Jtie Horse

As a general rule regiments of horse were 500 strong and were organized in six troops, each some 70 strong. In practice, however, strengths varied considerably, especially in the Royalist armies, and this was the case from the very outset. The raising of horse presented peculiar difficulties. It was not easy to find officers who had both tactical skill and a knowledge of animal management. In some parts of the country it was not possible to obtain large numbers of horses. The

Denzil Meyrick Wales

Charles Gerard, first Baron Gerard of Brandon and Earl of Macclesfield (d. 1694). Gerard was a captain in the Dutch service and then in the Scots War. He commanded a tertia of foot, in which his regiment of bluecoats served, at the battle of Edgehill. lie was a gallant soldier and was wounded several times, besides distinguishing himself at First Newbury, Newark and elsewhere. He was a firm friend of Prince Rupert who got him the command in South Wales, where he proved very unpopular with the local gentry. Gerard was with Turenne at the siege of Arras in 1654, and commanded Charles II's Lifeguard of Horse in 1660. In later years he supported Monmouth, though he did not take part in his rebellion. He lived to command William Ill's bodyguard in 1688. His portrait by Dobson is in the Dunedin Public Art Gallery in New Zealand

Cornish Army, which Hopton led at Stratton and Lansdown, was seriously short of cavalry until it joined hands with the Marquis of Hertford and Prince Maurice at Chard on 4 June 1643.

field-

iiorse dragoons foot pieces

Hopton 500 300 3,000 4-5

Hertford and

2,000 300 4,000 14-16

At the rendezvous at Aldbournc on 10 April 1644 four of the Royalist regiments were 300 strong and had each, seven or eight troops. These powerful units were the regiments of the Earl of Forth, Prince Maurice, Lord Percy and Colonel

Thomas Howard. At the other end of tlie scale there were Colonels Sir Allen Apsley and George Gunter, who had only one troop apiece; and Sir George Vaughan who had eighty men organized in two troops.

At a muster of the Parliamentarian Army at Tiverton in the summer of 1644, under the Earl of Essex, there were seven regiments present. They, too, varied very much in size and composition.

colonel

troops

officers

men

Sir Philip Stapleton

8

86

639

Sir William Balfour

6

62

432

Hans Behre

5

54

371

John Dalbier

4

43

267

James Sheffield

6

61

414

Sir Robert Pye

3

32

208

Edmond Harvey

6

72

389

38

410

2,720

I11 addition there was Captain Abcrcromby's company of dragoons, consisting of nine officers and sixty-five dragoons. At first sight the large number of officers may seem surprising, but 111 those days non-commissioncd officers and even trumpeters were included under that head.

The composition of the normal troop was:

Field officer or captain 1

Captain-lieutenant or lieutenant 1

Cornet 1

Quartermaster 1

Corporals 3

Trumpeters 2

Saddler 1

Farrier 1

Troopers 60

In the Royalist armies regiments usually had three field officers: colonel, lieutenant-colonel and major. In the Parliamentarian armies only exceptionally strong regiments, such as Cromwell's famous unit, which was twice the usual size, had lieutenant-colonels. The quartermasters were commissioned officers. I have never come across any individual Royalist soldier with the appointment of farrier or saddler, but they cannot very

Royalist Parliamentarians

'The Poulett Family Return from the Wars.' This charming if somewhat primitive picture is especially revealing about the horses. These heavy, handsome beasts were exactly what the cavalryman of those days wanted for a charger. Note, too, the elaborately built-up saddles.

The older Cavalier in this group is John, first Baron Poulett (1586-1649) of Hinton St George, Somerset, who was raised to the peerage in 1627. He served in the West Country, as did his sons Sir John (1615-65), the second baron, and Amias

'The Poulett Family Return from the Wars.' This charming if somewhat primitive picture is especially revealing about the horses. These heavy, handsome beasts were exactly what the cavalryman of those days wanted for a charger. Note, too, the elaborately built-up saddles.

The older Cavalier in this group is John, first Baron Poulett (1586-1649) of Hinton St George, Somerset, who was raised to the peerage in 1627. He served in the West Country, as did his sons Sir John (1615-65), the second baron, and Amias well have done without them. In the organization of Essex's 1642 Army they are specifically mentioned.

FORMATIONS

The cavalry of the Civil Wars seem to have used rather deeper or heavier formations than those of more modern times. Bulstrode tells us that at Edgehill the Royalist horse were three deep, while the Parliamentarians occasionally, as at Newark (21 March 1644), doubled their files and charged six deep. The picture that Cruso gives (Plate G) cannot, therefore, have been very far from the reality, though Rupert and Cromwell relied on the sword rather than the pistol. The latter, describing the action at Grantham, speaks of advancing at 'a pretty round trot'.

Rupert one imagines favoured a faster pace, and the Earl of Northampton's first attack at Hopton Heath (19 March 164.3) was described by a Roundhead eyewitness as 'a very fierce charge, French-like', an interesting comment, for Conde's great victory at Rocroi was fought that very year and the French owed a great deal of their success to the dash of their cavalry. At Powick Bridge (23 September 1642) Sir Lewis Dyve's troop, which was in Rupert's Regiment, received the Roundhead charge at the halt, firing a volley of carbine and pistol shot. They were roughly handled and when, a month later, they fought at Edgehill they received specific orders to 'march as close as was possible, keeping their Ranks with Sword in Hand, to receive the Enemy's shot, without firing either Carbin or Pistol, till we broke in amongst the Enemy, and then to make use of our Fire-Arms as need should require; which Order was punctually observed' -Sir Richard Bulstrode.

'Discipline

Sir Lewis Dyve Regiment

The Cavalier, Sir Philip Warwick, records the conversation of a sober friend of his with an acquaintance serving under Sir Thomas Fairfax. The Roundhead boasted of the sanctity of their army and the negligence of the Cavaliers. 'Faith,' retorted the Royalist, 'thou sayest true; for in our army we have the Sins of men (drinking and wenching) but in yours you have those of devils, spiritual pride and rebellion'.

At the beginning of the war they had a good many other sins as well. In 1642 Essex and his senior officers were hampered in their attempts to impose discipline. For one thing many of them were 'pluralists' and could not be in two places at once. Many of the colonels of foot were members of one of the Houses of Parliament and also commanders of troops of horse. But a more serious factor working against good order was the feeling pervading the Roundhead Army that, high or low, they were all rebels together.

An intelligent Londoner, a sergeant in Denzil Holles's Regiment, wrote letters to his master, which paint a lurid picture of the army's discipline, while Brian Twyne has recorded some of their disorders at Oxford. We find instances of kirk-rapine, poaching deer, murderous and drunken brawling on a large scale, mutiny; plundering of fellow soldiers as well as papists and malignants. It was recorded that many soldiers flung away their arms and deserted.

In September Hampden and five other colonels complained that their soldiers plundered everywhere, 'The truth is unless we were able to execute some exemplary punishment upon the principle malefactors, we have no hope to redress this horrid enormity.' They were rightly afraid that, 'if this go on awhile, the army will grow as odious to the country as the Cavaliers'. Lord Brooke and Lord Saye and Sele both made some attempt to assert discipline, the latter even sending some mutineers to prison. But it was not until 9 November that Parliament eventually laid down The Laws and Ordinances of War established for the better conduct of the Army.

It is an odd fact that, except for the mutineers imprisoned by Lord Saye and Sele at Oxford, the only instance of punishment in Essex's Army that Sergeant Wharton records was when, on 27 August, some soldiers at Coventry took the law into their own hands and ill-treated a whore, who had followed them from London. She 'was taken by the soldiers, and first led about the city, then set in the pillory, after in the cage, then duckt in a river, and at the last banisht the City'.

Pillaging and desertion were not readily checked by The Laws and Ordinances, partly because the soldiers had too long been allowed to do as they pleased. Cromwell, though he had a taste for iconoclasm as he showed at Peterborough Cathedral (22 April 1643), drew the line at pillage and marauding. As early as May 1643 Speciall Passages records that, 'no man swears but he pays his twelve pence; if he be drunk he is set in the stocks, or worse, if one calls the other "Roundhead" he is cashiered; insomuch that the countries where they come leap for joy of them, and come in and join with them. How happy were it if all the forces were thus disciplined.' But, of course, they were not. As late as Adwalton Moor (29 June 1643) Sir Thomas Fairfax tells us that the Northern Forces did not yet have martial law among them, and it was left to Almighty Providence to punish four malefactors who were plundering the corpse of the Royalist Colonel George Heron. Fairfax records with satisfaction their death from a cannon-shot. As early as April 1643 Cromwell had two deserters whipped in the market-place at Huntingdon and 'tu' ned off as renegadoes'.

, BEUCK

pRonrEswmuH LEGES ANGLIC

LIBEPTA7ES [BWtAMEX

A standard of the Civil Wars, from a sketch by W. Y. Carman, said to have belonged to a Royalist called Colonel Rice Yate. There does not appear to have been a colonel of that name - perhaps his descendants promoted him. Nor does the motto look like a Royalist one. Perhaps, indeed, the standard was a trophy rather than that belonging to a troop of Cavaliers

Two Parliamentarian cavalry standards. These are taken from a book of colours preserved in the National Army Museum. Captain Robert Manwaring evidently lost his cornet in the charges by which Charles Gerard's brigade of horse swept the Roundhead right from the field at the first battle of Newbury, and had another cornet made. According to the law of arms he should have done so only if one of his troop had taken a standard from the enemy in the meanwhile

Sir William Waller was another Parliamentarian who strove to enforce discipline. Some court-martial papers have survived which date back to 1644. Mutiny and mass desertion seriously reduced his army after his defeat at Cropredy Bridge (29 June), and it is of great interest to see what his disciplinary troubles were, and what was done about them. A 'Councell of Warr' at Phemham (Farnham ?) on 22 April ordered that 'the (Provost) Marshall Generall', whenever he found a private soldier drunk, 'shall have power to inflict the punishment of puttinge on a paire of handcuffs, and with a chaine to drawe the party up untill hee stand on tipptoe with a kan or jugg about his necke neere the maine Guard, and there to stand according to discrecon'. As a punishment it sounds rather more severe than that of the stocks, which Cromwell had employed for the same offence the previous year. This punishment was also given to Phillip Warnington who had abused and cut a fellow soldier (17 July); in addition he was cashiered.

Earl Essex 1642

Robert Devereux, third Earl of Essex (1591-1646) commanded the main Parliamentarian Army from 1642 to 1644. He had served as a colonel in the Dutch Army and had been vice-admiral in the Cadiz expedition of 1625. He was no great strategist or disciplinarian, nor was he particularly energetic. But he was a man of courage. His chief exploit was his relief of Gloucester in September 1643

Robert Devereux, third Earl of Essex (1591-1646) commanded the main Parliamentarian Army from 1642 to 1644. He had served as a colonel in the Dutch Army and had been vice-admiral in the Cadiz expedition of 1625. He was no great strategist or disciplinarian, nor was he particularly energetic. But he was a man of courage. His chief exploit was his relief of Gloucester in September 1643

The same court ordered that one John Boreman for 'Running away from his Cullors severall tymes', was 'to be hang'd by the neck untill hee be dead'. This seems to have been the ordinary punishment for desertion, though the court was sometimes more merciful; as in the case of two men who confessed to robbing a tailor at Woodstock of a doublet and a pattern for a pair of breeches who were ordered to iye neck and Heels together one whole day and be fead with no other food then bread and water, and then set at Liberty'. The same court ordered that Henry Stone who had confessed to 'plundering a shirt, an apron and some other triviall things, shall have the Gatlopp once through the whole Regiment and be ignominiously discharged the Army'. The Gantelope or 'running the gauntlet' was common in the Swedish and German armies. The men formed a lane facing inwards and the prisoner passed down it, his speed checked by a sergeant with his halbert. Each man was allowed one blow at the criminal with a switch or with his ramrod.

A Major Willett was cashiered (11 October 1644) for presenting a false muster, that is, attempting to draw pay for men who did not exist. On 1 7 October Corporal Read was cashiered for robbery, with the added indignity that his sword was to be broken over his head.

The Roundhead committee which ran the garrison of Stafford (1643-45) to°k it upon itself to impose a high standard of discipline. On 11 December 1643 it was ordered that Lieutenant Yong should 'forthwith be casheered out of the Towne' for being drunk, neglecting his guard, letting down the drawbridge at the 'Geolegate' at 10 o'clock at night and going to the further end of the foregate. He was to stand in the marketplace 'with a paper in his hat upon the market-day wherein shall be wrote his offence'. '18 March, 1644

'Ordered that the Gunner which did committ fornication shall bee set uppon the greate gun with a marke uppon his backe through the Garrison and then disgracefully expulsed. '27 March 1644

'Lieutenant Dutton for plundering and for terrorizing the inhabitants of the county was to "be committed to prison and by the next conveniency sent to the Parliament to receive punishment according to theyr ordinance in the case".'

It would be idle to pretend that the Royalist armies did not suffer in like manner from disciplinary troubles. Plundering and desertion seem to have been the crimes most prevalent, and, since the King was unable to keep his men constantly paid, it is not surprising that they either tried to subsist by marauding, or just went home. It would be unwise indeed to assert that the Cavaliers were better disciplined than the Roundheads, though in 1642 - while the pay lasted - it may be true, at least of the infantry. The truth, is that both sides had such severe administrative difficulties that neither army was blameless, and so the unfortunate country people who had to find them quarters suffered the consequences.

In the autumn of 1642, at the outset of the war, according to Clarendon who was not one to praise

Queens Sconce

The Queen's Sconce at Newark. This work was built to cover the bridge where the Fosse Way crosses the River Devon. It stands on a slightly elevated spur of gravel and has a good view of the flat meadows north and west of the town. It covers a little more than three acres, and is surrounded by a ditch up to 70 feet wide, and 12 to 15 feet deep. The fort was almost certainly surrounded by a palisade. This may have been in the bottom of the ditch where it could not be hit by cannon-balls. In 1957 Newark Corporation cleared the fort of a dense jungle of bushes and brambles, so that it is now possible to see its original outline. (Courtesy of the Royal Commission on Historial Monuments (England), Crown Copyright)

The Queen's Sconce at Newark. This work was built to cover the bridge where the Fosse Way crosses the River Devon. It stands on a slightly elevated spur of gravel and has a good view of the flat meadows north and west of the town. It covers a little more than three acres, and is surrounded by a ditch up to 70 feet wide, and 12 to 15 feet deep. The fort was almost certainly surrounded by a palisade. This may have been in the bottom of the ditch where it could not be hit by cannon-balls. In 1957 Newark Corporation cleared the fort of a dense jungle of bushes and brambles, so that it is now possible to see its original outline. (Courtesy of the Royal Commission on Historial Monuments (England), Crown Copyright)

military men, the Royalist army 'either by the care ancl diligence of the officers, or by the good inclinations and temper of the soldiers themselves' was 'in so good order and discipline, that, during the King's stay at Shrewsbury, there was not a disorder of name, the country being kind to the soldiers, and the soldiers just and regardful to the country'. Free loans and contributions from the gentry and substantial inhabitants, and the noblemen with the army, guaranteed the pay of the men so that they had no cause lor discontent.

Mrs Hutchinson speaks of Sir Lewis Dyve's troop at Nottingham as 'plundering all the honest men of their arms', but to disarm rebels can scarcely be so stigmatized. At Birmingham, a very hostile place, the King actually had two men executed for stealing from the house of a Roundhead soldier.

Certainly, without question, Royalist troopers occupicd themselves with plundering Essex's baggage-train in Kineton during the battle of Edgehill - though one Roundhead captain accuses dragoons of his own side of this! As early as November 1642 Sir John Byron's men did a great deal of malicious damage at the house of the Roundhead, Bulstrode Whitclocke.

The manner of framing a Quadrangle Sknnfe.

-lis Foure-fquare Skonfe, is of greater ftrength than your Triangle, and if it be favoured with a ftrong Scituation, as great Rivers, or upon a Rocke, or where it may be Hankered from the Bulworks of a Fort, it will (land in great ftead ; otherwife it is not to be taken for a ftrength of any moment. The Bulworkes and Curtincs are to be made very high, thicke,and ftrong, that it may endure the battering of the Enemies Ordnance.

Animadversions Warre
A plan of a sconce, from an illustration in Robert Ward's Animadversions of Warre, 1639; a sconce was a detached fort with bastions. (Courtesy of the Royal Commission on Historical Monuments (England), Crown Copyright)
England Military Monumets

of Plate C, which is reconstructed in part from the trumpeters shown here

A Royalist troop on the march, from the monument of Sir Richard Astley, Bart., at Patshull. Further particulars of Astley and his troop will be found in the description

As the war went on the Royalists strove to uphold discipline with the gallows and the wooden horse. The lash was not very much used though a soldier who had ravished two women was tied to a tree, with his shoulders and chest naked, so Richard Symonds of the Lifeguard of Horse tells us, 'arid every carter of the trayne and carriages was to have a laslv. He tells us that this was a Spanish punishment.

It may be that the King was not sufficiently severe in his discipline. But at Wing on 28 August 1645 l,c did have a soldier hanged for stealing the communion plate. Nicholas writes to Rupert from Oxford (11 May 1643) 'Sir James Mills was lately shot by an officer upon a private quarrel; and the last night Lieutenant Cranefcild was wounded by one Captain Hastings upon the like occasion. There is here no punishment, and therefore nothing but disorder can be expected.'

Perhaps this very complaint led to a tightening of discipline. Certainly Colonel Sir Nicholas

Crispe, who killed Sir James Enyan in a duel which lie had not provoked, had to answer for it to a court martial. Colonel Richard Feilding lost his regiment - and very nearly his life - for surrendering Reading. Sir Richard Cave was court-martialled for surrendering Hereford, but was acquitted.

Colonel Henry Windebank was shot (3 May 1645) for surrendering Bletchingdon House to Cromwell, and Rupert himself was dismissed for the surrender of Bristol (10 September 1645); and, although he was eventually acquitted, he never fully recovered his position in his uncle's favour.

The Rupert Correspondence contains many letters in which Royalist commanders complain about plundering. This shows at least that the senior officers, with a few notable exceptions, intended to keep their men in order. In this some were more successful than others, and this may, of course, be said of both sides. If pay, or at least

Militarie Instructions For The

Cuirassiers and Harquebusiers, from John Cruso's Militarie Instructions for the Cavall'rie (1632).

Sir Arthur Hesilrige's 'Lobsters' were probably armed very much like the trooper with the pistol, though it is probable that during the Civil Wars cuirassiers wore the triple-barred lobster-tailed helmet rather than a close helmet.

The common type of cavalryman of 1642 was called a 'harquebusier', but by that time the harquebus seems to have disappeared. Back and breastplate, pot helmet and perhaps a left arm guard, seem to have been the armour generally in vogue; with a sword and a pair of pistols for armament. That some cavalrymen had fowling-pieces or carbines is certain, but they seem to have been the exception rather than the rule. Cruso's harquebusier seems to be wearing a kind of burgonet. It must be remembered that his book saw the light ten years before Edgehill, but the triple-barred helmet must have been the most common 'pot' among both Cavalier and Roundhead troopers, and there is evidence that morions of the sort worn in 1588 were to be seen in the Civil Wars. There is no reason why a helmet fifty-four years old should not be serviceable. Note the cruel bits and spurs that these troopers use; they rode with the brakes on and the choke out!

rations, cannot be assured, marauding is bound to follow and discipline can no longer be maintained. This is a truth as old as war itself.

CJfteCfoot

In theory a regiment was 1,300 strong and was organized in ten companies. The field officers, colonel, lieutenant-colonel and major had companies, which numbered 200, 160 and 140 respectively. Each of the seven captains had a company of 100 men. Very often the colonel was also a general officer or the governor of some fortress; frequently the lieutenant-colonel or even the major was the real commanding officer. In addition, one of the field officers was sometimes taken away to act as brigade-major of the formation in which the regiment was serving. The duties which in modern times are carried out by the adjutant and the R.S.M. were then performed by the major. I have found no adjutant in an English army before 1665, and no 'sergeant-major' in the modern sense of R.S.M., before about 1720. In 1642 the term 'sergeant-major' was still frequently used for the major, that is, the third senior officer of a regiment.

The staff of a regiment usually included a quartermaster, a chaplain, a provost-marshal (in the Parliamentarian Army), a surgeon and his mate, a carriage-master and a drum-major. In Royalist regiments one occasionally finds the wagoner or wagon-master signing for stores, instead of the quartermaster.

The organization of a normal company was:

Captain 1

Lieutenant 1

Ensign 1

Gentleman-of-the-arms 1

Sergeants 2

Corporals 3

Drummers 2

Soldiers 100

The colonel had a captain-lieutenant instead of a lieutenant. This officer does not seem to have been paid extra for commanding the colonel's company, but at least he ranked above the other lieutenants and was next in line for a company, should there be a casualty. Each company had a colour which was carried by the ensign.

The gentleman-of-the-arms seems to have been a Royalist innovation. It was much more difficult for them to obtain arms than it was for the Parliamentarians, and therefore it behoved them to take good care of those they had, especially the firearms. This officer seems to have been a kind of company armourer sergeant.

Both pikemen and musketeers were to be found in each company, the theoretical proportion being one pikeman to every two musketeers. There is some evidence, however, that the Royalists at Edgehill had as many pikemen as musketeers, and from a tactical point of view that may have been an advantage.

Throughout the war regiments varied very much in numbers. In 1642 many were up to strength, but battle casualties, sickness and desertion soon took their toll. Neither did every regiment have its ten companies: on the Royalist side eight seems to have been a more usual number.

This table illustrates the wastage in the Royalist infantry. The figures for November 1642 are calculated from a pay warrant; those for April 1644 were taken from a muster of the garrison of Reading.

colonel Nov. 1642

John Belasyse 505

Sir William Pennyman 685

Richard Feilding 460

Richard Bolle 560

Sir Edward Fitton 460

Sir Edward Stradling 715

Sir Thomas Salusbury 910

colonel April 1644

Sir Theophilus Gilby 355

Sir James Pennyman 479

Sir Jacob Astlcy 217

George Lisle 270

Anthony Thelwall 196

John Stradling 351

Sir Charles Lloyd 409

It will be noticed that not one of these seven regiments still had its original colonel.

At Edgehill the Royalist foot, some 10,000 strong, was organized in five tertias or brigades. At Nascby, where the foot were certainly not more than 4,000 strong, there were only three brigades. At Edgehill four of the brigades each had three regiments, while one had five. By 1644 tertias had as many as nine weak regiments in them.

In 1642 the regiments of the King's main army came from many different parts of the kingdom. They included:

colonel/regiment Charles Gerard

Sir Ralph Dutton John Belasyse

Richard Feilding Sir Thomas Lunsford Richard Bolle Sir Edward Fitton Sir Edward Stradling

The King's Lifeguard

Lord General Sir John Beaumont Sir Gilbert Gerard Sir Thomas Salusbury

Lord Molyneux Earl of Northampton

Lancashire

Cheshire

North Wales

Gloucestershire

Yorkshire

Nottinghamshire

Partly from Herefordshire

Somerset

Staffordshire

Cheshire

South Wales, especially

Glamorgan Lincolnshire Derbyshire Cheshire Lincolnshire Staffordshire Lancashire

North Wales, especially

Denbighshire and Flint Lancashire North Oxfordshire Warwickshire reinforced by several Northern regiments in 1643. Two of these arrived in May with a convoy of ammunition, while several others reached Oxford with the Queen in July. On the whole, the Northern Royalists went into the army raised by the Earl of Newcastle - the army which was virtually destroyed at Marston Moor. The Cornish, who were as warlike as they were loyal, defended their territory with their trained bands, but as these would not go 'abroad', five 'voluntary' regiments were raised. These volunteers made the nucleus of Hopton's Western Army which, after his victory at Stratton, joined Prince Maurice in the Lansdown-Roundway Down campaign and paved the way for Prince Rupert's capture of Bristol; like Newcastle's Whitecoats, they were very good foot.

So far as one can tell the Earl of Essex's Army, which was the main Roundhead army, was recruited in London, the south Midlands and the Home Counties.

colonel

Earl of Essex Sir John Merrick

(1) Lord Saye and Sele

(2) Sir John Meldrum Lord Brooke

Denzil Holies, M.P. Thomas Ballard John Hampden, M.P.

county

Essex London

North Oxfordshire

Warwickshire London

Buckinghamshire Buckinghamshire

Sir Lewis Dyve and Thomas Blagge, who came from the Roundhead counties of Bedfordshire and Suffolk, were probably not able to raise many men in those parts. Dyve seems to have got at least two companies from Lincolnshire.

As time went by the King's main army drew many of its recruits from Wales, though it was

In the matter of wastage, Parliamentarian regiments fared worse than those of the King, and some did not survive even the first campaign. Lord Wharton's and Lord Mandcvillc's, which, among others, fled at Edgehill, were disbanded in the following month. Denzil Hollcs's Regiment fought bravely at Edgehill, but was cut to pieces at Brentford and did not survive the disaster. On 1 October 1642, Sir Henry Cholmlcy's 1,200-strong Regiment fled at Edgehill and was evidently punished for its pains, since only 552 men remained 011 23 November. Lord Brooke, who had about 1,000 men when he entered Oxford at the end of September, had but 480 in mid-November. Thomas Ballard mustered 808 officers and men on 17 October 1642 but only had 439, not counting officers, on 11 November. Some of his companies were very thin by that time.

Michael RoffeSir Charles Gerard

MICHAEL ROFFE

Michael Roffe ArtRoundhead Soldier

1 Pikoman, Lord Brooke's Regiment

2 Roundhead Commander

3 Musketeer

MICHAEL ROFFE

Lord Sir Charles Howard 1588Michael Roffe Sir Richard Byron Dragoons

Fourth captain

(Sir Edward Stradling:

Regiment)

Lieutenant-Colonel (Richard Bolle's Regiment)

Second captain

(Sir Lewis Dyve's Regiment)

Major

(Pennyman's Regiment)

First captain

(Charles Gerard's Regiment)

Major's guidon (Dragoon Regiment)

Captain

(King's Lifeguari

First captain (Lamplugh's Regiment)

Trumpet-banner (Parliamentarian)

MICHAEL ROFFE

Militarie Instructions For The Cavallrie

The Equipment of a Heavy Cavalryman, from John Cruso's Militarie Instructions for the Cavail'rie (1632). It is especially interesting to observe how very different the saddle is from the military saddle of modern times

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