J

H milk carton half gallon H scissors H stapler H duct tape H milk carton quart H 2 toilet paper tubes H 2 popsicle or craft sticks H cork 1. Cut the half gallon milk container in half lengthwise. Staple the spout together and tape over it if it isn't watertight your boat will sink. This will serve as the hull of your boat. Keep the rest of the carton to use for other pieces later. 2. You can use any color duct tape to cover up the graphics on the carton. 3. Take the quart milk carton and cut...

Projects

Nomad Press A division of Nomad Communications 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Copyright 2005 by Nomad Press All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form without permission in writing from the publisher, except by a reviewer who may quote brief passages in a review. The trademark Nomad Press and the Nomad Press logo are trademarks of Nomad Communications, Inc. Printed in the United States. ISBN 0977129446 Questions regarding the ordering of this book should be addressed to...

Signal Flags

N addition to communicating by telegraph, both armies in the Civil War communicated by signal flags in a system known as wig-wag. The signal system was del veloped in the 1850s by an Army doctor named Albert Myer, who created it based on his doctoral dissertation on sign language for deaf people. The system was designed so soldiers could communicate visual signals to each other over long distances up to a few miles away. Depending on where they were and the weather conditions, soldiers used one...

What to do

To make the key Take one of the pieces of wood and screw down one end of one of the 4-inch-long pieces of metal strapping. Screw another wood screw directly into the wood at the other end of the block so the bent strapping (as shown) will make a connection with the screw if you push down on it. This will be your telegraph key. The key should not touch the screw unless you push down on it. To make the battery holder Measure the length of the two batteries placed end to end, and mark the length...

Civil War Fashion

Although shortages of fabric and other dress goods during the Civil War meant that many women, especially those in the South, had to make changes in the way they dressed, fashions were still important in both the North and the South women just had to make modifications based on their circumstances. Fashions in the 1860s focused on accentuating a woman's waist, and most dresses featured a fitted bodice with wide, somewhat puffy sleeves to make their shoulders look broader and even wider hips...

Civil war facts trivia

H In the Union army, only officers were trusted with the signal code. They would call out the number combinations to Signal Corp sergeants, who would actually move the flag. Many sergeants learned the code through continued use. The Confederates, on the other hand, taught all of their Signal Corps personnel the code. H Signal flag stations were used primarily for two purposes as message centers, and as lookout posts. H Signal flags were used in three different sizes the smallest signal flags...

Flags Of The Civil

Flags often called colors played a very important role during the Civil War for many reasons. They were the symbols of Union sympathizers versus Confederate sympathizers and they demarcated different regiments and groups. They flew above forts, letting people know what group the fort belonged to, and they were carried during battle in order to keep an army together and to serve as a direction marker where the colors went, the soldiers went, too. Regimental flags, which were flags representing...

Leanto Shelter

Doldiers in both the Union and Confederate armies spent weeks (and sometimes months) in the field, marching from one location to the next. Unless they were lucky enough to camp near a town or a farm that had large buildings, the soldiers usually ended up sleeping outdoors. Not every soldier was able to carry a small tent as part of his supplies, and those who did often found their canvas tents in need of repair. In KNOWYOUR SLANG the Confederate snug as a bug army, in particu-very comfortable r...

Civilian Food

Before the start of the Civil War, most people in America had access to a variety of plentiful food. The food people ate in the 1850s and 1860s was different from what we eat today (no fast food, less variety), but a lot of the staple foods are similar. As soon as war broke out, however, food became scarce and expensive, especially for people in the South. In the South, people suffered intensely because of food know your slang shortages. From the beginning of the war, the Union placed blockades...

Glossary Civil War Slang

Abolitionist someone who believed that slavery should be abolished. artillery division of the army that handles large weapons. bombproof an underground shelter also an officer or soldier who never went to the front Bummer a loafer, a forager, or someone safe in the rear. Bummer's cap regulation fatigue or forage cap. California 100 a group of 100 men from California, originally from the East Coast, who joined a Massachusetts cavalry regiment but had their own uniform, flag, and equipment....

Bands And Music

Music played a large role in the lives of Civil War soldiers, both on and off the battlefield. Recruitment rallies always had a military band playing, which inspired many young men to join up, and most volunteer regiments joined up with a complete band of their own. The bands helped boost soldier morale during long marches, serenaded them in camp, and inspired them before, and sometimes during, battles. The most common kinds of instruments played in regimental and brigade bands during the war...

Acknowledgments

This book would not have been possible without the help, wisdom, and experience of many people. I would like to thank Duncan Trussell from the National Civil War Museum for his comments and ideas, especially for the battlefield sections Dr. James McPherson of Princeton University for his precise review of the manuscript and corrections and suggestions for improvement in several areas Dr. James Weeks at Civil War Times for his kind words of encouragement Don Wickman of the Woodstock, Vermont...

Ironclad Ships

When Virginia seceded from the Union in 1861, it took with it what would soon be one of the South's most valuable assets the Union's shipyard in Portsmouth, Virginia. One of the biggest weaknesses the Confederates had was their lack of a naval yard, since almost all of the shipyards were in the Union's northeastern states. The Portsmouth Shipyard was where much of the Union's fleet was repaired, and when Virginia left the Union, everything at the shipyard became the property of the Confederate...

Y

Hardtack, aslo known as sheet iron crackers. Hardtack, aslo known as sheet iron crackers. During the war, soldiers were given rations of food this means that they received a certain amount every week or month, and every soldier was given the same amount. Staple foods included a cracker-like biscuit called hardtack, dried or salted beef or pork, coffee, and dried vegetables and fruit. They also received flour or cornmeal as well as sugar, beans, tea, salt, soap, and potatoes. It was simple food,...

B

Put glue around the outside rim of the circle and lay the hat on the circle. Pull the ends of the circle around the hat so the glue has something to adhere to. If you're using sticky felt, you shouldn't have any problem making the circle stick to the sides of the hat felt. 8. Now you need to make the bill. Trace template B from page 134 onto a piece of cardboard. Glue a matching piece of felt to one side. Trace template C from page 134 onto another piece of felt and glue that to the other...

Info

When Confederate forces in Charleston, South Carolina, attacked Fort Sumter, which was under the control of Union forces. This flag flew at Fort Sumter when Union troops resided there early in 1861. There were 33 stars on this Union flag, representing the 33 states in the Union at that time as compared to the 50 states today . It was the fifteenth official flag of Fort Sumter flag. the United States. On April 11, 1861, Major Robert Anderson, the man in charge of the Union troops was told to...

Civil war facts triviat

H Coffee was both the scarcest and most valued drink during the Civil War, and many people came up with interesting coffee substitutes, including okra seed, rice, wheat, peanuts, beans, sweet potatoes, peas, and acorns. These would be dried and then soaked in hot water, creating a coffee-like drink. H Since cane sugar and molasses were produced primarily in the South, prior to and during the war Northerners substituted maple sugar as an act of protest against the South. H At the beginning of...

Lhc

Push the two branches with the Y at the ends into the ground. It will be easier if you find a part of your lawn that is fairly soft. Note Make sure you get permission from your parents to build the lean-to in the yard. You do not want to disrupt any part of the lawn that is beautifully landscaped 2. Now take one of the longer branches and place it across the Y sections. Even though it should be a snug fit, you should use some of the heavy cord or kite string to secure the branch into place...

Paddlewheelers And Hospital Ships

When Robert Fulton designed the first working steamboat in 1807, he probably didn't realize that his invention would lead to one of the most interesting innovations of the Civil War. Steamboats revolutionized river travel during the 1800s for the first time, people were able to travel up and down America's mighty waterways under motorized power, rather than relying on muscle or the wind. Steamboats became the fastest and most efficient way to transport people and goods up and down the United...

The wigwag code

Each letter of the wig-wag alphabet was represented by a certain position or movement of the flag. In wig-wag code, messages were spelled out according to a letter-number code. Each letter of the alphabet was represented by a combination of numbers, and the numbers corresponded to flag movement. A movement to the left of the center meant a 1, and a movement to the right of center meant a 2. The letter A, for example, was 11, which is two movements from the left to the center in a row. Dipping...

Cardboard Fort Sumter

Use the tape measure to take a rough measurement of your head. Felt usually comes in 8Z 2-by-11-inch sheets, and most kids can make a hat that will fit simply by cutting one sheet of felt lengthwise, down the middle. This will give you two 4Z4- by-11-inch pieces of felt. If your head is bigger than this, cut another piece of felt down the middle. You can use one of these extra strips to make the hat larger if you need it. 2. Cut four strips of cardboard approximately 8 inches long by 2...

Uniforms

Pictorial envelope depicting Union soldier joining the ranks. Pictorial envelope depicting Union soldier joining the ranks. Uniforms in the Civil War were as varied as the people who wore them. When the Civil War began in 1861, no one expected it to last for more than a few months. The Union army had only 16,000 standing soldiers, and the Confederates had no army at all at first. Both sides held recruiting drives to encourage men to join up. Because neither the North nor the South was prepared...

Civil War Quilts

Civil War Quilts

Although most women weren't fighting on the battlefield during the Civil War, women played a hugely important role supporting the troops and keeping things together back home. As the men left home to fight, women struggled to keep farms going and businesses surviving, and to feed and clothe their families. It was often very difficult, especially for women on small farms who relied on everyone in the family for help. When times were particularly tough and food especially scarce, communities in...

Periscopes

Robert Lee Appomattox Court House

One of the biggest innovations of the Civil War was a change in how war was waged. When the war began, everyone prepared to fight using the same methods that had been used in the past, from the Napoleonic wars and American Revolution to the War of 1812. Weapons in past wars had been so inaccurate and slow to reload that most of the fight- KNOW YOUR SLANG ing was very close. Armies marched toward each other in picket a guard or guard duty formation, then each set up two lines of fighters, the...

Civil War Dolls

Rag Dolls The 1800s

During the Civil War era, most American children played with dolls that were simple and homemade. By the mid-1800s dollmakers in Europe were famous for creating wooden, porcelain, and even wax dolls with very lifelike features, and these dolls were certainly available to some American children probably more to look at than to play with. Most children, though, played with dolls that were made by family members using supplies that were close at hand. Depending on where in the country they lived,...

Telegraph And Morse Code

Fort Sumter Telegraph

Any historians consider the Civil War the first modern war not only because of innovations in I weapons and battle tactics, but also because of advances in communication. In 1844, Samuel Morse, a young New York inventor and successful painter, perfected a way to send coded messages from one location to another using an electromagnetic current, creating the first reliable telegraph. Morse also invented a code using a series of dots and dashes what we now know as Morse code to send messages along...

Popular Music

Bones Minstrel Show

The most popular music in America during the Civil War was called minstrel music, which was based on two musical traditions African and Celtic Irish and Scottish . Minstrel music featured four main instruments banjos, fiddles, tambourines, and the bones literally, two pig or cow rib bones . Banjos were first brought to America by African slaves in the late seventeenth century, and their music became part of the culture of the South. Most of the white South was settled by Scottish and Irish...