Uniforms of Puppet Armies

Civil War Cooking Equipment Fire

Uniforms of the puppet armies were as diverse as the armies themselves, with a motley assortment of dress. Some troops that had come over from the Nationalist side wore their old uniforms with the old insignia removed. Others were issued with simple cotton uniforms and Japanese caps with new insignia added, while many were simply given surplus Japanese uniforms with the Japanese insignia taken off. The puppet regimes did not invent new insignia and flags for their armies on a large scale what...

Chinese Civil War Armies 191149

Philip Jowett Illustrated by Stephen Andrew First published in Great Britain in 1997 by Osprey Publishing, Midland House, West Way, Botley, Oxford 0X2 OPH, UK 443 Park Avenue South, New York, NY 10016, USA Email info ospreypublishing.com Dedicated to my Grandfather, Gunner J.S. Pounder, Died Pekanbaru POW camp, August 1945. 1997 Osprey Publishing Ltd. -Reprinted 1999, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005 All rights reserved. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study, research, criticism or...

The Nationalist Army

Chinese Republican Army

The Nationalist Army of China began life as the army of the Kuomintang political party founded by Sun Yat-sen. Sun realised that the Warlords would not relinquish power peacefully and that the only 19 THE CHINESE REPUBLICAN ARMY Chung-kuo Lu-chiin 1912-1929 1-3 Shoulder bars with three gold stripes, piped gold, 3-1 gold stars. 4-6 Shoulder-bars with two gold outer stripes, one silver centre stripe, piped gold, 3-1 gold stars. 7-10 Shoulder-bars with two silver outer stripes, one gold centre...

The Civil War 194549

Civil War Bayonet Gun

The Nationalists and Communists had unfinished business after World War II, and although attempts were made to settle their disputes peacefully, fighting soon broke out all over China. Chiang Kai-shek was determined to control all China, so he advanced into the Communist stronghold of Manchuria, and it was there that the decisive battles of the Civil War were fought. During the Sino-Japanese war the Nationalists had lost not only their best soldiers but, more importantly, their best officers....

Warlord Uniforms

People Liberation Army Soldier 1940s

A new uniform was introduced for the army in 1914, and this became the basis for uniforms worn throughout the Warlord period. It consisted of a grey-green cotton uniform with a peaked cap which had a five-coloured star on. Branch colours were shown on the band of the cap and on the collar patches and shoulder bars. Ranks were indicated by the number of silver or gold stars on the shoulder bars - one for a private, two for a private 1st class and three for a lance-corporal. The higher ranks had...

Imperial Army Uniforms

Russian Imperial Army Uniform

From 1910 the soldiers of the Imperial Chinese Army were dressed in a new Westernised uniform which had winter and summer versions. Winter uniforms were in dark blue with branch colour facings on the peaked cap, shoulder bars and sleeve stripes. Trousers were quite baggy, and tucked into white gaiters which fastened with small buttons down the side and had a strap that went under the shoe. Rank was shown by the number of black stripes around the cap and the number of branch colour stripes on...

Chinese Civil War Armies

Chinese Civil War Pictures

PHILIP JOWETT was born in Leeds in 1961,and has been interested in military history for as long as he can remember. He has written a number of books for Osprey including a three-part sequence on The Italian Army 1940-45 Men-at-Arms 340, 349 amp 353 . A rugby league enthusiast and amateur genealogist, he is married and lives in Leeds. STEPHEN ANDREW was born in 1961 in Glasgow, where he still lives and works. An entirely self-taught artist, he worked in advertising and design agencies before...

The 1911 Revolution

The Manchu dynasty had been in decline for many years and had faced many rebellions in the 19th century which it had managed to quell. With the accession of the two-year-old Pu-Yi as emperor, in 1908, its days were numbered. A mutiny of the Imperial army garrison at Wuchang soon escalated into all-out rebellion, and when the commander of the main Imperial Army, Yuan Shih-k'ai, came out in favour of a new constitutional monarchy, the days of the emperor holding real power in China were over....

The Plates

19th Century French Officers Sword

Imperial Army soldiers wore the 1910 regulation uniform to a large extent in the fighting against the revolutionaries in 1911 12. This soldier wears the winter version of the uniform in dark blue cotton he has the red branch colour of the infantry on his cap and shoulder bars. His cap badge is a gold disc with a dragon design on it, and the three red stripes round the side of his hat show his rank. The rifle he carries is a Austrian Mannilicher, one of several types of rifle imported for use by...

White Russians in the Manchukuo Army

Emigre White Russians served in the Manchukuo Army in the 1930s and 1940s, first individually and then as whole units. In 1932 two small units were formed under General Kouniow, each about 200 men strong. The Assano brigade, formed in 1938, was stronger, at 700 men, and was supposed to be trained to operate behind Soviet lines. By 1945 there were about 4,000 men on the rolls of the Assano brigade involved in sabotage training. Uniforms worn by the White Russians were the same as in the rest of...

Nationalist Uniforms in the Civil

Uniforms The Civil War

When full-scale civil war between the Nationalists and the Communists broke out in 1946 new uniforms were introduced on the Nationalist side. The new officer's uniform consisted of a US-style khaki peaked cap with a cap badge which had the old sun emblem surrounded by a wreath. The green-khaki service tunic had a rounded collar with new branch badges replacing the old branch colours. The new branch badges were as follows infantry - crossed rifles artillery - cannon on wheels cavalry - crossed...

Nationalist Uniforms 192028

Eastern Volunteers Rank Insignia

The very earliest Nationalist uniforms consisted of a loose-fitting cotton shirt and trousers with a canvas sun hat. Even for Chinese uniforms these were not very martial looking, and as soon as better uniforms became available they were replaced. In 1922 a new uniform was designed for the Kuomintang Army. It was described in the press as the 'new uniform of the warriors of Sun Yat-sen'. It consisted of a cotton peaked cap with a black band and the five-coloured star cap badge. The jacket was...

Warlord Period Ends

Army Japanese Kill China

Chiang Kai-shek consolidates his power by defeating opposition from Kwangsi generals and the 'Christian' Warlord Feng Yu-hsiang. First encirclement campaign by the Nationalists against Kiangsi soviet fails. Second encirclement campaign. Third encirclement campaign. Japanese invade Manchuria. ABOVE LEFT Cavalry in the city of Tiensin in 1912 wear an unusual uniform only seen in this part of China. It consists of a double-breasted dark blue jacket with the white shoulder boards of the cavalry and...

Nationalists Versus Communists 192745

Pictures Mongolian Soldiers

The alliance between the Nationalist Party and the Communist Party in China was always fragile, their joint hatred of the Warlords the only thing that kept it together. When Chiang Kai-shek decided to wipe out his Communist allies in 1927, he began 20 years of fighting. After the Nationalists' victory over the Warlords in 1928, Chiang then turned his attention to the Communists. In a series of extermination campaigns he tried to eradicate the bases or 'soviets' that were under Communist...

Nationalist Uniforms 192845

Japanese Army Tunic

By 1930 the Nationalists' victory had brought about a certain amount of order to China, and this was reflected in the better dress of the bulk of the army. Rank insignia was introduced which consisted of collar patches in the branch colours and a series of gold triangles - from one for a private 3rd class to three for a private 1st class. The next ranks up had a black line behind the triangles - from one triangle for a corporal to three for a first sergeant. The next ranks up had a gold line...

Uniform of the Manchukuo Army

China Nacionalist Uniform

In the early days of the state of Manchukuo the soldiers of its army wore the uniform of their former employer, the 'Young Marshal'. The only difference in dress between the Manchukuo Army and their foes, the Nationalist northern army, was that the Manchukuo Army wore yellow armbands and the Nationalist troops wore red. The basic uniform at that time would have been light grey in colour, with the new cap badge in the shape of a star divided into five colours - red, blue, black, white and...

Warlord Period Begins

Chinese Warlord Uniform

Failed attempt at imperial restoration by 'Pig tailed army '. Sun Yat-sen forms government in south China at War between An-fu 'clique' of Warlords and Chihli clique. War between Chihli clique and Fengtien clique. Soviet advisers arrive in Canton to help Sun Yat-sen's Kuomintang party to form their own army. Second Chihli-Fengtien war Whampoa military academy formed to train officers for the Kuomintang army. Death of Sun Yat-sen. Start of Kuomintang's Northern Expedition to defeat all Warlord...