Bibliography

Barratt, J., 'Like an Iron Wall, New View of Royalist Cavalry Tactics'. Military Illustrated No. 96 Blackmore, D Arms & Armour of the English Civil Wars (Royal Armouries. 1990) Brzezinski. R., The Army of Gustavus Adolphus, Infantry (Osprey, MAA235, 1991) Brzezinskl. R The Army of Gustavus Adolphus, Cavalry (Osprey, MAA 262, 1993) Brzezinski, R., Lutzen 1632 - Climax of the Thirty Years War (Osprey, Campaign 68, 2001) Elliott-Wright, Philip J.C., Brassey's History of Uniforms, English Civil...

The Armies Assemble For Battle

On 22 October Lord Digby scouting to the west of the Royalist Army with a party of 400 Royalist Horse failed to detect the Parliament troops in the area of Kineton and reported that there was no sign of the enemy. A Council of War at Edgecote decided that on the next day Sir Nicholas Byron's Brigade of 4,000 men with a train of artillery would attempt to An illustration of a pikeman's equipment from John Bingham'j The Tacticks of Aelian. The same I type of armour was used during the Civil War....

Declaration

' ' 'lii .** im mmuumm-i j A Royalist account stating the King's intentions (or his advance on Brentford. forces entered the town after a very warm service, the chief officers and many soldiers of the other side being killed, and took there above five hundred prisoners, eleven colours, and fifteen pieces of cannon, and good store of ammunition.' Clarendon The events of the battle of Brentford were as follows. On 12 November Parliament despatched Sir Peter Killigrew 'to know the King's pleasure...

The Battle Of Edgehill

23 October 1642, c. 3.30-4.30pm, viewed from the south showing the clash of the Royalist and Parliament Foot brigades, and the charge of Balfour's and Stapleton's cuirassier troops. .if Cqc nui frrecaj-gfc'euibnj7*of ayajn t 80 a'V. < * rnan kurfc 4 t ur c So SraXe in i> > i7n 10 00 fftns Xinpr, 4 efr' Pari ta. Rea ra.n a-waf Utoiratpj Hf r g, Jt> wee war re (Shoo U taer Soap y - we* vok< r r' 'SY,in'aerd Sc Cfc ied. Cet. l> *rn. ty SttuuJerfiearer in if> s fi-.iA v. f rtf i ur...

On The Royalist Right Wing

On the right of the Royalist line the two Foot brigades of John Belasyse and Charles Gerard stood firm. The part of the Parliamentary line to which they were opposed had been held by the four regiments of Charles Essex's Brigade, comprising the regiments of Charles Essex himself, Lord Wharton, Lord Mandeville and Sir Henry Cholmley. However, these regiments were now streaming back towards Kineton, having fled at the first charge of Rupert's Horse. To fill the gap Thomas Ballard led forward his...

The Battle

The battle proper began with the charge of the Royalist Horse on both wings. Prince Rupert had taken care that all the Horse should follow the tactics which had proven so successful at Powick Bridge. The Parliamentarians had not had an opportunity to review their cavalry tactics and as at Powick Bridge they intended to meet the Royalist charge at the halt and to deliver a volley of carbine and pistol shot. Sir James Ramsey, an experienced Scottish professional soldier, who commanded the...

Unit Structure And Strength

Both cavalry and infantry regiments were organised in brigades as a tactical group with the senior Colonel usually being the brigade commander. Batde orders were given to the brigade commanders, who deployed their men according to die battle plan set out by their commander. Henry Hexham commented that the Dutch Army divided its infantry 'into three parts called Brigadoes or Tercias, each of them having a several name, to witt, the Vantguard, the Battell, amp the Reereguard'. In the Dutch Army...

Info

Thomas Lunsford

4 January, The King's attempt to seize five MPs in the House of Commons failed. The MPs, John Pym, John Hamden, Sir Arthur Haselrigg, Denzil Holies and William Strode, were forewarned, left the House before the King's men arrived and took refuge in the City of London. 31 January, Sir John Hotham secures Hull for the Parliament. 11 February, The Royalist Sir John Byron is replaced as Governor of the Tower of London by Sir John Conyers. 17 February, Prince Rupert lands at Dover to join King...

The Battle Draws To A Close

The Byron Royalist Flags

Gerard's men were not left without support for long. At long last some of die Royalist Horse had been brought back under control and returned to save the remnants of their Foot as the Royalist Official account describes 'By this time the Right Wing of our Horse was returned from Chasing the Rebels, and were in some Confusion, because they Came from the Execution but seeing our Foot and Cannon in some danger to be lost, by reason that the Rebels Horse and Foot those Horse which had never been...

Dutch Style Cavalry Deployment

THE FORM Of THE DUKE OF BRUNSWYCKS HORSE BAtTAHE IN THE PLAIHE Of ELTON. THE 5 Of SEPTEMBER. 16Z5 wiru. tavalru oj th . SweJiih Note tht. i M5k W Wotly bttwan tht Cftvatnj pirww in lim- Alternate icplojmtMs for cavuU s mutans f ir the Impwwllrh Rflimonto Mortttcvtccoli's 'S lle Battadiii circa 1442 Tht rrows show tht line of rdrwt of flrjt lint c v lrij s uoirons but still preferred large units and German regiments were commonly deployed in a single body. Either style could be used by the...

Opposing Armies And Formations

Swedish Brigade Tactic

The battlefield tactics used during the English Civil War do not exist in isolation, they are part of the military practice which developed in western Europe during a series of wars during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The most significant were the Dutch Revolt in the Low Countries 1567-1648 , the French Wars of Religion 1562-98 and the Fronde 1648-53 , and the Thirty Years War 1618-48 . The latter is commonly thought of as a German war but its campaigns ranged over Denmark, Bohemia,...

Foot And The Train Of Artillery

The equipment for infantry, cavalry and artillery is described in more detail in Elite 25 Soldiers of the English Civil War 1 Infantry and Elite 27 Soldiers of the English Civil War 2 Cavalry. By 1642 there were only two types of cavalry in English service, cuirassiers and harquebusiers. There were very few cuirassiers, troopers armoured from head to knee and armed with a sword and two pistols. Individual troopers on both sides were armed to this standard but the only complete formations were...

The Royalist Commanders

King Charles I 1600-1649 exercised command over all Royalist forces with the assistance of a Council of War. This Council comprised ministers, peers, generals and more junior officers whose past military experience was considered relevant. Elements of military theory were part of the education of any prince in this period and the King was also able to draw on the advice of a number of competent and experienced soldiers. However, he had no practical experience of campaigning or warfare and his...

Raising The Armies

Raising The Armies

Parliament's control of the City of London gave it several advantages access to arms from the arsenal at the Tower of London, control over merchants producing small arms in the City and its suburbs and the ability to raise funds to pay for arms imported through the European arms market in Holland. In addition Parliament obtained arms shipped south from Hull and by donation from the armouries of the City Guilds. It was also able to divert regiments that had been raised for service in Ireland to...

European Background

Catholic Protestant England Ireland

Charles I succeeded to the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland in 1625. His reign began during a period of instability throughout western Europe, with international warfare between the major European countries as well as internal unrest. There was no single cause for the wars which were to engulf the British Isles but three themes should be considered. Firsdy, religious differences between Catholic and Protestant were becoming inextricably linked with politics and war in the Low Countries,...