Liddell S Brigade Of Hardee S Corps

Charlotte Artillery

Reserve artillery-

Carolina

W. Hampton's, Pender's, Scales'

55th Virginia

Field's, H. H. Walker's, Barton's

Civil War 55th Virginia Infantry

The colour sergeant of the 12th Virginia Infantry Regiment, believed to be William C. Smith, holds the regiment's Army of Northern Virginia battle flag. This shows the size of the flag in comparison to a man. The flag also has cords and tassels, which have been coloured gold on the original print—cords were unusual among Confederate flags. (Lee A. Wallace, Jr., Collection)

The colour sergeant of the 12th Virginia Infantry Regiment, believed to be William C. Smith, holds the regiment's Army of Northern Virginia battle flag. This shows the size of the flag in comparison to a man. The flag also has cords and tassels, which have been coloured gold on the original print—cords were unusual among Confederate flags. (Lee A. Wallace, Jr., Collection)

Most of these early colours were made by H. Cassidy in New Orleans. In 1864 the job of supplying colours was taken on by the Atlanta and Selma, Georgia, Clothing Depots. James Cameron, of Mobile, Alabama, also made the colours under Quartermaster Department contract. Cameron also provided colours to the Army of Mississippi, which later became Polk's Corps of the Army of Tennessee.

The earliest Western battle flag appears to be that flown in Hardee's Corps of the Army of Tennessee. This was supposedly designed by Gen. Simon Bolivar Buckner for Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston's army in about September 1861. According to Buckner in later years, Johnston 'wanted a battle flag so distinctive in character that it could not be mistaken ... a blue field and a white centre My wife made such a flag for each regiment at Bowling Green The first time the battle flag was used was at Qonelson. The troops that I commanded mostly fell to Hardee's command afterwards, they continued to use the flag, and it came to be known as Hardee's Battle Flag.'

'Each regiment carried a "battle flag,"' wrote Col. Fremantle after visiting Liddell's Brigade of Hardee's Corps, 'blue with a white border, on which were inscribed the names "Belmont," "Shiloh," "Perryville," "Richmond, Kentucky," and "Murfreesboro."' Hardee's Corps' battle flag was dark blue with a white border and a white oval or circle in its centre. The unit designation was often painted on the white disc, often called a 'silver moon', while battle honours were most often painted in dark blue on the border and sometimes in white on the field. At least one example exists, carried by an unknown unit, with the battle honour 'SHILOH' in dark blue on the white oval in the centre of the field.

Hardee's Corps battle flags were smaller than Army of Northern Virginia battle flags ranging from 31 to 34 inches on the hoist. They were often dyed with a poor quality blue dye and faded to a shade of pea-green after much use.

Regiments in the short-lived Army of Kentucky in the Department of East Tennessee, which were merged into the Army of Tennessee, apparently used a variation of the Hardee's Corps battle flag. It, too, had a blue field and white border but, instead of a disc, it had a white St. Andrew's Cross. Such a flag was described by Beauregard after the war, with the

The Army of Northern Virginia buttle flag curried by the 24th Regiment, \nrth Carolina State Troops, is all hand-sewn and has the unit designation stencil led on the upper border. Note US War Department capture number '275'marked on the upper border. (North Carolina Museum of History)

This unidentified Army of Northern Virginia battle flag, one of the last bunting types produced, was captured at the Battle of Saylor's Creek, Virginia, on b April 1865. (Museum of the Confederacy)

South Carolina War FlagSouth Carolina War FlagHardee Corps Pattern Battle Flag

The 5th South Carolina Ca valry's ba ttlc flag has the evenly spaced stars associated with the Department of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, although it was captured at Trevilian Station. (South Carolina Confederate Relic Room and Museum)

addition of 'blue or gold stars', as having been in Polk's command. A surviving example, without stars, was carried by the 30th Arkansas Infantry until it was captured on 31 December 1862. It measures 40 inches on the hoist by 46 inches, with white letters outlined in black on the top border '30th REG' and 'ARK INF' on the bottom border. The flag also had white outlined battle honours for 'FARMINGTON/ MISS' on the top field and 'RICHMOND/KY' on the bottom field.

The colour adopted in Polk's Corps possibly draws its inspiration from Polk's pre-war service as an Episcopal bishop. Adopted in March 1862, it featured the cross of St. George, the emblem of the Episcopal Church, on a dark blue field. Typically, with these battle flags the cross of St. George was red, edged in white, with 11 five-pointed white stars. However, battle flags from Alabama regiments, including the 22nd and 24th Alabama Infantry from Withers' Division, lacked the red cross and stars. These battle flags, too, came in a wide variety of sizes, that of e.g. the 1st Tennessee Infantry being only 28 inches on the hoist, while that of the 22nd Alabama is 41* inches on the hoist.

On 23 November 1862 Maj. Gen. Benjamin F. Cheatham authorized the placing of a pair of crossed cannon on the battle flag of any regiment in his division of Polk's Corps that had overrun and captured Union artillery in action. A month later this order was made army-wide. These cannon appear in both dark blue on a white field and white on a dark blue or red field; the muzzles usually point down— indeed, they are often noted as being 'inverted'—but they sometimes point up.

Bragg's Corps was added to the Army of Tennessee in February 1862. At that time regiments in the corps, which had no uniform type of battle flag, were issued battle flags very similar to the first Army of Northern Virginia pattern. Since Beauregard designed the flags the similarity between these and the Army of Northern Virginia battle flags comes as no surprise. The Bragg's Corps models were, however, made of bunting instead of silk, with a broad pink border and 12 six-pointed, rather than five-pointed, stars. One of these battle flags, carried by the 7th Mississippi Infantry, measures 48* inches on the hoist and 42* on the fly.

Several months after the first shipment of Bragg's Corps battle flags appeared a second issue was made. These flags differed from the first issue in being rectangular instead of virtually square. An original carried by the 57th Georgia Infantry measures 42^

Bragg Corps Battel Flag
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