The Second Civil War 1648

Perhaps the most succinct account of the Second Civil War or perhaps of any war) was that given by Sir Winston Churchill 'The story of the Second Civil War is short and simple. King, Lords and Commons, landlords and merchants, the City and the countryside, bishops and presbyters, the Scottish army, the Welsh people.and the Knglish Fleet,all now turned against the New Model Army. The Army beat the lot'.' 1'he first indication of severe disturbance occurred on 9 April when u mob of apprentices in...

Glossary

Some of the military terminology of the mid-seventeenth century is sufficiently obscure to be virtually unintelligible even with a modern dictionary. The following elucidates some of the terms which may be encountered in works of the Civil War period Ancient corruption of'ensign', junior officer e.g. Tis one lago, ancient to the general' (Othello, II, tj Boutezselle trumpet call for'boots and saddle'(French' Brigadeer corporal of horse (orig. French) Bringer up officer or N.C.O. at the rear of...

Notes

I Scctiroc. vol l.p j67 i Ou o, p. 14 4 Wcnham, P TktGrml aoJCIoif Siect of V'nr*. 1644 Kmelon. 1970 p. 7< . 6 New Modd Army Contract tkxiki, 10 April 164 < .JeurHjil oj ihi.irim jnd Armour Sttitty vi (lyftk) mi 7 lbiJ p. 113 (j April 1645) K tbid . p 114 (J April 164 Nevertheless, the condition of some regiments, particularly Royalist ones, was wretched. In the early stages Clarendon records that even after the appropriation of private armouries (usually 'very mean'**), borrowing from...

November 1644

Royahst Garrisons in Parliamentary areas 1 Carliste 2 Bolton Castle 3 Scarborough 4 Greenhalgh Castle S Knaresborough 6 Latham House 7 Pomelract 8 Sandal Castle 9 Beeston Castle 10 Newark 11 Be I voir Castle 12 Lichfield 13 Ashby de la Zouch 14 Crowland Parliamentary Garrisons in Royalist areas 15 Montgomery 16 Abingdon 17 Taunton 18 Lyme Regis 19 Plymouth Shaded portion represents territory in Royalist hands in November 7644 Carrickfergus area. In the summer of 1642 a number of Irish mercenary...

The Third Civil War 164951

Royalist Artillery England

Charles II, had three possible courses open to him he could attempt to regain his throne with foreign assistance, by an invasinn from Ireland, or from Scotland. lhe first was never feasible the declining influence and later death of his brother-in-law. William II, Stadholdcr of the United Netherlands, neutralized his most likely ally, and whilst lending moral support France was preoccupied by her own troubles. Spain, fearing the naval strength of the English, was the first to...

Appendix Medals

As different from the many commemorative medals and medallions concerning Civil War personages, medals for valour or military service were not prolific. In the Royal army there existed a silver 'Forlorn Hope' medal, instigated apparently by Thomas Rushell. Warden of the Mint, who was commended for his invention, 'for our better knowinge and rewarding the Forlorne Hope with Badges of Silver at your own charge when the soldiers were ready to run away. These medals were described in a Royal...

Plate

London (rained bands (Parliamentary) Showing the pile wavy descending from the St George canton Top right Scottish colour ot an unidentified regiment, taken at Dunbar Illustrates interesting features including the use of the St Andrew's saltane in other colouring than Ihe national white-on-blue, the Covenant mono (spellings varied1) and the use of both heraldic marks of cadency in this case a golden martlet) and company numeral, indicating the ownership of...

The Road to Civil

Battle Edgehill Banners

On 22 August 642 the royal standard of King Charles I was raised in Nottingham, formally beginning the first civil war in England since the crown of Richard III was recovered from under a bush ai Bos worth Field 157 years before. Bui the war opened by the raising of the standard, which was to cause fundamental changes in English life, might reasonably he said to have begun in earnest in the midsummer of 1642. when the governor of Hull at first refused his sovereign admission and. in July,...

Info

The mortar 'Roaring Meg' Hereford City Museums photograph by Jonathan Cooler Nomenclature varied for alternative statistics see The Com pica i Gunner London, 672 reprinted Wakefield, 1971 p. 40. The 'team' quoted above refers to the number of horses or men required to drag the piece. Missiles were principally iron or even stone balls, though case shot could be used at close range the rate of fire was slow eight shots per hour from a cannon. 10 from a demi-cannon. 12 from asaker, etc.,1, and...

Standards

Standards of horse were much smaller an extant pair preserved at Bromsberrow Church are only two feet o.fi metres square. The standards of regimented troops usually had some related design or colouring, but the earlier independent troops carried standards with the widest possible array of designs, based upon I he arms of the captain, or political, religious or even risque symbols and cartoons unlike foot colours, most were fringed. Many examples are recorded, though a number of the known...

Other Flags

In addition to unit colours and standards, senior officers possessed personal standards often different from those borne by their own trc op. The King's royal standard or Banner Royal , so nearly captured at Edgehill, bore the full Royal Arms first and fourth quarters, quartered arms of England and France, second quarter Scotland, third Irelandj. the Scottish version having the Scottish lion in the first and fourth quarters and quartered England and France in the second and at Edgehill, the...

Powered By Article Dashboard Tactical Weapons Lights

Pikeman Uniform

Organizatintli weaponry and tactics of the Civil Wars were interrelated, and although numerous specific examples are quoted below it should he noted that the following general statements were not universally true and that exceptions existed. Each of the 'arms' of an army will be covered in order. beginning with the foot or infantry. Although hand-to-hand combat was still a feature of seventeenth-century warfare, the 'missile' element of infantry lighting was increasing steadily, the longbow...

The English Civil War 16421651

Philip J Haythornthwaite Colour illustrations by Jeffrey Burn O Lord Thou knowest hotc busy I musi be this day. If forget thee, do not Thou forget me PRAYER OF SIR JACOB ASTLEY, EDGEHILL First published in the UK 1983 by Blandford Press All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the copyright...

Gentleman in everyday dress 1640s

3 Musketeer 1640s 19 Plate 2 5 Sir Edward Walker, Secretary-at-War 6 Charles, Prince of Wales 23 Plate 3 7 Oliver Cromwell, Lieutenant-General of Horse 8 General officer, Parliamentary staff 26 Plate 4 9 Cuirassier in 'lobster-tailed helmet 10 Cuirassier in close helmet 27 Plate 5 12 Trooper, King's Lifeguard 642 31 Plate 6 14 Trooper, Popham's Horse 35 Plate 7 15 Edward Massey, officer. Parliamentary horse 16 Nathaniel Fiennes, officcr. Parliamentary horse 17 Officer, Parliamentary horse 38...

Powered By Article Dashboard Confederate Military Ranks

Marston Moor 2nd July 1644 Battle Layout

And from other pimof thit Kingdom, from MowUf the IVof JuH7,tlU JduKtij iMii.al n7, iw 11,1. Col kit J ft tin bititAloaof fecli Mdtftrrtobttiul ' trtfcrjyJ, Pasted fot Trmti, Cd i mi Lmm. lUtfhrk - And ir, tot. l j I tWkr Shof in tbt OU t lj, ud it I nyii- . A Perfect Diurnall of some Passages in Parliament, issue 26 King's mind, but later instructions that Rupert was to join him if the city could not be relieved point towards a view that Charles did not intend Rupert to fight at all costs....

The First Civil War 1645

Civil War Fortifications Design Photos

Parliament capitalized not at all upon the second battle of Newbury they called upon the governor of Don-nington Castle, Sir John Boys, to surrender, or they threatened not to leave one stone upon another. Boys replied that he was not responsible for the upkeep of the castle, but if they did pull it down he would still defend the ground on which it stood. The Parliamentary attack npon it failed and they retired, choosing not to pursue the King. Charles I reorganized his army, replacing old...

Putes

Recommended one between two men were used for wood cutting to prevent damaging the swords. Explosive hand grenades 1 recommended by Monck for use on the flanks of each pike division, 'a great advantage, if they were boldly and well thrown'60 saw limited use and were employed mostly for clearing buildings as at Bristol in 1643 when West bury Church was taken by grenading out the defenders. The use of the term 'granadoes' in the Civil War era was also applied to mortar bombs. 1 'Ihe traditional...

Powered By Article Dashboard Civil War Weapons

Cuirassier Armour

I Edward tX'jl ingham, from Brttunnu-jf Virtmu tmm .Oxford, 1644 quoted in Young, P.dgthH, p. 196 1 Atkvro. K. Tht I 'mJiattum ef Richird Atkvnt t 16A91 tee Aikvm. K amp Uw-ylt. J Tht Enthih CnnJ War ol Young. P. amp Tutker, N. London. l9A7 p.9 J Cnao, p JI 4 A Brit TriMUf ttj IT'jr in iktymref aw rtJtmpni gt n 1649, MSS by 5 Quota Younji. LStthtl . p 29 6 Quoted Adair. J CkrtiLm. 1644 j Kineton, 1973 p. 141 s See Milne, S.M Sun.UrJi jw Colvvri of ihr Army i66t-t Xi be misleading. For example,...

Artillery

'Artillery' in the seventeenth century did not have the same meaning as it docs today, but described any missile weapon, as in I Samuel nx, 40 'And Jonathan gave his artillery unto his lad . thus Bariffe's Military Discipline, or the Yong Artilleryman 11635 is concerned only with the musket and pike, and Niccols' London Artillery 1616 is so termed because 'the French word Fieldpiece upon split-trail field carriage Fieldpiece upon split-trail field carriage Comparative sizes of cannon-barrel...

Uniforms

Uniforms The Battle Naseby

One of the most deeply rooted misconceptions concerning the Civil War is that military uniforms did not exist until the creation of the New Model Army, and that they were the first to wear the traditional British red coat. In actual fact, it had long been the custom for companies or regiments to be clothed in a uniform manner, though as colouring was at the discretion of the commander or proprietor there was little standardization. As early as 1539 the London militia wore uniform white coats in...

The Armies

Royalist Pikemen Blue Hat

Before the events of the Civil Wars can be considered, it is important to cover some details of how both sides were able to assemble the necessary mat riel to conducts war men, equipment and finance. The support for each faction, however, was by no means as clear cut as is often presumed. Peers supported both King and Parliament, though the nobility in general naturally sympathized with the King, hut the gentry' were divided evenly, to such an extent that the 'civil' war might be regarded as...

The First Civil War 16423

Civil War Fortifications

The King's standard was raised on 22 August 1642, but Charles I had lost his first battle three and four months before, when Sir John Hotham with Parliamentary' and naval support had denied him aceess to the munitions at Hull, withstanding a Royal attempt to take them by force. Loss of armaments, there and at London, and of the navy's support, cost the King and the Royalist faction dearly. Nevertheless, the embryo Royal army received a significant reinforcement in early August when Princes...

Plate 17

Comniunicatinf ilie Intelligence and affaires of t ie Court, to the reft of the Kinudusu. The f rtie ftxtk yyetKe, tndnt Novcmb. 19. E hivethiidiy covered the w y .tilth the, ftBitm intend fot lleft'tmiuon ot theT nit-fiat Xthru , not to oppofttianto the Br, , fit Mi Jtf.itn, for they ptotftfeto be the 1 atroer.and love the litter gt 11 btiido the run 1 . tut in 1 litre com pi J J net 0 LAtthmtt hira-telte t in prefettition whereol.thc Eirie ol StamM fScfoce he beftowed E'tttr on Priiire M u ie...

Between the First and Second Civil Wars 16467

Sprigge Plan Naseby

The campaigning season of 1646 opened with the Royalists in a totally hopeless position. In the west, the Prince of Wales appointed the faithful Hopton commander-inchief, hut it was only to negotiate a surrender as the New Model rolled onward, storming Dartmouth on tX January' Fairfax sent home the Cornish garrison with 2s, each, attempting to win the favour of the Cornish people. Hopton was beaten at Torrington on 16 February and, his ammunition destroyed in an explosion, surrendered to...