy, with far deadlier capabilities. Right Robert Parrott's powerful breech-banded rifle appears here in two 100-pounder models in Fort Putnam, near Charleston. Stacks of massive shells stand ready to be hurled at Confederate lines. 1 Brass-ringed 8lb 3.6kg Parrott shell 2 Brass-ringed 25lb...

Gunner 1st US Artillery

Union Artillery Uniforms

Dress for the heavy artillerymen, as with the 1st US Artillery, remained what it had been before the war, with the same dark blue frock coat and light blue trousers as the infantry, a black felt Hardee hat, and black leather waist and cross belts. The piping on the collar and cuffs was in artillery red, as was the cord and knot on the hat. Since heavies also acted as infantry when not working their guns, they could also carry bayonets and cap boxes. Union...

Braxton Braggs Sword Belt and Bible

Braxton Bragg Frock

General Bragg's sword is inscribed Presented to General Braxton Bragg but by whom is no longer legible. In contrast to the great majority of presentation swords, which were elaborately decorated, this is a very plain and serviceable weapon and could even have been used in battle. The belt is unusual in that it is of white leather, lined with a single wale of gold braid. The buckles on the belt and on the belt straps are very elaborate and unusual. The Bible is of a type commonly seen at the...

Brigadier General Joseph William Hoffman

Day West Point William Hoffman

Joseph William Hoffman was an otherwise good match for the South's General John H. Winder. For Hoffman, prison man-agement was a matter of efficiency, reducing the human component of men behind bars and walls to an accountant's sort of calculation on food and fuel per man ratios. Proudly at war's end he turned back to the War Department hundreds of thousands of dollars that he had saved at the expense of the health, nourishment, and comfort of his prisoners. Like Winder, Hoffman was a regular...

Confederate General Service Naval and State Buttons

Side Knives Confederate

Uniform buttons are another great source of individuality. The Confederate states utilized respective state seals in various configurations for example. South Carolina 100 and Virginia 107 , or used other distinctive devices. Various branch indicative letters were used in a variety of styles - block, script and Old English script -such as the A for artillery 21 . Fine collections of Southern buttons may be viewed at the Museum of the Confederacy, the Virginia Historical Society in Richmond,...

Ambulance Corpsman and Hospital Steward US Army

Hospital Steward

Circumstances very quickly dictated that a large number of special support services be created to help cope with the enormous and completely unprecedented numbers of sick and injured. Out on the battlefield an ambulance corps was organized in an attempt to get the wounded speedily to the surgeons in the rear. Men too short or otherwise unfit for active duty became ambulance corpsmen, like the boy on the left. Their uniforms differed little from those of regular soldiers except for an occasional...

Union Rockets

Hales Rocket Launcher

Rocket launchers were not a new idea, and the Congreve rocket had been used by the British during the Napoleonic Wars. They also used it against the Americans in the War of 1812, an action which is immortalized in the Star Spangled Banner's reference to the rockets' red glare. The weapon seem here is the Hale rocket launcher, which was invented by British civil engineer William Hale in 1844 as a much lighter and more mobile successor to the Congreve system. Following testing and approval by...

Battlefield Surgery Disease Civil

Civil War Wooden Splint

Mayer in the office of the Adjutant General and Inspector General, C.S.A. 10 Embroidered felt eyeglass polisher used by President Jefferson Davis 11 Confederate cavalry roll book 13 Letter book of Col. William B. Wood, 16th Alabama Infantry 14 Spectacles and case, possibly used by President Jefferson Davis n almost every case, Confederate manuals were exact copies of the then existing Federal manuals, with the insertion of the letters C.S. wherever U.S. appeared...

Sergeant 33rd New Jersey Volunteers2nd Zouaves USA

33rd New Jersey

The 33rd New Jersey was one of four regiments which made up the First Brigade, New Jersey Volunteers. The regiment was raised and trained at Fort Olden, Trenton, N.J. and, its training complete, it left for the war in June 1861. During the course of the Civil War. the 33rd New Jersey took part in fifty-four engagements from Bull Run to Appomattox Court House. The 33rd was one of many which used the colorful zouave image to capture the imagination of the public and, in particular, of young men...

Federal Handgrenades

Grenades Exposing

Hand-grenades were still in the early stages of development, but did service with both combatants, particularly, in this case, in siege operations at Port Hudson. Vicksburg, and Petersburg. They were not judged to be very effective because of the unreliability of their fuses, which made them at times more dangerous to the thrower than to the recipient, a problem not entirely solved in the twenty-first century. Some grenades had eye-catching wooden tails and paper flights, although these were...

Imported Handguns

Beaumont Adams

Throughout the Civil War Confederate forces were forced to utilize any weapon that was available, which accounts for the incredible variety of types in service. Large numbers of revolvers were imported from England, then one of the world's largest armament producers, but the U.S. Navy made strenuous efforts to prevent such warlike supplies reaching the South. A number of British makes were popular, including Adams, Kerr, and Tranter, all of which saw extensive use. French pin-fire revolvers...

Union Cavalry Artifacts

Regulation Bugle

Buy mid-1863 the Union cavalry had achieved the upper hand, having adequate leadership and far superior equipment to those of the Confederacy. Some units, such as the 6th Pennsylvania Cavalry had started the war with nine foot-long lances made of Norwegian fir 3 but this was quickly shown to be an anachronism and, with few exceptions the usefulness of the saber 18 was also over, leaving repeating, rapid fire weapons to dominate the battlefield. The most important of these was the Spencer...

Le Mat 3065 Caliber Doublebarreled Revolver

The unique, patented Le Mat revolver was capable of delivering a very nasty surprise to an opponent. The top barrel, which was rifled, functioned in the usual way, being ' fed by a nine-round, revolving chamber. Below that, however, was a second .65 caliber barrel containing a single pelletted round, similar to that in a shotgun. The hammer had a rotating nose, which could be set to fire either the upper or lower chamber and thus the shooter could decide which type of round he needed to use in...

Lieutenant US Navy and First Lieutenant US Marine Corps

Officers of the Union Navy looked very smart indeed in their crisp blue uniforms. The lieutenant at left wears the optional white trousers with his dark blue tunic, capped with a white service hat. As was common among the lower commissioned officer ranks, his insignia matched, although, unfortunately for this officer, promotion in the Union Navy in the Civil War was extremely slow, so he would probably have been wearing the same insignia at the war's end. His friend on the right, a First...

Artillery Pieces

Royal Horse Drawn Artillery Field Guns

The artillery pieces of both combatants were quite similar. The more popular types were the Ordnance rifle 1 , Parrott rifle and the smoothbore Napoleon 3 , which were fabricated by both sides in various configurations. The Confederate artillery also used many obsolete pieces updated by binding the barrel to strengthen it and by rifling. 1 A full service history exists for this piece the 3-inch Ordnance Rifle, Muzzle-loading, No. 1, which was 2 made by the Phoenix Iron Company of Phoenixville,...

Federal Uniforms and Headgear

Civil War Militia Uniform

Uniforms of both combatants were anything but uniform during the early stages of the war, especially as the state militia system practically encouraged individuality of uniforms and equipment. Uniform regulations allowed the greatest latitude and, in many cases, only the financial resources of the individual militia unit restricted the elaborate nature of their clothing. The results were multicolored, brocaded, plume-bedecked costumes, which were taken extremely seriously by the wearer, but may...

Guard Salisbury Prison Camp

Salisbury Civil War Prison

Just as in the North, where unfit men were used as prison guards to free the more able-bodied for the field, so the South tried to assign convalescents as guards at its prisoner of war camps. Sometimes, however, it simply was not possible to find such men, in which case units that were under strength or were otherwise insufficiently organized for the field were given the duty, instead. This happened at Salisbury Prison Camp in North Carolina, where for a time men of the 42nd North Carolina...

Naval Frock Coat

Union Navy Frock Coat 1861 1865

Naval artifacts in general are quite scarce, due primarily to the fact that the Navy was small in comparison to the Army. Much naval material was also quite functional, and postwar changes in regulations did not necessarily make uniforms obsolete so they were worn until worn out. 1 Blue wool frock coat of Asst. Engineer William A Dripps 2 White linen sack coat of Asst. Surgeon Jacob Solis-Cohen 4 Solis-Cohen's wool frock coat 5 Solis-Cohen's rubberized foul-weather I leggings 8 Naval ordnance...

Private Wheats Tigers

Photos Wheat Louisiana Tigers

A number of Confederate army units had unenviable reputations, but probably none was worse than that of the 1st Special Battalion, Louisiana Infantry, which was also known as Wheat's Tigers after their commander, Major Roberdeau Wheat. The battalion was raised in June 1861 from an explosive mixture of the sons of planters, soldiers of fortune, and the riff-raff of the New Orleans back streets and shanties. The battalion won its nickname of tigers for its unmanageable behavior, so villainous,...

Union Artillery Artifacts

Union Frock Coat

It is a curious fact that in the pre-Civil War army - both regular and militia -the status of the artillery branch was, with just a very few exceptions, very low. For West Point men a commission into the artillery was not sought after and recruiting of enlisted men was slow. Even during the war there were not as many artillery units as might have been expected by the war's end the Federal Army had deployed some 432 batteries, just 12 percent of all the units that served. Perhaps because their...

Union Ammunition and Accessories

Percussion Cap Musket Royal Marines

Federal ordnance facilities had the capability to produce metallic cartridges, a tremendous advantage when coupled with breech-loading rifles and carbines. Yet even the Federal forces had such a wide variety of calibers of small arms ammunition ranging from .31 to .72, all of which were considered standard, that they created producing a logistician's nightmare. Shown here are just a few of the wide range of proprietary brands used for carbines and revolvers. 2 and 3 Percussion caps as issued 4...

Imported Rifles and Muskets

Unidentified Muskets

Having started the war with no arms industry, the Confederates quickly began to import weapons from abroad. Indeed, throughout the war, foreign gunmakers, especially in England, supplied large numbers of weapons and some 400,000 Pattern 1853 Enfield Rifle-Muskets are known to have been purchased in England by agents of the Confederate Ordnance Department the Federal government purchased some 500,00 of the same weapon . Other models were imported in smaller quantities and saw limited use. In...

Rifles CSA

Clinch Rifles Georgia 1861

Company A of the 5th Georgia Infantry called itself the Clinch Rifles from the start of the war, and never yielded to official efforts to take the title away, nor did it relinquish its distinctive uniform. Indeed, most companies of this regiment wore differing outfits, causing General Braxton Bragg to call them the Pound Cake Regiment. Some wore green, but most opted for the light blue trousers and dark blue frock coat shown on the corporal at right. Two major distinctions were the dark blue...

Confederate Infantry Officers Uniforms and Equipment

Confederate Infantry Officer

Like the Federals, the Confederate infantry officer had considerable latitude in selecting his uniform and accouterments, although the basic branch identification color was blue for infantry, the same as that in the Federal Army. Confederate officers of all branches did use strikingly different rank insignia, but their swords were, in many cases, copies of current Federal models, as were their handguns. 1 Uniform frock coat of Col. Lawrence Massillon Keitt killed at Cold Harbor in I 1864 2...

Confederate Musicians Equipment

Matt Revolver

As in any civil war, the two sides in this conflict shared a common musical heritage and they enjoyed basically the same music of prewar origin, although some new music was written during the conflict. Most Southern instruments were of either prewar manufacture or imported, although there was a major manufacture of drums in Richmond. As battle began, the men of the Confederacy would march to the guns, flags flying and band playing to boost their morale and heighten their patriotic fervor. 1...

Union Coehorn Mortar with Projectile

Coehorn Mortar Civil War

The Coehorn mortar was a light siege weapon, used mostly in trench warfare, and designed to be carried in battle by four men. Its name derives from the seventeenth century Dutch soldier and siege engineer, Baron van Coehorn, who first developed the weapon in 1674, and it is a sad comment on the state of artillery development that such a design had been in use, virtually unchanged, for some two hundred years. These light, mobile mortars were an integral part of siege operations, and the Federal...

Generalin Chief US Grant and Major General W T Sherman

Pictures Grant With Sherman

Of all the 1,000 and more generals in this war, few if any emerged from greater obscurity to rise to greater heights than these two men. Each was a mystery in his own way, but they became very close friends without ever truly understanding each other. Grant was a simple man of complex instincts who did one thing, and only one thing, really well, and that was winning a war, but he did it better than anyone else. Sherman, by contrast, was far more intelligent, and perhaps something of an...

Cartridges

Sharps Linen Cartridge

The war created the need for millions of cartridges for an enormous variety of different calibered weapons. 1 12-shot load of buckshot for a .58 rifle 14.7mm or musket 2 .69 caliber 17.5mm ball cartridge 3 .69 caliber 17.5mm buck and ball cartridge 4 .69 caliber 17.5mm Mini cartridge with wooden plug 5 .58 caliber 14.7mm Mini cartridge 8 A 6-sided cardboard Whitworth cartridge 9 Metal-cased Maynard cartridge 10 Metal-cased Burnside carbine cartridge 11 Metal-cased Henry repeating rifle...

RedlFV

Flags Appomattox Court House

Headquarters Pennant, Army of the Potomac, July, 1863 Flags that are documented as having actually been present at a crucial moment in history are very rare, but Brig. Gen. Webb's Headquarters Pennant is one of them. This was the flag flown at the Headquarters of 2nd Brigade. 2nd Division, 2nd Army Corps, Army of the Potomac, commanded by Brig. Gen. Alexander Stewart Webb. The brigade, numbering some 1,220 men, was made up of four Pennsylvania infantry regiments the 69th, 71st, 72nd, and 106th....

Corporal Illinois Cavalry

Illinois Cavalry

Everything about the cavalryman of the Union, seemed to denote color and excitement. His short blue woolen shell jacket, gaily trimmed in yellow to denote the mounted service, stood out above his sky blue pants, all of it framed and trimmed by the polished black leather of his belt, boots, shoulder belts and black-trimmed blue kepi. While there were many variations, especially among privately raised and militia groups from pre-war days, most Yankee troopers looked like this cavalryman from...

Captain 11th Indiana Volunteer Infantry Cqa Usa

11th Indiana Volunteer

The 11th Indiana Infantry was raised by Lew Wallace, later a general, and attracted an inordinate amount of attention when it took the field in 1861. More than anything else, this was because of its uniform, which was a zouave pattern, but in a far from common gray. Although an infantry unit, this captain's uniform facings and trimmings are in red, normally the color for the artillery, with the buttonless jacket and the vest being trimmed in red and with red piping on his breeches. Another...