Battlefield Surgery Disease Civil

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8 Payroll book

9 Pine bookrest used by John F. Mayer in the office of the Adjutant General and Inspector General, C.S.A.

10 Embroidered felt eyeglass polisher used by President Jefferson Davis

11 Confederate cavalry roll book

12 Silver reading glass

13 Letter book of Col. William B. Wood, 16th Alabama Infantry

14 Spectacles and case, possibly used by President Jefferson Davis

Confederate Army Manuals n almost every case, Confederate manuals were exact copies of the then existing Federal manuals, with the insertion of the letters "C.S." wherever "U.S." appeared in the original. With exception of uniform regulations, there is little difference in the publications of either side.

1 Cavalry Tactics, Second Part, published Philadelphia, 1856

2 Uniform and Dress of the Army of the Confederate States, Richmond, 1861

3 Record Book of Capt. B.F. Howard. Co.I, 1st Virginia Infantry, Kemper's Brigade, Pickett's Division, 1st Corps A.N.V., open at page dated for the years 1863 to 1864, with references to prisoner exchanges, desertions and casualties of Gettysburg

4 Regulations for the Army of the Confederate States, various editions

5 Confederate ledger book

6 Uniform and Dress of the Army of the Confederate States, published Richmond, 1861

7 Account book

Brass traveling candlestick Ledger

Tin document tube Newspaper Military forms

8 Silver pitcher with tray

Confederate Surgeries

32 Field chest

33 Military manuals

34 Officer's high boots

35 Folding camp chair

36 Binoculars and case

37 Newspaper

38 Patent cast-iron camp stove, made in Philadelphia

39 .Tin coffee cup

40 Tin coffee boiler

The individual officer could exert a major influence over the degree of discomfort he suffered when on campaign, and, as in all armies, officers could enjoy comforts not available (or not permitted) to the troops. Nevertheless, all is not quite as it appears at first sight. Thus, among the personal items shown here, those that stand out as lavish - and thus potentially divisive between the commissioned ranks and the soldiers - is the silver service of a Maj. Cassals, which includes two silver goblets (1) and (21), a cut-glass decanter (20), and a very elaborate liquor case (28). But, the service is inscribed: "To 'Our Captain.' Major John Cassals, 11 th Pennsylvania Cavalry, from

Company C, Bermuda Hundred, Virginia, I November 4, 1864.' One can only wonder at the loyalty which Maj. Cassals inspired I and at the amount of money such a gift I must have cost his soldiers, but clearly ] they felt that he deserved it and was I entitled to use it. The field desk (16) upon I which most of the exhibits rest belonged I to Lt. Col. Joseph Fulton Boyd.

1 and 2 Silver goblet and tray

Brass traveling candlestick Ledger

Tin document tube Newspaper Military forms

8 Silver pitcher with tray

9 Ceramic cup • 0 Sand shaker ' Quill pen and ink "2 Carte-de-visite

13 Military documents

14 Ledger

15 Silver personal box

16 Field desk

17 and 18 Ledgers

19 Map

20 Glass decanter from item 28

21 Silver Goblet

22 Newspapers

23 U.S. Army blanket

24 Traveling/folding writing desk

25 Officer's frock coat

26 Officer's silk sash

27 Model 1850 foot officer's sword together with scabbard

28 Traveling liquor case

29 Hand mirror

30 and 31 Straight razor and case

32 Field chest

33 Military manuals

34 Officer's high boots

35 Folding camp chair

36 Binoculars and case

37 Newspaper

38 Patent cast-iron camp stove, made in Philadelphia

39 .Tin coffee cup

40 Tin coffee boiler

Sibley Stove

Union Camp Artifacts

1 Patent coffee boiler

2 Haversack

3 Tin cup

4 Model 1858 canteen

5 Porcelain cup

6 Coffee boiler

7 Housewife

8 Sewing kit

9 Handkerchief

10 Folding candle stands

11 Haversack

12 Knapsack

13 Tin cup

14 Sibley stove

15 Rubber blanket

16 Chess set

17 Model 1858 canteen

18 Folding cup

For the Union soldier, unlike his Confederate counterpart, a few personal items were actually government-issue, including the rubber-backed blanket (15), metal canteens (4, 17), and tarred haversack (11) and knapsack (12), seen here. The scanty personal items possessed by the common soldier assumed greater importance to him as the war went on, because they were virtually the only items that were truly his and set him apart from his messmates; as a result, he would guard them jealously.

Civil War Canteen Cup Stove

19

Hardtack

27 Pocket watch

20

Tin plate and spoon

28 Straight razor and case

21

Eating utensils

29 Pocket mirror

22

Coffee pot

30 Manuals

23

Pipe and tobacco

31 Playing cards

24

Matches

32 Folding combination eating utensil

25

Tintype

33 Haversack

26

Diary and pocket bible

Confederate Equipment

Confederate Camp Artifacts

Much Confederate equipment was civilian material pressed into service, such as household or camp utensils. Homespun garments, a few trinkets, a pipe carved from soapstone, all were the sorts of items to be found in any Confederate's knapsack. These he augmented, when he could, by appropriating from the dead whatever they would no longer need. Field adaptations were common and the best equipment was usually captured from Union forces. Such private belongings may have been few in number and seemed crude in nature, but they were highly prized and many a Southerner would fight and even kill to keep them safe from other hands.

1 Blanket

2 Tin cup

3 Wooden personal effects box

4 Shaving kit

5 Pipe and handmade tobacco box

6 Wallet

7 Match safe

8 Tent lantern

Mess Kit Civil War

9 Piece of hardtack

10 Tin cups i 1 Handmade pipe

12 Mess tin

13 Leather cup

14 Ladle

15 Skillet

16 and 18 Folding combination eating utensils

17 and 19 Tin cups

20 Nut bowl

21 Personal effects bag

22 Lighting device

23 Candle

24 Candle holders

25-28 Matches and lighting devices

Revolver BowlLadle Holder Artifact

repair their own uniforms, and these small sewing kits contained needle, thread, buttons and small pieces of cloth)

23 Miniature shoe ornament

24 Flute

25 Change purse

26 Deck of playing cards

27 Guitar

28 Powder horn

13 Case for item 3

14 Wallet

15 Carved spoon

16 Carved pin

17 Percussion cap tin

18 Chess board and set

19 Paint box

20 Pocket knife

21 Hammer

22 Housewife (soldiers were required to

Confederate Personal

Artifacts

Camp amusements for Federal and Confederate soldiers alike were very limited and included games of chance, music, writing letters and reading, and like soldiers everywhere they indulged in any activity they could dream up to break the tedium of camp life. Some of the items seen here were part of soldiering, such as the gunpowder can (10) and the percussion cap box (17), but others were of a strictly personal nature and were designed to make camp life more bearable. Carried in his knapsack or blanket roll, these few items were intended to provide the Confederate soldier inspiration, repair their own uniforms, and these small sewing kits contained needle, thread, buttons and small pieces of cloth)

23 Miniature shoe ornament

24 Flute

25 Change purse

26 Deck of playing cards

27 Guitar

28 Powder horn entertainment, romance, almost everything for his soul, and, above all, a distraction from the ever-present threat of death or disease.

13 Case for item 3

14 Wallet

15 Carved spoon

16 Carved pin

17 Percussion cap tin

18 Chess board and set

19 Paint box

20 Pocket knife

21 Hammer

22 Housewife (soldiers were required to

1 Pocket Bible and hymnal

2 Pocket Bible

3 Eye glasses

4 Pocket Bible

5 Pocket hymnal

6 Personal effects bag

7 Photograph album

8 Water bottle

9 Bullet molds

10 Gunpowder can

11 Percussion cap tin

12 Pocket watch

Civil War Wooden Splint

As with virtually every pre-20th century campaign, many more soldiers died in the Civil War from disease than from enemy action. The Confederate Medical Department, in particular, fought a hopeless battle against disease and infection, in which illnesses that would be commonplace in childhood rapidly turned into fatal epidemics, incapacitating whole regiments. In the field of surgery, amputation was the accepted procedure for arm and leg wounds, while body and head wounds were considered inoperable and, given the high incidence of infection, were usually fatal.

For battle casualties, small arms bullets caused some ninety percent of the wounds and artillery most of the remainder. Much of what the Rebel surgeon and his nurses had to use was made by themselves, most having to concoct their own pills and tablets, cut their own splints, and sometimes even make their own crutches. Even the professionally manufactured equipment in their hands - as with their Yankee counterparts - was pitifully inadequate and ineffective, if not downright dangerous to the patients.

16 Wooden splint

17 Spring-activated fleam (or bleeder)

18 Folding scalpel

19 Scissors

20 Probes

21 Surgical chain saws

22 and 23 Bone saws for undertaking operations such as major limb amputations

1 Prosthesis (or false limb), for left arm

2 and 3 Hospital linen

4 Pill mold

5 Measuring scales

6 Feeding cup for an invalid

7 and 8 Medicinal measuring beakers

9 Chemist's mold

10 Prescription scales with tin case

11 Pill tile, for handmaking pills, inscribed. "Dr R. B. Richardson"

12 Medicinal spoon

13 Scale weights

14 Surgical thread

15 Pocket surgical kit

16 Wooden splint

17 Spring-activated fleam (or bleeder)

18 Folding scalpel

19 Scissors

20 Probes

21 Surgical chain saws

22 and 23 Bone saws for undertaking operations such as major limb amputations

Civil War Pocket Surgical Kits

The pitifully small and crude contents of a doctor's medical box: some bandages, scissors, a knife and a few pins. There can be no doubt that most doctors on both sides, did their level best, but they were frequently overwhelmed by the scale of the problems and the inadequacy of their resources. Many treatments - and medical men's attitudes - had scarcely developed since the Napoleonic Wars.

Surgeon's Implements

The plethora of specialized surgical saws and knives gave the impression that the surgeon was a member of a highly skilled and learned profession. In fact, the opposite was true; training was poor and attitudes in most cases were backward, to say the least. Some anesthetics - such as chlorofrom, ether and laudanum (tincture of opium) - were available, but they were frequently in short supply, particularly on the Confederate side. However, in the Confederate Army between 250,000 and 300,000 men died due to the war, but only a quarter of these deaths were incurred in battle or during the subsequent surgical treatment, and all the rest were due to disease.

Medicine Cabinet more, harm than good. Time - and freedom from professional treatment -were probably the best healers of all.

opium, together with some mercury compounds- In fact, many of the treatments did as much, perhaps even

Civil War Mercury Compound

more, harm than good. Time - and freedom from professional treatment -were probably the best healers of all.

Medicines of the era were crude at best and a doctor's pharmacy like this might consist chiefly of sulphur and opium, together with some mercury compounds- In fact, many of the treatments did as much, perhaps even

Union Soldier Hygiene Kit

Soldier's Shaving Gear

In an era when personal hygiene v

I was at best indifferent (at least by today's standards) soldiers in the field had little enough to keep themselves clean and tidy. Soap, like the big bar at the top right, could be made from lye (an alkaline liquid obtained by leaching wood ash) and burn the skin. Tooth powders and tooth paste were crude and abrasive, while toothbrushes lost their bristles easily. Razors lost their edge and had to be stropped regularly, so that many men opted for beards, instead. Combs were made from ivory, bone or guttapercha. The white cotton or linen towels were a genuine rarity, and all such sanitary items proved scarce after 1861; indeed, in the South they became almost collectors' items. However, for many soldiers, such conditions and equipment were little worse than would have been available to them at home.

Soldier's Mess Kit

This assortment of camp equipment includes a coffee boiler, ladles and sieves, mess plates, a salt or sugar shaker, a combination knife-fork-spoon, tin cups, and a coffee-bean roaster. Such items were essential to give daily life some semblance of comfort.

Civil War Battlefields Surgery

whiskey, and not without reason. It was vile by any standard, and the attitude of the men who drank it is evidenced by what they called the stuff. "Rock Me to Sleep Mother,"

Civil War Soldiers Razor

Soldier s "Essentials"

This corkscrew and pick shows much use. The most common form of bad behavior among Civil War soldiers was drunkenness. The stuff they drank was called 'mean"

whiskey, and not without reason. It was vile by any standard, and the attitude of the men who drank it is evidenced by what they called the stuff. "Rock Me to Sleep Mother,"

Old Red Eye," "Rifle Knock-Knee." "Bust Skull," "Rot of Pop Skull,' and "Oh, Be Joyful" are but a few of its sobriquets.

The straight razor is far more ornate than most, while in an attempt to ensure their matches (or "locofocos") stayed dry the soldiers often kept them in metal match "safes" like the one at bottom.

Confederate Prisoner of War Handicrafts

Confederate prisoners of war had little to occupy their time, so many of them began to carve unique objects for loved ones at home, serviceable items for survivors, and games with which to pass the time. A number were competent craftsmen and Johnny Reb showed off a lot of his natural inventiveness in the face of adversity by the ways in which he filled his time in prison camps, making what he needed for himself and souvenirs for the happy days after he would be released. The surviving pieces provided wonderful examples of prison folk art.

18 Carved chess set and box

19 Chess set and box

20 Game of jackstraws with box

21 Chess set with box 22-27 Various hand-made tools

28 Carved coconut shell

29 Carved religious obiects

30 Game of jackstraws

31 Hand-carved fork and spoon

I -2 Wooden boxes

3 Covered bowl

4 Covered caddy

5 Chess set with box

6 Game box

7 Candle stands

8 Comb

9 Woven palm fan

10 Keepsake box

II Chess set and box 12 Jewelry box 13-14 Chess sets and boxes

15 Water ladle

16 Uncarved coconut shell

17 Weaving shuttle

Civil War Blanket Roll
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Responses

  • Swen
    How to make a sibley tent stove?
    7 years ago
  • eija m
    How to roll a civil war blanket to a knapsack?
    6 years ago

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