Confederate Officers Of The Medical Corps

Confederate Medical Corps

DAVID BULLOCK holds a PhD in European Military History and has been an officer in the U.S. Air Force, Currently, he writes official histories as a military historian for the Department of Defense and is an adjunct Associate Professor at Colorado Technical University, Colorado Springs. PROFESSOR ROBERT O'NEILL, AO D.PHIL. (Oxon), Hon D. Litt. (ANU), FASSA, Fr Hist S, is the Series Editor of the Essential Histories. His wealth of knowledge and expertise shapes the series content and provides...

Allied intervention

Russian Civil War Bolsheviks

Allied intervention can only be understood against the backdrop ol World War One. The Bolshevik Revolution of November 1917 removed Russia as a partner of the Allies in the war. Understanding that the Central Powers could now transfer troops from the east to the west, the Allies sought to reconstitute the broken Eastern Front to tie down as many of the enemy as possible. Over the next several months they considered a wide range of partners, from Ukrainians, Serbs, Poles, Romanians, Czechs, to...

Index

Figures in bold refer to illustrations 93, 102, 106, 119, 120, 132, 136, 137 Alexiev, Gen M. 21, 37, 38, 38, 40-1, 68, 138 Anarchists 24, 25, 27, 29, 33, 52, 63, 75, 85, 86, 87, 87, 88, 89, 113, 130, 141 Archangel 47, 52, 90, 96, 97, 98-9, 100, 101, 137 Armed Forces of South Russia AFSR combat 68, 69-71, 72, 73, 75-6, 79, 103, 114, 115 commanders 57,69, 74, 116, 119, 119, 134 armoured cars 43, 65, 70, 71, 84, 86, 87, 1 M , 119, 120, 132, 136 armoured trains 45, 48, 52-5, 65, 70, 72, 81, 83,...

The Ukraine

The UHA had ceased to exisl by April 1920. In order to continue the struggle against the Vasily Konstantinovich Blyukhei In the opening months of 1918, he commanded the South Urals Partisan Army, a force of 10,000 that carried a red banner with white skull and crassbones. In these days, Blyukher fought against Ataman Dutov's Cossacks and according to Soviet hagiography, wore a 'black mask'. He became the first recipient of the Order of the Red Banner after his forces broke through enemy lines...

The Don Cossacks

Prussian Cavalry Cossacks The Dons

The Red Army occupied the Don after the death of Ataman Kaledin in February. Entering Novocherskassk on 26 February, they shot his newly-elected successor, Ataman Nazarov, n response, General Popov and 1,500 Cossacks escaped into the steppes to begin resistance. Meanwhile, the Bolshevik administration desecrated churches, burned farms and overturned the Cossack way of life consequently, the Don rose in counterrevolution in April. On 16 May the Don council, or Krug, elected General Petr Krasnov...

Red crucible

Bolshevik Poster Published 1919

The retreat of the Germans after the Armistice left a power vacuum across the Bolshevik Western Front. In the name of 'internationalism', not 'imperialism', the Red Army sent small forces against the Baltic states, Lithuania and Belarus, In the first months of 1919. Regardless of word choice, the new nationalist states considered themselves invaded. Working with the Allies, the Germans and the Poles, the new states fought the Reds to an uneasy halt. Throughout the year, the Bolsheviks watched...

Introduction

Serbia And Czechoslovakia

The Russian Civil War of 1918-22 arose out of the cataclysmic events of World War One. This civil war dwarfed all others of the 20th century in scope and significance. The lives of tens of millions were iost or changed forever in the ensuing conflagration -from battle, disease, famine, imprisonment, execution, dislocation and exile. New weapons of war emerged. The aeroplane, armoured car, tank and armoured train were tested over the vast expanses of Russia, the largest country in the world, in...

Kolchaks offensive

1919 Barnaul Intelligence Service

In the weeks after Kolchak's ascension, the front stabilized along the Urals and morale improved dramatically. The Izhevsk and Votkinsk Brigades, Molchanov's Brigade and Kappel's troops formed tile nucleus of the new Western Army in the centre. The imperial gold had successfully arrived in Chelyabinsk from Samara in November, soon to be transferred to Omsk. The Whites desired an early offensive, even in winter, to throw the Reds off balance, understanding that they were growing in strength....

The Allies in Siberia

Krasnoyarsk 1919 Presoner Post Card

Among the major Allied powers, the Japanese and Americans were in the best position to intervene in Siberia. Japan had significant commercial and strategic interests in the Russian Far East and did not have troops committed to a major theatre. The Americans also had important business relations in the Far Fast, and although they had begun arriving in large numbers on the Western Front, they were relatively fresh to the horrors of war and had troops to spare. The British, French and Italians,...

The Reds the Blacks the Greens

Kolchak White Cavalry

The Reds themselves were heterogeneous, especially in the first year of the civil war. From 1917 to 1918, the Red Army was a collection of revolutionary factions which Included the Bolsheviks, Mensheviks, Left Socialist Revolutionaries, Right Socialist Revolutionaries, the Jewish Bund, Anarchists, various smaller agrarian peasant and 'social democratic' parties, and even groups known as the 'Greens'. The Whites made little or no distinction between these elements and referred to them simply as...

The end in the Far East

Baron Ungern Sternberg

After much deliberation, the Whites decided not to defend their capital at Omsk in November 1919. A sharp downturn in the weather froze the River Irtysh solid, negating its natural defensive value. Instead, a new capital would be established at Irkutsk where the army could rest and replenish. Admiral Kolchak was one of the last to leave on 14 November, just hours ahead of the enemy. Seven trains accompanied him, carrying the imperial gold and his special convoy of Supreme Ruler bodyguards. All...

Red dawn

Red Dawn Art

The Red Army pursued Denikin nearly 800 kilometres, arriving, exhausted, at Rostov in January. There, in early February, the Caucasus Army Group was established, consisting of the 8th, 9th, 10th and 11th Armies and the 1st Horse Army under the overall command of Tukachevsky, Only a third of the combined ration strength of 215,000 were combatants, including 23,000 cavalry. The 1st Horse Army, having completed formation in mid-November 1919, had led the way. With 15,000 cavalry, 19 pieces of...

Century Redrawn

1920 Old West Army Cloth

No one has been able to calculate accurately the cost in human life attributable to the civil war. Reasoned estimates have placed the number of dead from battle and disease in the Red Army as low as 425,000 and as high as 1,213,000. Numbers for their opponents range from 325,000 to 1,287,000. Another 200,000-400,000 died in prison or were executed as a result of the 'Red Terror' against 'enemies of the people', A further 50,000 may have been victims of the corresponding 'White Terror'. Another...

The Moscow Directive

Kornilov Shock Division

Denikin arrived in Tsaritsyn on 2 July. The next day he unfolded his 'Moscow Directive' Mai-Maevsky would advance to Kursk-Orel-Tula-Moscow, the Don Cossacks to Voronezh-Ryazan-Moscow, Wrangcl to Saratov-Nizhny Novgorod-Vladimir-Moscow. Later in the campaign the western advance would he amended to include Kiev and Chernigov in the north as well as the capture of Kherson, Nlkolaev and Odessa in the south. In the heady atmosphere of those days the Whites accepted the news with enthusiasm....

He Black Guards

Anarchist Black Guard

'Forward beneath the block flag of Anarchy, on to the great struggle ' - poem by Nestor Makhno. One of the most remarkable chapters in the history of guerrilla warfare was written in the Ukraine from 1918 to 1921. Here, a part of the larger Anarchist Federation called Nabat Alarm , specifically the military forces of the Makhnovshchina Makhno Movement , fought all powers in an attempt to establish free sovlets and self-governance. The man behind this struggle was 'Batko' Little Father Nestor...

Red baptism of fire

Tsaritsyn City Centre

In the first months, the Bolsheviks were able to put down counter-revolutionary uprisings easily enough. Most challenges were only from half-hatched political plots, armed gangs or groups of the discontented. Three challenges were potentially more serious, those of Dutov, K a led in and Kornilov. Armoured trains and troop trains overloaded with Red Guards overturned Ataman Dutov's Orenburg Cossacks in January 1918, taking his capital on the 31st of that month. Red Guards converging south from...

The Allies in South Russia

Flt Sam Kinkead

In December 1917, Britain and France had agreed to divide spheres of interest and potential economic gain in southern Russia France taking the grain-rich Ukraine, including the Crimea and Donets industrial basin, and Britain the eastern ports of the Black Sea including the oil-rich Caucasus and Caspian. The collapse of the Central Powers on the Balkan Front in November 1918 encouraged the French to intervene by shifting forces from that theatre to South Russia. France's grand design for the...

Women in the Russian Civil

Steel Omsk 1919

For women, distinctions between non-combatant and combatant blurred during the Russian Civil War. The lucky ones lived far behind the lines in areas that were not exposed to the rapidly shifting fronts. Most were housewives, mothers, farm labourers, industrial workers, shopkeepers, telephone operators - in other words, ordinary people concerned with simply staying alive and finding enough food to eat at affordable prices. Some chose the path of easy virtue, or were forced down that road because...

Destruction of the AFSR

Kuban Cossacks New York

The AFSR retreated in the late autumn and early winter of 1919 in good order, pressed all along the line from Poland to the Volga, lied numerical superiority ensured that the Whites almost always had one or more of their flanks turned in a given sector. In particular, Red cavalry maintained pressure on the junction between the Volunteer and Don Armies. In this area also lay the primary rail lines through which the Whites had to retreat. Severance of any part of the railway meant units were...

Consolidation and the Second Civil War 192122

Bolsheviks Reds Hats

The end of the Whites meant the Reds were able to round out their borders at the expense of their neighbours. In the west, they accepted the loss of Finland, Poland and the Baltic states. In 1920, they signed treaties with Estonia in February, with Lithuania in July, Latvia in August and Finland in October. A treaty with Poland followed in March 1921. I hese losses were temporary, however. From 1939 to 1945, Poland and the Baltic states were 'returned to the fold'. After the conclusion of World...

The Baltic

Kuperjanov Battalion

The British took the lead in intervening in the Baltic from 1918 to 1920 due to the geographic proximity of these countries and the ready availability of the Royal Navy. Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania had been quick to seek independence from Russia in 1917. Latvia declared independence on 12 January 1918, followed by Lithuania on 16 February and Estonia on 24 February. Actual independence was problematical, however. The Germans had occupied Lithuania in 1915 and had taken over Estonia and Latvia...

The Armed Forces of South Russia

Don Cossacks

The Volunteers opened a new offensive, the 'North Caucasian Operation', on 3 January 1919. The Reds had reformed a front with the 11th and newly-raised 12th Armies. These consisted of 150,000 men, of which perhaps only half were combat-ready. Against these, Denikin pitted 25,000, including the cavalry of Wrangel, Prokovsky and Shkuro. At the end of six weeks, in which neither side gave quarter, the Reds broke, yielding 50,000 prisoners and 150 pieces of artillery. This liberated the Terek...

The Russian Civil War 19 I 822

Chinese People Russian Civil War

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First resistance the Volunteer Army

The Kornilov Division

Three White generals were instrumental in organizing the first resistance that led to civil war in the aftermath of the Bolshevik Revolution l.avr KorniJov, Mikhail Alexiev and Anton Denikin. Kornilov, the son of a Cossack, had been born in Siberia in 1870, A man of reckless courage and almost magical charisma, he had been the first Russian general to escape from an enemy prisoner-of-war camp in World War One. By 31 July 1917, he had risen to the position of supreme commander-in-chief under...

An Empire Divided

World War Allies Day

Contrary to Soviet propaganda, most of the Whites were not monarchists. They had lived through the fall of the tsar in March 1917 and the assassination of the royal family in July 1918. Indeed, General Mikhail Alexiev had advised the tsar to abdicate in 1917 and General Lavr Kornilov had actually arrested the tsarina. Both men would become prominent leaders of the White movement later that year. Nevertheless, most of the Whites had felt comfortable enough under the tsar's regime. Officers and...

Red consolidation

Petliura Assassination

The Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic RSFSR came into being on 7 November 1917, the day of the Revolution, the constitution of the new state being ratified on 7 July 1918. One of the first acts of state was to change the capital, previously at Petrograd, to Moscow on 10 March 1918. The Bolsheviks faced many critical challenges in their first year how to consolidate their base and preserve their power, how to improve the economy and feed the people, how to respond to external...

Background to war

Stalin Painting

'It was with a sense of awe that they turned upon Russia the most grisly of all weapons. They transported Lenin in a sealed truck like a plague bacillus into Russia.' - Winston Churchill, The World Crisis, Volume Five The 304-year reign of the Romanov dynasty came to an end on 15 March 1917 Gregorian calendar, new-style date . The Russian 'February Revolution' had begun in earnest on 8 March, much as the French Revolution of 1789 had, as a direct result of women marching in search of bread. For...

Second Kuban Campaign

Kuban Cossacks

The Second Kuban Campaign commenced on 23 June. The Reds were known to have 100,000 men In their North Caucasian Army stretched out along the towns and railways from south of Rostov to Stavropol and including their best units, Zhloba's Steel Division and the Taman Army Group, Denikin planned to advance southwest towards Ekaterinodar, knocking out Red garrisons ensconced on the railway, then continue to Novorossisk, liberating the ports along the eastern shore of the Black Sea. The Volunteers...

Chronology

Vladivostok Russia 1920

Dates arc given in Western, Gregorian calendar style and are 13 days ahead of Eastern or Julian calendar style. The following represents only a few of the important dates in this momentous period. 1917 7 March Start of February devolution IS March Tsar Nicholas 11 abdicates 15 March Formation of Provisional Government 16 April Lenin returns to Russia 3 May Demonstrations in Petrograd formally St Petersburg but the name was changed during World War One to sound less German 18 May Provisional...