Ammunition

Field Commander Alexander

There are four kinds of projectiles used in field service, wrote the authors of the standard U.S. Army artillery field manual, the solid shot, the canister, the shell, and the case shot. The projectile is attached to a block of wood called a sabot. For the guns and the 12-pdr. howitzer, the cartridge and the projectile are attached to the same sabot, making together a round of fixed ammunition A Union battery at Fort Sumner on the Chickahominy on June 27, 1662, with its 10-pdr. Parrott rifles....

Borman Fuse Cutter

Bormann Fuse

The Bormann fuse, a circular metal disk about an inch-and-a-hatf in diameter and a half-inch thick was most commonly used. It was tapped so it could be screwed into the shell, while the inside was iilled with a used by cannoneers for riding. George Lomas Collection circular train of powder. Its ace was marked with a set of parallel lines of differing lengths and numbers, each representing a different time. The gunner cut into the fuse at the proper point for the shell to explode at a given...

Index

Figures in bold refer to illustrations 3-in. Ordnance Rifles D, 8, 9, 33, 33-34, 34 6-pounder cannon D, 3, 4, 5, 5-6, 18 Arnes Ma n 11facto ri i ig Q gt ro pan v 1 6, 17 ammunition 12-14. 14 tabic . 15-16, 16, 34. 38, Antietam, battle of, 17th September 1862 5, 24 Barry, William F. ti-7 battery wagons E, 46, 46-47 Beauregard General Pierre Gustav Tou tant 1818-93 Il Bragg, General Braxton 1817-76 19 bronze 3-4 carriages D, 3, 4, 37. 38, 39. 39, 42. 45-46 Chancel I orsvi lie campaign, 1863 41...

The 3in Ordnance Rifle

Ordnance Rifle made in 1863, Gettysburg National Battlefield Park A 3-in. Ordnance Rifle made in 1863, Gettysburg National Battlefield Park A private citizen, John Griffen, superintendent of the Phoenix Iron Co., Phoenixville, Pennsylvania, developed a system of making artillery in the 1850s that proved highly successful. His foundry took strips of wrought iron some 3 4 of an inch wide and 4.5 inches I h irk and wrapped them by lathe around an iron core. In all, five layers were built...

Whitworth Rifle

Whitworth Long Range

The Whitworth breech loading 12-pdr., a British-made gun, was especially designed for long-range use. Tests in England showed that it had a range of 2,600 yards at 5 degrees elevation at 10 degrees, 4,500 yards at 20 degrees, 7,000 and at 35 degrees, an astonishing 10,000 yards. The Whitworth is most associated with the Confederacy, for most of these guns went south. A battery of six 2.75-in. Whitworths, complete with carriages, ammunition, and machinery for making more projectiles was donated...

The Mountain Howitzer

Mountain Howitzer

The mountain howitzer was a small, lightweight weapon designed to be broken down and carried by pack animals for use in rugged terrain. While it was not of much use in the east, where it would be subject to coumerbattery fire, it was popular in the west especially against Indians who did not have access to artillery. These weapons saw only limited use by Union Ibices, although ihe Confederates, especially in the west, employed quite a few of them. They were rarely used in the main actions of...

Organization Of The Us Army Field Artillery

Parrott Rifle Horse Drawn

At the start of the war it was felt that the effort to put down the rebellion would be a short one, requiring only three months' worth of service. Since training skilled artillerymen would take longer than that, initially only Regular Army artillery was to be recruited. The artillery of iho U.S. Army is by far its worst or most slipshod organization of any branch of the service, wrote professional artilleryman Maj, Thomas Osborn in IN gt 1. This arm has in ihe regular army always been...

Select Bibliography

Limbers And Caissons

Alexander, Edward Porter, Fighting for the Confederacy Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 1989 Andrews, R. Snowden, Andrews' Mounted Artillery Drill Charleston, South Carolina, 1863 Daniel, Larry ., Cannoneers in Gray University, Alabama, 1984 Daniel, I .arryj., and Rilev W. Ounter, Confederate Canon Foundries Union City, Tennessee, 1977 French, William Barry, William 11 tint, Henry, Instruction for Field Artillery New York, 1864 GorgasJ., The Ordnance Manual Richmond, Virginia, 1862 Osborn, Thomas,...

Fluvanna Artillery

Cannon Pounder Napoleon

Many batteries at the war's outset were armed with obsolete 6-pdr. cannon with iron tubes, such as this M1631 example. Ft. McHenry National Park j Li the 1860s, at the start of the American Civil War, American artillery , experts were in the midst of a major change of direction. In the early years of the 19th century, American artillery had an overwhelmingly English influence, which stemmed from the War of Independence nearly a century earlier. At that time, the British army used 3-, k 12-, and...

THE Ml 841 12Pdr Howitzer

Brass Mountain Pdr Howitzer

Muzzle of the first 3-inoh Ordnance Rifle over produced. This particular weapon was captured at Gettysburg. George Lomas Collection Muzzle of the first 3-inoh Ordnance Rifle over produced. This particular weapon was captured at Gettysburg. George Lomas Collection I he smoothbore howitzer was designed as a lightweight gun suitable for use with canister or shell at short ranges, or at a higher trajectory than regular guns ii was therefore able to hit targets in greater defilade than regular guns....

Equipment

Gettysburg Horse Drawn Carriages

According to the basic Federal artillery manual, each gun crew should have two sponges and rammers, two sponge covers, one worm and staff, two handspikes, one sponge bucket, one prolonge a long line used to pull a gun to the rear without horses , one tar bucket, two leather water buckets, two gunner's haversacks, two tube pouches, one fuze gouge, one fuze wrench, one vent punch, one gunner's pincers, one tow hook, one pendulum hausse essentially a gun's detachable rear sight , two thumbstalls,...

The 10 And 20pdr Parrott Rifle

Pounder Parrott Rifle Limber

A West Point graduate who had resigned his commission in 1836 to head a private foundry, Robert P. Parrott developed this simple, rugged, and effective weapon. Essentially his design was a long, cast-iron tube with a wrought-iron reinforcing wedge-shaped bar wrapped around the breech, and the joints pounded together until welded shut. In the process, the tube was rotated on rollers, a stream of water being shot inside to keep the tube cool, as the hot band was wrapped around it. Because the...

Wiard Field Artillery

The Gettysburg Field Guns

During the war, Norman Wiard, a Canadian by birth, held the job of Superintendent of Ordnance Stores for the U.S. Army. A talented inventor he also designed and produced special river landing boats for the U.S. government , by 1863 he had developed an entirely new system of field artillery. Wiard's guns used semi-steel, a low carbon cast iron in which some scrap steel was mixed with the pig iron of the charge. The result was a tensile strength of 110,000 lb, per square inch, allowing for...

Organization Of Confederate Field Artillery

Confederate Army Organization

On November 1, 1862, the Confederate Adjutant and inspector General's Office issued its General Orders, No. 81, which spelled oili the organization of the light artillery II, The following will be the organization of a company of light artillery, according to die number of guns composing the battery, viz. For a battery of six guns one captain, 2 first lieutenants, 2 second lieutenants, 1 sergeant-major or first sergeant, I quartermaster-sergeant, 6 sergeants, 12 corporals, 2 buglers or...

The Dahlgren Boat Howitzer

Howitzers Gettysburg

Detail of the elevating screw and wheel at the end of the carriage of the 12-pdr. Dalghren boat howitzer. George Loin as Cot lection Detail of the elevating screw and wheel at the end of the carriage of the 12-pdr. Dalghren boat howitzer. George Loin as Cot lection During the Mexican War, the navy took part in a number of landing expeditions, and learned that it needed field artillery of its own. Admiral John Dahlgren, a leading authority on naval artillery, designed a series of bo t howitzers...

American Civil War Artillery 186165 1

Civil War Artillery Csa

Philip Katcher Illustrated by Tony Bryan First published in Great Britain in 2001 by Osprey Publishing, Elms Court, Chapel Way, Botley, Oxford 0X2 9LP, United Kingdom, Email info ospreypublfshing,com 2001 Osprey Publishing Ltd. Reprinted 2002 AN rights reserved. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study, research, criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988H no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,...