The Allied Armies Of The Scots And Parliament

ARMY OF THE EASTERN ASSOCIATION Lord General Earl of Manchester Lieutenant-General of the Horse Oliver Cromwell Sergeant-Major General of the Foot Lawrence Crawford The Train of Artillery LtGen Thomas Hammond Earl of Manchester (Col Algernon Sidney) 11 trps (c.700) LtGen Oliver Cromwell (LtCol E. Whalley) 14 trps (c.800) Col Bartholomew Vermuyden 5 trps (c.350) Col Charles Fleetwood 6 trps (c.400) Earl of Manchester (LtCol Clifton) 18 coys (c.1,500) MajGen L. Crawford (LtCol W. Hamilton) 8 coys...

The Campaign

Sir Henry Slingsby, who lived near Marston Moor and commanded one of the two Foot regiments that survived from the original garrison of York, wrote of the arrival of the Marquis of Newcastle's army in the city on 14 April 1644 'His excellence his coming was diversely receiv'd we in York were glad that we had ye assistance of his army, ye foot to be put into ye Citty for ye defence of it, ye horse to march to ye Prince to enable him the better to relieve us.' The 'Prince' was Prince Rupert and...

Royalist Commanders

Prince Rupert of the Rhine (1619-1682), son of Frederick, Elector Palatine, and King Charles's sister Elizabeth, spent his childhood in Holland. His father had lost his hereditary estates after he was deposed as elected King of Bohemia following the battle of the White Mountain (1620) early in the Thirty Years War. At the age of 14 Rupert joined the Dutch army at the siege of Rheinberg in 1633. He fought at the siege of Breda in 1637 and was captured fighting under Swedish command at Lemgo in...

Cromwell

The second line of the Royalist right wing Horse moves up in support of the first line. 7. The Scots Horse, under MajGen David Leslie, manoeuvre to attack the flanks of the Royalist cavalry. 4. Colonel Vermuyden leads the second line of Cromwell's left wing Horse forward to support his commander. 2 July 1644, viewed from the south-west. Early e Mjjic. Sir Thomas Fairfax's Allied right wing Horse are disorganised by rough ground and crushed by Goring s Royalist Horse. Early success by the Allied...

Info

Evidence for the presence of the Royalist guns comes from Lumsden in the letter written on 5 July that bore his sketch of the dispositions. He comments on the arrival of Rupert's army and on the start of the battle 'We finding him so near and no possibility to have up our foot in two hours, keept the advantage of ane sleeke and the hills with our horss till the foot as they came up were put in order. In the meantyme we advanced our cannon and entred to play on them on the left wing, which maid...

Thomas Fairfax Personal Standard

Rupert's pet poodle 'Boy' was a favourite target for the propagandists from early in the war. Here Toby's good Parliamentarian dog Pepper confronts a Royalist Poodle intended to be Boy. The King's strategy for 1644 was that the Oxford army should stand on the defensive to await Rupert's return from the relief ofYork. However in early June the King marched out of the city with a fast-moving force of some 5,000 Horse and 2,500 musketeers, aiming to lead the Parliamentarians away from Oxford and...

Fighting Tactics

To understand the course of the battle of Marston Moor it is necessary to review tactical changes that had occurred during the first years of the Civil War. The most notable influence on Royalist tactical thinking was Prince Rupert, who combined high social standing with a keen interest in military science. Rupert was given a free hand in the matter of cavalry tactics as the King appointed him commander of the Horse of the Royal Army. His orders to his men were from the start a reflection of...

The Allied Army Of The Scots And Parliament

Note The Allied dispositions are based upon de Gomme's map and the interpretation of Lumsden's sketch and Watson's report. The orange 'dots' to the right of the Allied Horse units represent units of 50 commanded musketeers attached to each division. The left wing Horse - Lieutenant-General Oliver Cromwell 1 Lieutenant-Colonel John Lilburne's Dragoons, Lieutenant-Colonel Hugh Fraser's Dragoons 2 First line commanded by LtGen Oliver Cromwell 3 Second line commanded by Colonel Bartholomew...

The Battle Of Marston Moor

2 July 1644, viewed from the south-west. Late evening. Goring's victorious Royalist Horse returns to the battlefield to find Cromwell's Horse ready to charge. Cromwell sweeps all before him and turns to attack the unsupported Royalist Foot. The battle ends with the Allied forces disorganised and exhausted, but the Royalist Army has been driven from the field and destroyed as an effective fighting force. A Regimental colour, typical of those carried by the Scots Army, in this case a blue field...

Deployment

In addition to the information contained in the contemporary accounts of Marston Moor, two maps giving details of the deployment have survived. One is amongst the collection of civil war battle plans drawn by Bernard de Gomme, who accompanied the Royal armies during their campaigns. It is not known when the maps were drawn and it is possible that they were based upon headquarters plans like that of Marston Moor that Prince Rupert showed to General King. The de Gomme map of Marston Moor shows...