general American Civil War Maps Videos Photos

A Unique Range Of Teacher Aids For Schools & Home Educators Relating To The American Civil War: Comprehensive Battlefield Maps, Video Clips Of The Battlefields, Historic Photographs & Teacher Lesson Plans. The American Civil War Map & Photograph packages, the Civil War Teacher Pack and the American Civil War Collection are four unique packages of practical & adaptable battlefield maps, lesson plans, historic archive images, Google Earth overlays (maps which display within the Google Earth application over the real terrain where a battle occurred) and hundreds of Google Earth Kmz Placemarks (which allow you to zoom straight to a key spot within Google Earth instantly). And these easily downloadable Collections can by yours in minutes! The Maps and Photographs Collections will be a valuable resource for years to come and take full advantage of exciting tools within Google Earth, the quite amazing free application from Google Inc. In the Map Collection, over 70 maps have been imported into the Google Earth appli...[more here]

American Civil War Maps Videos Photos Overview

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On The Homefront

Civil War Life The Homefront South

No one in either the North or South thought the war would run more than a few months, or that it would cause the destruction, turmoil, or loss of life that it did over the course of four bloody years. Many civilians in the North were affected by the war primarily through shortages of certain goods, and the absence of fathers, sons, and husbands to help run farms, businesses, and households. In contrast, daily life for people in the South could be a terrible struggle. The vast majority of...

Where to Learn More Rrx

Elizabeth Van Lew

Klement, Frank L. Dark Lanterns Secret Political Societies, Conspiracies, and Treason Trials in the Civil War. Baton Rouge Louisiana State University Press, 1984. Klement, Frank L. The Limits of Dissent Clement L. Vallandigham and the Civil War. Lexington University of Kentucky Press, 1970. Reprint, New York Fordham University Press, 1998. Klement, Frank L. Lincoln's Critics The Copperheads of the North. Ship-pensburg, PA White Mane Books, 1999. Born October 12, 1818 Richmond, Virginia Died...

Guerrillas And The Civilian Populations

No guerrilla force can survive for long without the active support of at least a part of the civilian population, on whom they rely for food, information, and BATTLE OF BRICE'S CROSSROADS, JUNE 10, 1864 This was a prime example of the employment of large numbers of partisan rangers in a pitched battle. Concerned about MajGen Nathan Bedford Forrest's regular attacks on the Nashville amp Chattanooga Railroad in Tennessee, Gen Sherman ordered BrigGen Samuel Sturgisinto northern Mississippi to...

A Recruiting Poster

Before the invention of radio, television, and motion pictures, organizations and government officials spoke to individuals by using posters. These were hung in places where people often gathered, such as town squares, open-air markets, and the front of shops and newspaper offices. This enlistment poster was one of the most popular types seen in the first days of the Civil War. It does not mention pay or benefits. Rather, the picture of the patriotic soldier in battle gives recruits the...

Civil war facts triviat

H Coffee was both the scarcest and most valued drink during the Civil War, and many people came up with interesting coffee substitutes, including okra seed, rice, wheat, peanuts, beans, sweet potatoes, peas, and acorns. These would be dried and then soaked in hot water, creating a coffee-like drink. H Since cane sugar and molasses were produced primarily in the South, prior to and during the war Northerners substituted maple sugar as an act of protest against the South. H At the beginning of...

Iuka Oak Hill

Hallte Flag du 3rd Louisiana Regiment avers Battle Klag du 57th Georgia Regiment avers Regimental Flag du 4th Missouri Infantry avers Batllc Plag du 28tli north Carolina Infantry avers

John Beatty a Union soldier

In many ways, John Beatty typified the common soldier of the Union army, and his journal details army life in the Western Theater throughout the early years of the war. Beatty was born on 16 December 1828 near Sandusky in the western region of Ohio, a region known for its strong anti-slavery sentiments. At the outbreak of war, he raised a company of local volunteers, which joined the 3rd Ohio Volunteer Infantry Regiment. When the unit was mustered into service, Beatty, recently promoted to...

Gen John Bell Hood CSA

General Hood Csa

Portrait, Hood wears the regulation general officer's frock coat, with the buttons in parallel groups of threes, denoting rank above that of brigadier-general. His sleeve braid and the trim on his kepi show the four rows of gold required for a general, and although his collar is not visible it would almost certainly reveal three stars surrounded by a wreath. This portrait shows Gen. Hood prior to losing his leg at Chickamauga. Short of actually losing his life. Gen. John Bell Hood gave up about...

The Shenandoah Valley Campaign of 1864

Sheridan Wastes Shenandoah Valley

In the spring of 1862, General Thomas J. 'Stonewall' Jackson catapulted to lasting fame by waging a campaign in Virginia's fertile and lovely Shenandoah valley that captured the imagination of the South and transformed the nature of the war. By turns careful and then dazzling in his maneuvers, Jackson utilized the valley's features to his own advantage. The two forks of the Shenandoah river served as moats, being crossed at only three places in 100 miles 160km by bridges. The Massanutten...

Paddlewheelers And Hospital Ships

Confederate Paddlewheelers

When Robert Fulton designed the first working steamboat in 1807, he probably didn't realize that his invention would lead to one of the most interesting innovations of the Civil War. Steamboats revolutionized river travel during the 1800s for the first time, people were able to travel up and down America's mighty waterways under motorized power, rather than relying on muscle or the wind. Steamboats became the fastest and most efficient way to transport people and goods up and down the United...

B Private Infantry with Battle Flag

Spanish American War Uniforms

The corporal illustrated wears an all-grey Federal-style fatigue uniform of Confederate grey, with only the chevrons in the infantry distinctive colour, and knapsack replaced by a green civilian blanket. His colour is the First National Flag of the Confederacy adopted 4 March 1861 , known as the 'Stars and Bars' from the three large stripes and from the seven white stars arranged in a circle on the blue canton. There were numerous variations on this design, the number and arrangement of stars...

Regimental Histories

Brainard, M.G., Campaigns of the One Hundred and Forty Sixth Regiment New York State Volunteers, New York, 1915. Conyngham D.P., The Irish Brigade And Its Campaigns, Patrick Donahoe, Boston, 1869. Reprinted by Ron R. Van Sickle Military Books, Gaithersburg, Maryland, 1987. Cowtan C.W, Ser vices of the 10th New York Volunteers National Zouaves in the War of the Rebellion, Charles amp Ludwig, New York, 1862. Davenport A., Camp and Field Life of the Fifth New York Volunteer Infantry Duryee...

New York

Militia Infantry

Caporal du 5th new York City Infantry Regiment. du 7th New York State Militia en tenue de campagne. du 7th new York State Militia en grande tenue. 1861. Officier du Otli New York Infantry Hegiincnt en tenue de gala Private du Btli Ycie York City Ccllc ,,il cst u dcs premiers r giments Private du Oth New York Volunteers. dc zouaves tre entr en service actif Infantry Rcaiwent. au sein de l'arm e f d rale. Hawkin s zouaves. Sergent lu 4Mi New York Slate milla.

KEARNY Philip 181562

Phillip Keamy

Philip Kearny was born in New York City on 2 June 1815. The scion of a wealthy, socially prominent family, he was graduated from Columbia University in 1833. l ie inherited a million dollars in - an almost unimaginable sum at that date - but nevertheless decided to follow his dream into the army. Commissioned into his uncle's regiment, the 1st Dragoons, in 1837 as a second lieutenant, Kearny attended the French cavalry school at Saumur in 1839 He served with the Chasseurs d'Afrique in Algiers...

Sergeant 33rd New Jersey Volunteers2nd Zouaves USA

Volunteers Regiment Usa

The 33rd New Jersey was one of four regiments which made up the First Brigade, New Jersey Volunteers. The regiment was raised and trained at Fort Olden, Trenton, N.J. and, its training complete, it left for the war in June 1861. During the course of the Civil War, the 33rd New Jersey took part in fifty-four engagements from Bull Run to Appomattox Court House. The 33rd was one of many which used the colorful zouave image to capture the imagination of the public and, in particular, of young men...

Bummer Army of the Tennessee USA

Civil War Bummer

Region as the lean, hardened and ever-resourceful 'bummer' of the Army of the Tennessee His uniform may have been outwardly similar to that of his eastern counterparts, but the differences showed in the hundreds more miles he marched, the greater variations of climate and weather he endured, and the increased uncertainties of re-supply available to this highly mobile army. Chief among these differences was the battered wide-brimmed hat he wore, as opposed to the ubiquitous kepi worn in the Army...

American Civil War Armies 4 State Troops

Text by PHILIP KATCHER Colour plates by RON VOLSTAD Published in 1987 by Osprey Publishing Ltd Michclin House, 81 Fulham road, London SW3 6RB Copyright 1987 Osprey Publishing Ltd Reprinted 1988 twice , 1989, 1991, 1992, 1993 All rights reserved. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study, research, criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright Designs and Patents Act, 1988,110 part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in...

American Civil War Commanders 4 1

Images Civil War Commanders

Philip Katcher Illustrated by Richard Hook First published in Great Britain in 2003 by Osprey Publishing Elms Court, Chapel Way, Botley, Oxford OX2 9LP, United Kingdom Email info ospreypublishing.com All rights reserved. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study, research, criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means,...

Lookout Mountain Mission Ridge

Uniforme 1861 Connecticut

Porte fanion du quartier g n ral du 4e Corps d'Armcc de l'armcc du Potomac. 1863. Ci-dessus. .1 gauche. Drapeau du 28e r giment d'infanterie volontaire de Pennsylvanie. Le Seal que l'on pourrait traduire par armoiries de la Pennsylvanie est bien visible au centre du canton toil . du 1st Michigan. Infantry Volunteers. CI lt ontre. Battle flag du 69th New York Infantry Volunteers, Irish Brigade. Ci-dessous. gauche. Camp Color drapeau de cantonnement du 108th New York Volunteers. US Narine en...

Preparing for the Civil War

Zachary Taylor With Gun

By the time the Mexican War ended, Scott was known across America as a fierce fighter and a bold military strategist. In 1852, the Whig political party nominated him for the presidency of the United States. They hoped to take advantage of his fame and popularity. Divisions within the party over the issue of slavery hurt Scott's cause, though, and he was soundly defeated by Democratic Party candidate Franklin Pierce 1804-1869 in the general election. Scott remained in charge of America's army...

The Battle of Spotsylvania Court House 821 May 1864

Battle Spotsylvania Courthouse Map

2, 12 hay Hancock's attack f 3- 18 May Grant's attack. 11 5. Doles Salient, fi 2, 12 hay Hancock's attack f 3- 18 May Grant's attack. 11 5. Doles Salient, fi to press southward again, keeping the pressure on Lee. Early on 7 May, Grant issued orders to leave the Wilderness and head southeast toward Spotsylvania Court House, where the regional road net afforded a chance to slip between Lee and Richmond. When Grant turned south, despite having suffered as grievous losses as had prompted other...

Battle for Mobile Bay

Uss Drum Collision

Following the capture of New Orleans, Adm Farragut planned to attack the port of Mobile on die Gulf Coast of Alabama, but events conspired against this. Forts Morgan and Gaines, guarding the narrow entrance to Mobile Bay, were protected by obstrucdons in the channel which prevented warships from getting close enough .to reduce them the Army had to be involved, but insufficient troops were available. Farragut therefore turned his attention back to the Mississippi, and the capture of Port Hudson...

Visiting the sites today

The following selection is not exhaustive, but includes the main historical sites containing Civil War field fortifications of the eastern and western campaigns owned by the National Park Service, government agencies, the local community, plus those in private hands. At the time of writing, all of these sites are open to the public unless otherwise noted. Richmond National Battlefield Park contains the earthwork remains of Fort I larrison Burnham, plus those at forts Brady, Hoke, Johnson,...

Officer 39th New York Volunteer Infantry Garibaldi Guard USA

Garibaldi Guards

While some units adopted the uniform style of the French-Algerian zouaves, a few followed the pattern of another contemporary European hero, the great Italian patriot, Giuseppe Garibaldi. Thus, this officer's most distinctive uniform feature is his wide-brimmed, black, Bersaglieri hat with a chin-strap and a large plume on the left, a pattern worn to this day by some units of the Italian Army. Unlike most Yankee officers, he wears no shoulder straps to indicate his rank, but has an unusual...

American Civil War Marines 186165 1

Osprey Publishing Marine

Ron Field Illustrated by Richard Hook First published in Great Britain in 2004 by Osprey Publishing Elms Court, Chapel Way. Botley, Oxford 0X2 9LP, United Kingdom Email irfa0ospreypublishing.com All rights reserved. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study, research, criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988. no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means,...

The Bravest Black Regiment

Early in 1863, Massachusetts Governor John Andrew authorized the recruitment of an all-black regiment from his state. He also selected Robert Gould Shaw, the son of a prominent white family of abolitionists, to lead it. In July, 1863, the regiment, named the 54th Massachusetts, was asked to charge heavily armed Confederates dug in at Fort Wagner, outside Charleston, South Carolina. Colonel Shaw, with sword and pistol in hand, led the regiment's attack and was the first to reach the top of the...

The wigwag code

Each letter of the wig-wag alphabet was represented by a certain position or movement of the flag. In wig-wag code, messages were spelled out according to a letter-number code. Each letter of the alphabet was represented by a combination of numbers, and the numbers corresponded to flag movement. A movement to the left of the center meant a 1, and a movement to the right of center meant a 2. The letter A, for example, was 11, which is two movements from the left to the center in a row. Dipping...

The Richmond defenses 186165

Richmond Fortifications

Following his acceptance as Major General of Virginia Forces on April 23, 1861, Robert E. Eee appointed Colonel Andrew Talcott, Engineer of Virginia Forces, to the job of setting up a system of defensive fortifications around the Confederate capital. On May 9, a Committee on Defense was selected amongst the City Council to assist in providing a work force and materials. Councillor Richard Reins had been appointed as Superintendent of City Defenses by the beginning of July. Problems arose in...

The Outbreak of the Third Civil War

English Civil War Scottish Flags

The failure of the 1648 rising was largely due to the inability of the Scots either to act in unison or to act positively. In the attitude to Charles II in Scotland, there was more or less a three-way split the old Montrose royalists, the Engagers residue of Hamilton's party and the hard-line Covenanters. The two latter shared a mutual dislike of Montrose. It was unfortunate for Charles II, therefore, that after the events of 1649 50 he was obliged to depend upon the Scots for a military...

The English Civil War 16421651

Philip J Haythornthwaite Colour illustrations by Jeffrey Burn O Lord Thou knowest hotc busy I musi be this day. If forget thee, do not Thou forget me PRAYER OF SIR JACOB ASTLEY, EDGEHILL First published in the UK 1983 by Blandford Press All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the copyright...

Private 9th New York Infantry Regiment Hawkins Zouaves

American Civil War Uniforms

N 1861 Rush C. Hawkins, a veteran of the Mexican War went to work finding men for a new regiment. Starting with members of the old pre war Company of New York Zouaves, he enlisted enough men to muster his 9th New York Infantry on May 4, 1861. Thanks to their uniform and their founder's name, they were quickly dubbed Hawkins' Zouaves. They fought at Big Bethel in June 1861, then went on to campaign in North Carolina before returning to take part in the Battles of Antietam and Fredericksburg....

First Lieutenant 2nd Rhode Island Infantry

American Civil War Uniforms

This first lieutenant of the 2nd Rhode Island Infantry shows the distinctive early war uniform of this state's first 90-days regiments. The pleated blouse with the full skirt and the rolled collar, would be very little seen after 1861, and future Rhode Island outfits opted for the more traditional Union Army uniform. Again, like most infantry officers, he carries the .44 caliber Colt New Model Army pistol, which, while a powerful percussion weapon, was not terribly accurate. Just firing it...

Berry Ink And Homemade Paper

Resources of all kinds food, fuel, clothing, and shoes were in short supply as the Civil War dragged on, especially in the South. Everyone in the Confederate states experienced shortages, but the hardest hit were the Southern poor. Life was never very easy for many people in the South, but hard times were made much harder by shortages of food, farming help, and basic household items that were previously manufactured in the North and shipped south. Everyday living became challenging for many...

Plate 3

Cuirassier Reenactment

7 Oliver Cromwell. Lieutenant-General of Horse 8 General officer. Parliamentary staff Cromwell is shown in the blackened armour of his portrait by R Walker, c. 1619. with tassets instead of complete leg armour, and a lobster-tailed' helmet instead of the cuirassier-style close helmet The general officer wears a fashionably-laced suit beneath his buff-coat, and carries a hanger instead of a rapier or broadsword. the hilt of which made of dull iron with polished highlights resembles that of the...

Greatcoats

Uniforms The Finnish Army 1918

Clearly inspired by the colourful uniforms of the 17th-century Russian musketeers, called strellsi, the new greatcoat was introduced on S April 1919. For historical reasons it was known as a kaftan instead of the more usual shinnellc. The greatcoat was of khaki cloth, and had as its most characteristic feature three tabs in branch-of-service colour worn prominently across the chest. These tabs were similar in shape to the 'bastion' lace of British regiments. They were soon nicknamed raz-goviity...

NewJersey

Army Cavalry Officer

Newjersey ordered for its first volunteers a uniform that included 'a dark blue frock coat, light blue pants, and army cockade hat'. These coats appear to have been made like the US Army's fatigue blouse, but with five buttons down the front instead of lour. State-made or -bought uniforms were issued to New Jersey's first nine infantry regiments, the US Army equipping those raised later. Exceptions were the 33rd and 35th New Jersey Volunteer Infantry Regiments, which received directly from the...

Illinois

4th New Jersey Regiment

Caporal dc la 1st Company Governor's Foot Guards. Connecticut. 1861. Caporal dc la 1st Company Governor's Foot Guards. Connecticut. 1861. Private de la Putman Phalanx. Connecticut. 1861. Private des Ellsworth Cadets. Connecticut. 1861. Private du 11th Indiana Regiment. Private du I OUi Indiana Regiment. Sergent du 3rd Maine Privatcdc la compagnie C du 7tli Michigan Regiment. 1861. Private du 40th Missouri Infantry' Regiment. Private du Ist Massachussets Militia. Privatcdc la compagnie C du 7tli...

Lieutenant Colonel 44th Georgia Infantry CSA

American Civil War Uniforms

Georgia was almost a small nation in itself, making most ofythe things needed to arm and equip its men. This lieutenant colonel of the 44th Georgia Infantry is Georgia from head to toe. His uniform is a standard gray pattern piped in black. He wears a two-piece Georgia state beltplate, and it supports a sword from the works of W. J. McElroy. Even the stars on his collar, cut from brass sheets, are of local manufacture. Most distinctive of all, however, is the Griswold and Gunnison revolver in...

Leesburg

10th Virginia Flags

1 8th Virginia Infantry Regiment 2 4th North Carolina Infantry Regiment 3 5th Florida Infantry Regiment 4 49th Georgia Infantry Regiment 1 7th Virginia Infantry Regiment 2 28th North Carolina Infantry Regiment 3 9th Virginia Infantry Regiment 4 Co. C, 10th North Carolina Regiment Volunteers - 1st Artillery

Federal Cavalry Uniforms

Cavalry Uniform

Surviving uniform variations of either Federal or Confederate forces are not common, although scattered specimens do exist here and there, some in public and others in private collections. The collections at West Point, the Smithsonian, and Museum of the Confederacy are truly outstanding, although even in such large establishments many examples cannot be exhibited due to space and conservation considerations. These artifacts are, therefore, of particular interest, as they show some unusual...

Confederate Enlisted Men and IMonCommissioned Officers Horse Furniture

Again much of what has been said about the Federal equipment applies to that of the Confederate Cavalry also, particularly as much was captured from the Union forces early in the war. Many militia units had good equipment, but the volunteers often had civilian saddles and equipment, at least until their first clash with Union forces. Cavalry saddles came last on the Confederacys list of priorities for leather, after cartridge boxes and artillery harnesses. Jennifer tree-type saddles were...

Liddell S Brigade Of Hardee S Corps

South Carolina War Flag

The colour sergeant of the 12th Virginia Infantry Regiment, believed to be William C. Smith, holds the regiment's Army of Northern Virginia battle flag. This shows the size of the flag in comparison to a man. The flag also has cords and tassels, which have been coloured gold on the original print cords were unusual among Confederate flags. Lee A. Wallace, Jr., Collection The colour sergeant of the 12th Virginia Infantry Regiment, believed to be William C. Smith, holds the regiment's Army of...

Union Button Dies and State and Service Buttons

Massachusetts State Seal Button

Southern counterparts, provide a vast number of state seal variations and branch indicators and as a result many buttons of the era cannot be positively identified. Thus, on this page the following buttons cannot attributed, apart from the fact that they bear the seals of the following states New Hampshire 51 New Jersey 52, 53 New York 54, 55 Ohio 56 Pennsylvania 57 Rhode Island 58, 59 Vermont 60 and Wisconsin 61 . The last button 62 displays the badge of the U.S. Sanitary Commission. Such...

Sergeant and Private 22nd Regiment New York National Guard USA

Blue Confederate Uniform

With red cuffs, collar and cap band, but after this uniform had caused confusion with similarly dressed Confederate units at First Manassas and elsewhere, the regiment switched to the regulation blue chasseur blouse, seen here worn by the sergeant. The regiment did, however, keep its distinctive 2-banded Enfield rifles and sword bayonets, and carried the regimental number on the kepi and the company letter on the beltplate. The regiment saw service between May to September 1862, and again in...

MAPS 34 35 The Battle of Naseby 14 June 1645

Battle Naseby Map

The royalist dispositions on the ridge were conventional, with Langdale and his Northern Horse on the left flank, Rupert and his cavalry on the right, and Astley with the infantry in the centre. Cromwell and Fairfax considered that the royalist position gave Rupert an option not to fight if he so wished, and decided to withdraw towards Naseby and occupy high ground there. The enemy movement was seen by Rupert, who ordered the whole royalist army to set in motion, and a flanking march was begun....

The First Civil War 1645

Curtain Wall Fortification

Parliament capitalized not at all upon the second battle of Newbury they called upon the governor of Don-nington Castle, Sir John Boys, to surrender, or they threatened not to leave one stone upon another. Boys replied that he was not responsible for the upkeep of the castle, but if they did pull it down he would still defend the ground on which it stood. The Parliamentary attack npon it failed and they retired, choosing not to pursue the King. Charles I reorganized his army, replacing old...

Federal Signal Corps Uniforms and Equipment

Ambulance Corps Badge Confederate

Engineer officers were the elite of the graduating class of West Point each year and their branch insignia, the castle, was distinctive. Within this branch were the Topographical Engineers who had their own badge 12 13 and carried the distinctive Model 1839 saber which is very rare today The US Army Signal Corps originated in the early days of the Civil War as a special unit, making it the oldest signal corps in the world, their mission being that of setting up and maintaining communications....

White and Allied 1

Images From Osprey Publishing

J Bullock amp A Deryabin Illustrated by A Aksenov First published In Great Britain in 2003 by Osprey Publishing. Elms Court, Chapel Way. Botley. Oxford 0X2 9LP. United Kingdom. Email info ospreypublishing.com All rights reserved. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study, research, criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright. Designs and Patents Act, 1988. no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by...

Gunner 1st US Artillery

Uniform Civil War

Union artillery underwent considerable change during the war, especially in its uniform regulation. It began the war as the smallest branch of the service, and artillerymen were looked upon as additional infantry, with only a few companies actually equipped with cannon This soon changed, with light or field artillery designed for active campaigning, horse or flying artillery accompanying cavalry, and heavy or foot artillery manning fortifications and sea defenses, as well as serving the army's...

Secondary Sources

Atkin, Malcolm, ' The Civil War Defences of Gloucester', Fortress, No. 10, pp. 32-38 London, 1991 Atkin, Malcolm, and Howes, Russell, 'The use of archaeology and documentary sources in Identifying the Civil War defences of Gloucester', Post Medieval Archaeology, Vol. 27, pp. 15-41 London, 1993 Burke, James, 'The New Model and the problems of siege warfare, 1648-51', Irish Historical Studies, Vol. XXVII, No. 105, pp. 1-29 Antrim, 1990 Burke, James, 'Siege warfare in Seventeenth Century Ireland',...

The Army Of The Potomac

Artillery Flag

As the Union's field armies grew in size, various of their commanders attempted to make units easy to identify in the field through systems of unique flags carried by each formation and unit. The Army of the Potomac's General Orders No. 102 was issued 24 March 1862, under Major-General George B. McClellan's direction, and gave the Union Army its first comprehensive army-wide flag designating system. According to the sections which provided instructions on flags, the army's general headquarters...

Chinese Civil War Armies

Chinese Civil War Pictures

PHILIP JOWETT was born in Leeds in 1961,and has been interested in military history for as long as he can remember. He has written a number of books for Osprey including a three-part sequence on The Italian Army 1940-45 Men-at-Arms 340, 349 amp 353 . A rugby league enthusiast and amateur genealogist, he is married and lives in Leeds. STEPHEN ANDREW was born in 1961 in Glasgow, where he still lives and works. An entirely self-taught artist, he worked in advertising and design agencies before...

The sites in war

Siege Oxford Civil War

By speedy marches were advanc'd Up to the fort where he ensconc'd And all the avenues had possess'd About the place, from east to west. That done, a while they made a halt, To view the ground, and where t'assault Then call'd a council, which was best, By siege or onslaught, to invest The enemy and 'twas agreed, By storm and onslaught to proceed. This b'ing resolv'd, in comely sort They now drew up 'attack the fort Hudibras There was very little use for field fortifications in the pitched...

American Civil War Union Army

Copyright 1996, 1998 Brassey's UK Ltd All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, electrostatic, magnetic tape, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without permission in writing from the publishers. First English Edition 1996 First Paperback Edition 1998 Brassey's, 33 John Street, London WC1N 2AT Tel. 0171 753 7777 Fax. 0171 753 7794 E-mail brasseys dial.pipex.com Website...

Fort Pulaski

Confederate Fortifications

Built on Cockspur Island to guard the mouth of the Savannah River, Fort Pulaski was regarded as one of the strongest forts in the country. It was built over a period of 18 years on a bed of log pilings and wooden beams, a project supervised at one stage by the future Confederate general Robert E. Lee. Completed in 1847, the pentagonal structure was formed from one tier of casemates and a barbette level on four sides the front two faces and the truncated sides , and a landward face that...

Private North Carolina Infantry CSA

Confederate Army Cavalry Uniforms Plate

For blue as the infantry color, these infantrymen are wearing black shoulder strips. The trousers are of matching gray cloth, with black stripes down the seams. Some North Carolinan soldiers were equipped with single or double crossbelts, and, while weaponry varied, most carried the 1842 musket. Only because North Carolina could produce its own textiles and had ports for blockade-run items, could the State arm and equip its men so effectively. The troops from the State of North Carolina were...

Infantry

Angus Mcbride Uniforms

Published in 1989 by Osprey Publishing Ltd 59 Grosvenor Street, London W1X 9DA Copyright 1989 Osprey Publishing Ltd Reprinted 1991, 1992 All rights reserved. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study, research, criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright Designs and Patents Act, 1988, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, electrical, chemical, mechanical, optical,...

Powered By Article Dashboard Civil War Weapons

Cuirassier Armour

I Edward tX'jl ingham, from Brttunnu-jf Virtmu tmm .Oxford, 1644 quoted in Young, P.dgthH, p. 196 1 Atkvro. K. Tht I 'mJiattum ef Richird Atkvnt t 16A91 tee Aikvm. K amp Uw-ylt. J Tht Enthih CnnJ War ol Young. P. amp Tutker, N. London. l9A7 p.9 J Cnao, p JI 4 A Brit TriMUf ttj IT'jr in iktymref aw rtJtmpni gt n 1649, MSS by 5 Quota Younji. LStthtl . p 29 6 Quoted Adair. J CkrtiLm. 1644 j Kineton, 1973 p. 141 s See Milne, S.M Sun.UrJi jw Colvvri of ihr Army i66t-t Xi be misleading. For example,...

Further reading

Primer and introductory texts in English on the Spanish Civil War include S. Ellwood, The Spanish Civil War Oxford Blackwell Historical Association Studies, 1991 M. Blinkhorn, Democracy and Civil War in Spain 1931-1939, 2nd edn. London Routledge, 1992 A. Forrest, The Spanish Civil War London Routledge, 2000 F. Lannon, The Spanish Civil War Oxford Osprey Essential Histories, 2002 and P. Preston, A Concise History of the Spanish Civil War London Fontana, 1996 . Those looking for a bibliographical...

Lecture Forty The Northern Home Front

Scope This lecture begins our consideration of the northern home front by looking at political developments during the first three years of the war and the presidential election of 1864. Although the war did not bring the type of dislocation to the North that was characteristic of the Confederate experience, it did produce great political change. The Republicans moved to solidify their position as the majority party after several decades of Democratic dominance. The Democratic Party split into...

War in the North The Scottish Invasion January to April 1644

1st Battle Newbury Map

Haggerston 19.1.44 lA N Middleton fi elfjeld Haggerston 19.1.44 lA N Middleton fi elfjeld Ebchester - 20.3.44Chester le StreeT Easington 1.4.44 r. o. i'Quarnngton 8.4.44 Sishop Auckland fVerry Hill 1 00' Easington 1.4.44 r. o. i'Quarnngton 8.4.44 Sishop Auckland fVerry Hill 1 00' In September 1643 Parliament and the Scots reached an agreement, the Solemn League and Covenant, whereby more than 20,000 Scottish troops would enter the war against the King. Scottish involvement would force the...

Indiana

War Torn Regimental Flags

Although it is generally believed that most Indiana regiments carried regulation flags, at least the 13th Indiana Infantry Regiment carried a dark blue regimental color with the state seal embroidered in natural colours in the centre over a small red, white, The centre of the flag of the 1st Regiment, Massachusetts Hea vy Artillery, torn by a jo-pound shell at the Battle of Sailor's Creek, Virginia, 6 April iS6g. Massachusetts State House, Bureau of Slate Office Buildings The centre of the flag...

Construction

Wicker Defences Earthworks

Building fortifications could take anywhere from a few days to several weeks. Most offensive operations involved rapid construction of batteries and trenches while the position was under fire. Numerous accounts speak of enemy siegeworks being built in a matter of hours although some of the large forts built could take much longer. Town defences in many cases were an ongoing concern and great care was taken to keep them in good order as they were all that stood between the enemy and safety....

Enlisted Men 4th Texas Volunteer Infantry CSA

4th Texas Infantry Enfield Rifle

Few Rebel units achieved the reputation of the gallant Texans of Hood's Brigade, among them the 4th Texas Volunteer Infantry, Tough and rugged fighters, they became the shock troops of the Army of Northern Virginia when they came North to fight the Union's Army of the Potomac. The basic uniform shown here has some variations from the regulation Confederate pattern, the most noticeable being the black insignia of rank and the black piping, rather than the more customary blue although this is the...

Plate 20

Montero Cap Pikeman

51 Officer, greycoat regt Parliamentary foot The greycoal officer wears a uniform of which the cut, shape of hat, si dear m and very voluminous sash are taken from one of the ligures shown on the Farndon Church window His gloves have fringed cuffs, turned back onto ihe hand. The drummer's traditional r le was like that of the cavalry trumpeter to convey orders by drum beat Turner noted that a proficient drummer should be able to beat a 'Gathering', march, alarm, charge, retreat. Travaille or...

Uniforms

English Pikeman Helmet

One of the most deeply rooted misconceptions concerning the Civil War is that military uniforms did not exist until the creation of the New Model Army, and that they were the first to wear the traditional British red coat. In actual fact, it had long been the custom for companies or regiments to be clothed in a uniform manner, though as colouring was at the discretion of the commander or proprietor there was little standardization. As early as 1539 the London militia wore uniform white coats in...

British Reenactment Groups

4th Virginia Infantry

In Britain, the two main umbrella organisations for American Civil War re-enactment groups are the Southern Skirmish Association, Soskan, and the American Civil War Society the A.C.W.S. For information about joining Soskan write to, The Secretary, Southern Skirmish Association, PO Box 485, Swindon SN2 6BF. As this book went to press Soskan had the following Northern Southern units, for prospective recruits to choose from. 2nd U.S. Artillery Battery A 2nd U.S. Sharpshooters 2nd U.S. Cavalry 18th...

Full Dress Uniform of General William T Sherman

Gala Uniform Civil War

William T. Sherman remains a controversial figure in U. S. history, even though over a century and a quarter has passed since the campaigns for which he made his name, although his place among America's commanders remains secure. He had little use for the finery of the army and was rarely seen in his full dress uniform, seen here. The coat is regulation blue with the correct black velvet cuffs and collar, but the sash is rather broader and brighter than that worn by most other officers. County...

Union Infantry Equipment

Union Soldier Sergeants

Since the days of the American Revolution, American Standing like the Emperor Napoleon, with hand in coat, was a popular pose for many Civil War soldiers having their photographs taken. This soldier stands almost completely accoutred and the top of his bayonet in its scabbard can just be seen, but he appears to lack a cartridge box. David Scheinmann. Oil cloths were practical forage cap accessories in bad weather. This private has slipped an oil cloth over his forage cap and poses for this...

Georgia

Georgia Infantry

Most officers from Georgia which does not seem to have printed state dress regulations wore copies of the 1861 US Army uniform. James Cooper Nisbet, Co. H, 21st Georgia Infantry Regiment, recalled that in 1861 each man in his company was 'uniformed in gray', while 'the lieutenants were uniformed in home-made blue jeans. My uniform was of a regular United States Army blue, tailor-made, a present with my sword and belt from my sister. . .' Most enlisted men wore jackets, although frocks were worn...

Regulation Flags

Regiment Flag With Eagle Finial

The Army of the United States basically had two colours per dismounted regiment, which were issued according to army-wide regulations issued 10 August 1861. From the Revised Regulations for the Army of the United States, 86r. '1436. The garrison flag is the national flag. It is made of bunting, thirty-six feet fly, the twenty feet hoist, in thirteen horizontal stripes of equal breadth, alternately red and white, beginning with the red. In the upper quarter, next to the staff, is the Union,...

Artillery Uniforms

Broadly speaking, there were two types of uniforms worn by the Union artillery. Heavy artillery who manned costal defences or the fortifications around Washington wore the infantry regulation dress of frock coats and Hardee hats. Light artillery who served in the field officially wore shell jackets like the cavalry but artillery jackets were trimmed with scarlet braid, marking the artillery's branch of service. Unique to the light artillery was the dragoon style Ringgold cap with its high peak...

Mississippi

Mississippi Infantry

Ten Mississippi prisoners of war were said to have arrived in Washington, DC, by the Daily National Intelligencer of 25 July 1861 'One of them is Lieut.Col. B. B. Boone, a splendid officer in appearance, though clad in rough gray cloth, trimmed in faded cotton velvet facings'. Col. Boone's uniform appears to have been that prescribed by the state's military board in January 1861 'All officers shall wear a frock coat of gray cloth, the skirl to extend from two-thirds to three-fourths of the...

Civil War Reenactment Suppliers

The growth in living history and battle reenactments over the past few years has led to a steady growth of Soldier of 31st Pennsylvania Infantry with family in camp Slocum, near Washington DC c.1861. Peter Newark's Military Pictures M. Brady. specialist equipment suppliers in Britain and America, who can satisfy reenactment requirements from a forage cap to a tent peg. Britain's largest supplier of American Civil War reenactment equipment including haversacks, cap pouches, cartridge boxes,...

Zouave and Chasseur Uniforms

In i8 gt o a fad for wearing copies of French Zouave and Chasseur dress swept the North. This had some influence in the South too and a number of so-called Zouave units were formed in the states from Texas to Virginia. Because of difficulties in obtaining even anything like regulation uniforms, let alone copies of the elaborate and ornate Zouave dress, few of these uniforms lasted more than a few months unless kept packed away in trunks. A private in the 63rd Pennsylvania Infantry wrote home on...

Headgear

149th Bucktail Soldiers

Infantrymen were issued with two types of headgear a full dress hat and a forage cap. The elaborate full dress hat was adopted in 1858 and named ironically after two future Confederates who had sat on the selection board before the war. The hat was most popularly known as a Hardee hat after Major William J. Hardee Private wearing a regulation overcoat and forage cap but underneath he seems to be dressed in a double breasted fireman's shirt which he's left open at the collar. Such shirts proved...

Epaulettes

American officers had traditionally worn epaulettes as a badge of rank and although their use was beginning to die out in the early years of the Civil War, it was not unusual to find them particularly on the shoulders of some militia officers. The 69th New York State Militia had worsted epaulettes on its new jackets adopted shortly before the war. These epaulettes had a broad bullion fringe for NCOs, a medium fringe for sergeants, and a narrow fringe for corporals and privates. Epaulettes were...

Union Infantry Officers Uniforms and Equipment

24th Michigan

Regulations concerning officers' uniforms allowed considerable latitude and therefore articles of uniform, accoutrements and accessories depended as much on the individual officer's taste and financial resources as on military requirements. Further differences arose because, while Regular Army officers were issued with many regulation articles of uniform and equipment, the volunteer officer was left to his own resources. There were, however, several regulations that were observed with some...

Personal Effects and Decorations of Major General Galusha Pennypacker

Army 1896medal Honor

The personal effects of any ranking general officer of the Civil War are extremely rare. In Major General Pennypacker, we are fortunate that his career began so early in his life. Many of the decorations on show were awarded to him long after the war between the states had finished. Most other generals' uniforms are held in institutional collections, but this particular selection of artifacts is held by Chester County Historical Society in Pennsylvania. The youngest general in American history,...

Sergeant 79th New York Infantry Highlanders 186061

Highlander Infantry

Few Yankee regiments of the war wore quite such a distinctive dress or one which gave rise to such mirth - as the famed 79th New York Infantry, known as the Highlanders. When the initial core of four companies was raised in 1859 it was composed entirely of Scots immigrants and the regiment modeled itself on the British Army's 79th Regiment of Foot, the famed Cameron Highlanders. In full-dress the men wore a black Glengarry cap with a checkered border, a kilt in the Cameron tartan, a doublet,...

The First Civil War 16423

Edgehill Battle Formation

The King's standard was raised on 22 August 1642, but Charles I had lost his first battle three and four months before, when Sir John Hotham with Parliamentary' and naval support had denied him aceess to the munitions at Hull, withstanding a Royal attempt to take them by force. Loss of armaments, there and at London, and of the navy's support, cost the King and the Royalist faction dearly. Nevertheless, the embryo Royal army received a significant reinforcement in early August when Princes...

The Plates

Enfield 1861 Musketoon

A Captain, South Carolina, 1861 The dark blue uniform worn by this stallcaptain is described by British correspondent William H. Russell on 17 April 1861 as 'blue military caps, with I palmetto trees embroidered thereon, blue frock- 1 coats, with upright collars, and shoulder-straps I edged with lace, and marked with two silver bars, to I designate their ranks of captain gilt buttons with I the palmetto in relief blue trowsers, with a gold- I lace cord, and brass spurs no straps'. A2 Corporal,...

Burnside in command

Battle Fredericksburg Aurora Borealis

On November 15, Burnside moved his massive army of 110,000 south toward Richmond, Virginia. They headed directly for Fredericksburg, which lies about halfway between Washington, D.C., and Richmond. Burnside hoped to reach the town along the banks of the Rappahannock River before Lee could reach it. He then planned to push farther southward and place his army between the Army of Northern Virginia and Lee's forces. Within two days, Burnside had about one-third of his men at Falmouth, Virginia, on...

Union Cavalry Carbines

Joslyn Army

Arrtacts counesv o' The Cnnl IV,j- itti'aiy ,ml Museum Philadelphia. Pa Almost all Union carbines were breech-loading and fired special ammunition peculiar to each weapon, with calibers varying from .36 to .69. While great advances in small arms were made during the war, the lack of standardization created major problems. Most companies manufacturing these arms ceased to exist after hostilities came to an end. The Sharps carbine 1 was one of a relatively small number of capping breech loaders,...

Swords

Dress Sword Colonel Sylvanus Thayer

The presentation of ornate, deluxe swords to prominent politicians and local favorite sons, and, in particular, to war heroes was a recognized tribute in the 1860s. The majority of such presentation swords were enhanced models of swords then in current issue to the Army, but there were exceptions where no expense was spared. In the latter case, the result was a sword of exquisite quality and craftsmanship, such as those shown here. Some were even made by jewelers, such as Bailey and Co., of...

Union Naval Officers Insignia

Ranks Union Navy

An officer was recognized by the insignia on his tunic, and that in the Union Navy derived chiefly from prewar usage, which in turn owed much to Army insignia. The shoulder strap markings were the most direct and reliable, and usually could be counted on to depict the officer's correct current rating. The sleeve or cuff stripes, on the other hand, took more time and effort to alter with promotions, and therefore were often ignored. As a result, there were many officers of all ranks whose cuffs...

CPrivate Iron Brigade Service Dress

The private of the 20th Maine illustrated wears the ordinary fatigue uniform, but with the official regulation dark blue trousers the regiment was one of the few to adhere to the original trousers rather than adopt the light blue ones authorised in December 1861. The figure shows the regulation infantry equipment, consisting of a waist-belt and small cap-pouch to the right of the brass plate, and a shoulder-belt supporting the cartridge-pouch on the right hip, the pouch having a tin liner and...

Haversacks and canteens

Haversacks and canteens were the fundamental items of equipment which kept the Union soldier alive. In his haversack he stored his food and eating utensils. Rations included salt pork, sugar, coffee, salt and the staple diet of all Civil War soldiers, hard tack, a biscuit made out of flour mixed with water which was then baked. It was so hard it never rotted and it was not unknown for hardtack to be issued to soldiers long after the Civil War had ended. Eating utensils would usually comprise a...

Uniforms of the US Marine Corps

Marine Museum

Every vessel of the U.S. Navy carried a few Marines, who were as smart then as they are today, as demonstrated by these uniforms. On the left is a sergeant's field frock coat, with his badges of rank in gold braid on each sleeve and a white belt, with bayonet frog and cartridge pouch. On the right is a full-dress, double-breasted coat with collar and cuff embellishments and the shoulder-scales, which were mandatory at all times in this order of dress.

American Civil War Zouaves

Text by ROBIN SMITH Colour plates by BILLYOUNGHUSBAND First published in Great Britain in 1996 b gt Osprey Publishing, Kims Court, Chapel VV.iv, Bot Icy, Oxford OX2 91.1', United Kingdom Email ospreytoosprev publishing.co.uk i 1996Osprev Publishing I.td. Reprinted 1998, 1999 All rights reserved, parl from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study, research, criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright Designs and Patents Act, I'ISS. no part of this publication may be...

Louisiana Zouave Uniform

Louisiana Zouave Uniform

Storming the heights of the Alma, charging gallantly at Inkerman and scrambling up the Ylalakoff at Sebastopol during the Crimean War, the elite Zouaves of the French Army became the subject ol many heroic paintings and illustrations. Across Kurope and America their daring reputation caught the imagination. Queen Victoria even had one of her colonial regiments, the West India Regiment, wear Zouave dress. General George 15. YlcClellan, who as a captain had been an American observer in the...

Confederate Civil War

Civil War Confederate Soldiers

1 57th Georgia Infantry Regiment 2 26th South Carolina Infantry 3 Shea's Vernon's Texas Battery 1 57th Georgia Infantry Regiment 2 26th South Carolina Infantry 3 Shea's Vernon's Texas Battery j VSECESSIONVILLty X JUNE If V

Drummer Co F 2nd Wisconsin Infantry Iron Brigade

Images The Civil War Iron Brigade

Hardly any other unit of the Civil War would achieve such lasting fame as the so-called Iron Brigade of Wisconsin and Indiana. Its three Wisconsin and one Indiana regiments fought with a ferocity that made them stand out from other units, and suffered losses hardly equaled in any other unit. Indeed, so heavy were its causalities that the unit existed for only two years. The Second Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry was mustered into United States service on June 11, 1861, for three years or during...

Union Officers Camp Equipment

Civil War Carved Folding Pocket Mirror

The individual officer could exert a major influence over the degree of discomfort he suffered when on campaign, and, as in all armies, officers could enjoy comforts not available or not permitted to the troops. Nevertheless, all is not quite as it appears at first sight Thus, among the personal items shown here, those that stand out as lavish - and thus potentially divisive between the commissioned ranks and the soldiers - is the silver service of a Ma . Cassals, which includes two silver...

Uniform of Major General George G Meade

Civil War Navy Uniforms

Meade was given command of one of the Pennsylvania brigades and promoted brigadier general. He fought under General McClellan during the Peninsula Campaign and was severely wounded at the Battle of Glendale June 30, 1862 . Barely recovered, he fought at Second Manassas, South Mountain, and Antietam. Meade commanded a division during the failure at Fredericksburg, performed well at Chancellorsville the following spring, and was placed in charge of the Army of the Potomac actually while on the...

Partisan Rangers

Due to their official status as members of the Confederate Army, partisan rangers usually wore standard cavalry uniforms often with sweeping ostrich-feather hat plumes - but they were not above dressing in civilian clothing or Union uniforms to trick the enemy. Partisan commanders disagreed over the advisability of this, as anyone captured behind enemy lines not wearing Confederate uniform might be subject to summary execution. Captured Union clothing was, of course, often pressed into service...

From pronunciamiento to Civil War

These preliminary observations about pronunciamientos will help us to demystify the origins of the Spanish Civil War. Franco revealed a mentality characteristic of a military officer who has just 'pronounced' when, a week after the uprising and possessing a curious idea of what civilized countries are, protested, without embarrassment, to a journalist that it was the Republic that, by refusing to surrender, was obliging him to wage war In all civilized countries, when the army has risen against...

North Carolina

Confederate Army Uniform Regulations

In 1861 there was the usual collection of volunteer companies in various uniforms in North Carolina. There were eight companies of 'Blues' and 23 of 'Grays', indicating a clear preference for grey uniforms. These uniforms quickly wore out, however, and the men needed new ones. North Carolina was unique among Southern states in that from 20 September 1861 it took over the responsibility for clothing its own troops. The state set up a clothing factory in Raleigh which made, during its one year of...

The Spanish Civil lMngj6jg

Uniforms Pictures From Gen Franco

By the spring of 1936 it was becoming increasingly evident that Spain was heading for an armed clash between the forces and of the extreme Right and the extreme Left. The moderate Republican government of Madrid was helpless to curb the activities of militants of opposing factions, or to check the tide of political assassinations. Over the period of 16 June to 13 July, terrorists murdered 61 people and wounded a further 224. There were 132 bomb incidents, ten churches and nineteen public...

MEADE George Gordon 181572

Major General Fitz John Porter

George Meade see Plate El was born in Cadiz, Spain, on 31 December 1815, the son of a wealthy American merchant who was wiped out financially by adhering to Spain's cause in the Napoleonic Wars-Returning to the United States, Meade attended Mount Hope Institution and then the US Military Academy from which lie was graduated in 1835. He saw service in Florida and at the Water town Arsenal before resigning in 1836 to work as a civil engineer. He returned to the army on 19 May 1842 as a second...