The Opposing Commanders

Grant is the central, key figure in the Vicksburg campaign. It was he who made the running. He was on the attack and, although many of his plans were frustrated and several advances turned into withdrawals, the initiative was his throughout. The Confederates could only react to his moves and try to guess his intentions, hoping for the best. But even when they got it right and Grant's attacks were repulsed, he promptly responded with new pressures and threats from so many directions that, in the latter stages of the campaign, the Southern commanders - John C. Pemberton and Joseph E. Johnston -were separated from each other and confused, unable to co-ordinate any effective action. Long before Vicksburg fell, its fate had begun to seem inevitable. Ulysses S. Grant fought many campaigns and battles during the Civil War, most of them with skill and success, but Vicksburg is his masterpiece.

I Ie was proud of his New England ancestry -one grandfather had fought the British at Bunker Hill in the War of Independence - but had grown up in the rural mid-West, his father being a successful farmer and leather manufacturer in Georgetown, Ohio. Such schooling as Ulysses received was basic and he showed little interest, preferring to help around the farm, especially with the horses. In the summer of 1839, at the age of 17, he was sent to the military academy at West Point.

This was very much against his inclinations. Nearly half a century later, when writing his Personal Memoirs, Grant recalled his feelings at the time: 'A military life had no charms for me, and I had not the faintest idea of staying in the army even if I should be graduated, which I did not expect.' He found most of the work uninteresting, though he had an easy aptitude for mathematics and was an outstanding horseman. In the end he did graduate, applied for the cavalry but was rejected because there were no vacancies, and settled for the infantry. Garrison life was boring and he was planning to resign from the army and get a job as a mathematics teacher when the Mexican War broke out in 1846. He strongly disapproved of the war, making no secret of his opinion and later describing it as 'one of the most unjust wars ever waged by a stronger against a weaker nation'. But at least it was not boring. He played an active role throughout the campaign and got to know most of the men who were to be fellow-commanders of his on the Federal side, or commanders of opposing rebel armies, when the Civil War came along nearly twenty years later.

Soon after his return from Mexico, Grant married a girl he had met at St. Louis, Missouri. A few years later - once more fed up with routine garrison duties and long separations from his wife and two young children - he quit the army to make a modest living as a farmer near St. Louis, later as a clerk in his father's store at Galena, Illinois.

He was a plain, straightforward patriot, with no political skills or sophistication and no great interest in politics until the 1850s when zealots and demagogues on both sides began to tear the country apart over the slavery issue. He was glad, in 1860, that Abraham Lincoln had been voted as the next President because he agreed with Lincoln that the prime issue was not slavery but the maintenance of the United States as a single and united nation. So he had no agonizing choice to make about which side to support in the winter of 1860-1, as one after another the Southern slave states broke away from the Union and declared themselves an independent confederation. Grant was one of those on the Northern side, the vast majority, who thought the whole thing would be over in 90 days.

Grant's Fighting Command

He did not join the first rush of volunteers but made himself useful to the Union cause by helping to organize and drill the new Illinois regiments and

ensure that the arsenal at St. Louis did not fall into rebel hands. In the end he could not avoid a return to military life. He was made colonel of the 21st Illinois Regiment. Soon after that, to his surprise, he was promoted to the rank of brigadier general.

Grant was 39 years old, a trained professional soldier with campaigning experience but little relish for army life. No one, in the summer of 1861, could have guessed that he was to become one of the great commanders of the war, comparable to - and ultimately the conqueror of - Robert E. Lee himself. In 1861 he saw action in the western theatre in the vicinity of the Mississippi in the state of Missouri, without particularly distinguishing himself.

Early in 1862 he made himself something of a hero in the north by taking Fort Henry on the River Tennessee in a combined army and navy operation, and immediately followed this up by marching on Fort Donelson on the River Cumberland. This was a much tougher proposition and it was not taken without serious setbacks and much ferocious fighting. Here Grant displayed many of the qualities that were to make him such a formidable opponent: the ability to think calmly and clearly in desperate situations, coolness under fire, powers of endurance and tenacity. When the rebel commander finally asked for armistice terms, Grant sent him a prompt and lapidary reply: 'No terms except unconditional and immediate surrender can be accepted. I propose to move immediately upon your works.' The terms were accepted and Grant sei/ed the fort and took two rebel generals and 14,000 men prisoner.

It was the first victory of any great substance that the North had had to celebrate. The commanders in Washington, leader-writers for the newspapers, and the public contrasted Grant's aggressive vigour with the cautious and tentative approach being shown by the commander of the Army of the Potomac in the eastern theatre. They particularly liked the wording of his surrender letter, and the coincidence of the general's initials with the phrase 'unconditional surrender'.

Grant was promoted again, to major general, and a few weeks later, in April 1862, he and his army were in action again - this time at Shiloh, another long, pounding, bloody battle in which his determination and sheer doggedness proved the vital factor. In his Memoirs he remarked that until Shiloh he had 10

supposed that one decisive victory would smash the Confederacy. After it, '...I gave up the idea of saving the Union except by complete conquest.' And he believed the conquest would come, not by taking rebel territory but by destroying rebel armies, as he had done at Fort Donelson.

Grant's Character

To outward appearances Grant was an unlikely commander. He was small in stature and made no effort to look smart. His manner was unassertive. His Illinois soldiers called him 'the quiet man' and other people used words such as 'plain' and 'ordinary'. Often enough, he wore nothing to indicate his rank. A fellow-officer described him as being, '...entirely free from any pride or hauteur of command'. But all the accounts make it clear that when Grant was present there was never any room for doubt about who was in charge. He was a wiry man, tough and neat in movement, always in easy balance. He could be terrible in anger but that was very rare. His voice was pleasant and clear and rarely raised; he never used profane language or betrayed excitement. His orders, spoken or written, were models of force and clarity. A staff officer said, 'No matter how hurriedly he might write them on the field, no one ever had the slightest doubt as to their meaning, or ever had to read them over a second time to understand them.'

Grant was a practical man, brisk and businesslike. He was not at all pious and hardly ever talked in terms of religious faith or high principles of any kind. He was no great reader and certainly no intellectual, but he had a sharp, natural intelligence, something of Bernard Montgomery's ability to cut through all the confusing complexities and details to the vital, simple core of a problem.

His character rested on a bed-rock of honesty, decency and commonsense. He had confidence and great vitality and, most importantly, the ability to imbue those around him with the same qualities. He made no apparent effort to impress or ingratiate himself but over the months and years, as he built his army and led it into battle, a very effective relationship grew up between Grant and his staff, corps commanders, officers and men. He cared about his soldiers and looked after them. He cared for the ani

President Grants And His Children Pic

► Grant with his wife Julia and their children. This family group photograph was taken in 1868, shortly before Grant was elected President. The eldest hoy, Frederick, was 12 at the time of the Vickshurg campaign hut managed to see plenty of action.

mals, too; cruelty to mules or horses was one of the few things that could make him lose his temper. Once a battle was over, he treated captured rebels with compassion and courtesy. The respect he won from his troops enabled him to make heavy demands upon them in the certainty that they would respond.

Not every one liked him. West Point men of the old style thought he was too informal and scruffy for an army commander. The more intellectual ones equated his simplicity with simple-mindedness. Careerist politician generals - and there were many of them - envied his successes and distrusted his apparent lack of ambition. There were, as always, plenty of journalists on the lookout for flaws in the hero's character. The best weapon they found to use against him was his undoubted fondness for whisky.

Grant had first taken seriously to drink in the dreary, garrison-duty years after the Mexican War. He had always been a convivial, unpuritanical man, fond of talking with friends into the night, smoking cigars and enjoying a drink. Now he found escape from the tedium of inactive army service in the whisky bottle, and sometimes a late-night party would evolve into a bender that went on for days. He maintained the habit in the drifting, unfulfilling years after he left the army. When the Civil War started and he found himself rapidly promoted to the high responsibility of commanding an army,

Company Illinois14th Cavalry

A John A. Rawlins was an old and trusted friend of Grant's, called in to be his Assistant Adjutant-General, partly to run the a dm inistra t ive side, which he did admirably, partly to keep a sharp, restraining eye on the general's famous weakness for hard liquor. He did that admirably too.

old accusations. Lincoln, who by this time had heard a lot about Grant but never met him, listened in silence, thought for some time, and then said: 'I can't spare this man: he fights.'

The Rebel Generals

The unfortunate officer given the job of defending Vicksburg against Grant was Lieutenant General John C. Pemberton. He was an able and conscientious man, good at discipline and administration, but cold in manner, cautious rather than imaginative in his generalship, not in any way inspirational. He was not lucky either. His greatest misfortune, perhaps, was coming up against Grant at the height of his powers. But Pemberton never had the forces to cope with the problem; there were divisions and confusions in the rebel command which worsened as the campaign moved towards its crisis; furthermore, he was a Northerner by origin and the people of the South remembered that, with suspicion.

In her Diary from Dixie Mary Boykin Chesnut, whose husband was a military aide to Jefferson Davis, wrote: 'Men born Yankees are an unlucky selection as commanders for the Confederacy. They believe in the North in a way no true Southerner ever will, and they see no shame in surrendering to Yankees. They are half-hearted clear through.' This was written three months before Pemberton surrendered to Grant at Vicksburg, but Pemberton's is one of the names she cites.

John Pemberton grew up in a Quaker family in Pennsylvania, but from the start he seems to have had a great hankering for the South. He went to West Point, class of 1837, and the friends he made there were nearly all Southerners. He became an outspoken protagonist of states' rights, the belief that the Union was not inviolable and that any state that wanted to had the right to secede. He saw active service in the Mexican War and against the Indians. In 1848 he married a Southern girl from Virginia.

When the Civil War began he was a captain of engineers in the Union army. The War Department in Washington offered him a colonelcy, but although his two brothers were in the Federal army he opted for the Southern cause. Jefferson Davis was impressed by him and gave him a commission in the Confederate army. In the summer of 1862 he

A John A. Rawlins was an old and trusted friend of Grant's, called in to be his Assistant Adjutant-General, partly to run the a dm inistra t ive side, which he did admirably, partly to keep a sharp, restraining eye on the general's famous weakness for hard liquor. He did that admirably too.

aware of his weakness, he persuaded an old friend, John A. Rawlins, to join him as head of his staff and protector of his better self.

Rawlins was a lawyer and well-qualified for both roles. An able and conscientious desk-worker, he was a devoted and fearless enemy of the demon drink. He was also one of the first to see Grant as a potential man of destiny. So he enlisted as a captain and became Grant's Assistant Adjutant General, taking the detailed administrative work off his boss's shoulders, but looming constantly over those shoulders to make sure he kept off the hard liquor. They were together throughout the war and on the whole, despite occasional lapses, the arrangement worked. But this did not halt the flow of rumours and innuendo about the general's weakness for whisky.

In the bleak winter of 1862-3, when nothing seemed to be going right for the Northern cause, a Pennsylvania politician, A.K. McClure, urged President Lincoln to dismiss Grant. He repeated all the 12

General John Pemberton

A The Confederate commander in the field, John C. Pemherton, was an experienced and capable soldier who found himself out of his depth when he came up against Grant at the top of his form.

A 'The Gamecock', Joseph E. Johnston, was given overall command of the Confederate forces in

Mississippi, but did nothing to enhance his military reputation.

A The Confederate commander in the field, John C. Pemherton, was an experienced and capable soldier who found himself out of his depth when he came up against Grant at the top of his form.

A 'The Gamecock', Joseph E. Johnston, was given overall command of the Confederate forces in

Mississippi, but did nothing to enhance his military reputation.

commanded at Charleston and in the autumn Davis decided that Pemberton was the man to meet the Northern threat to the Mississippi.

In April 1863, by which time it had become clear that Grant's objective was Vicksburg though which route he would take was still uncertain, another Southern general, senior to Pemberton, was given overall command. This was Joseph E. Johnston, who played a very active and often controversial role throughout the Civil War. Jefferson Davis gave him command of the Confederate forces in Mississippi and Tennessee in the hope that his long experience in war and his undoubted strategic skill would enable him to counter any moves from the North. Grant had a high respect for Johnston's abilities and it was well-founded, but Johnston seems to have been oddly out of sorts during the Vicksburg campaign - wrangling with President Davis, unable to join forces with Pemberton, moving too cautiously and making vital decisions too late.

Unlike Grant, Jo Johnston looked every inch an army officer, smart and erect in bearing, with a jaun ty manner. His men, who liked him greatly, nicknamed him 'the gamecock'. He came of a distinguished Virginian family, did well at West Point, fought as an artilleryman against the Indians, then as an engineer officer in the Mexican War. He was a brigadier general when the Civil War broke out. He had not wanted Virginia to secede from the Union but when it did, felt he must offer his services to the Confederacy. It was his timely arrival on the field of First Bull Run in July 1861 that gave victory to the South in the first major battle of the war. But the euphoria of this success was quickly followed by a bad-tempered dispute with Davis, chiefly about the failure of his army to pursue the retreating Northern forces. Johnston always made himself popular with the men under his command, but was a very awkward subordinate, prickly and contentious and inclined to misunderstand his orders. He also had a habit of getting wounded. When he was sent to take charge of the Mississippi front, he was still recovering from severe wounds received at the Battle of Seven Pines in May 1862.

▼ Confederate soldiers. Left to right: an infantry drummer boy; a private soldier in the infantry; and an ordnance sergeant of the 28th North Carolina Infantry Regiment, holding the regimental Colour. (Ron Volstad)

Ronald Volstad Csa

▼ Confederate soldiers. Left to right: an infantry drummer boy; a private soldier in the infantry; and an ordnance sergeant of the 28th North Carolina Infantry Regiment, holding the regimental Colour. (Ron Volstad)

THE OPPOSING ARMIES

There were men from virtually all the Northern states in Grant's army, but the great majority of them were mid-Westerners, from Ohio, Iowa and Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin and Indiana. They were farmers and farm-workers and frontiersmen, fit and tough and practical. Grant grew to be very proud of their steadiness under fire, their ability to endure and stay cheerful, their ingenuity and skills as makeshift engineers. The enemy commander, Jo Johnston, who had fought in the eastern as well as the western sector, also had great respect for them. He warned the Secretary of War in Richmond not to underestimate Grant's soldiers - '...his troops are worth double the number of north-eastern troops'.

Grant's men had signed on for three years. Many of them had seen bitter fighting under his command before the Vicksburg campaign began, but there were many thousands - including all the men newly recruited by General McClernand - who had had no experience of action until they boarded the boats to sail down the Mississippi for the move against Vicksburg.

▼ Union command of the Mississippi above and below Vicksburg was cru-cuial to the outcome of the campaign. Below:

Admiral Porter's flagship, Black Hawk, armed with 9 guns and 2 howitzers.

▼ Union command of the Mississippi above and below Vicksburg was cru-cuial to the outcome of the campaign. Below:

Grant Men Marching Toward Vicksburg

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The Confederate army under General Pember-ton was drawn from across the rebel states: Mississippi, Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee, Louisiana and Texas, and most of them - like Grant's troops -

were used to hard work in the open air. They were not so ably led as their opponents and, as the campaign gathered pace, their continued defeats and retreats undermined their morale. But they were -

ORDER OF BATTLE: THE ARMY OF THE TENNESSEE

Commander: Major General Ulysses S. Grant

Assistant Adjutant General: John S. Rawlins

Major General John A. McClernand Major General Edward O. C. Ord (from 18 June 1863)

9th Division: Brigadier General Peter J. Osterhaus

First Brigade: 118th Illinois, 49th Indiana, 69th Indiana, 7th Kentucky, 120th Ohio

Second Brigade: 54th Indiana, 22nd Kentucky, 16th Ohio, 42nd Ohio, I 14th Ohio

Cavalry: 2nd Illinois, 3rd Illinois, 6th Missouri

10th Division: Brigadier General Andrew J. Smith

First Brigade: 16th Indiana. 60th Indiana, 67th Indiana, 83rd Ohio, 96th Ohio, 23rd Wisconsin, Second Brigade: 77th Illinois. 97th Illinois, 130th Illinois, 19th Kentucky, 48th Ohio

I 2th Division: Brigadier General Alvin P. Hovey

First Brigade: I Ith Indiana, 24th Indiana, 34th Indiana, 46th Indiana, 29th Wisconsin

Second Brigade: 87th Illinois, 47th Indiana, 24th Iowa, 28th Iowa, 56th Ohio

14th Division: Brigadier General Eugene A. Carr

First Brigade: 33rd Illinois, 99th Illinois, 8th Indiana, 18th Indiana, 1st U.S. (siege guns)

Second Brigade: 21st Iowa, 22nd Iowa, 23rd Iowa, I Ith Wisconsin

Major General William T. Sherman

Ist Division: Major General Frederick Steele

First Brigade: 13th Illinois, 27th Missouri, 29th Missouri, 30th Missouri, 31st Missouri, 32nd Missouri Second Brigade: 25th Iowa, 31 st Iowa, 3rd Missouri, 12th Missouri, 17th Missouri, 76th Ohio

Third Brigade: 4th Iowa, 9th Iowa, 26th Iowa, 30th Iowa

2nd Division: Major General Frank P. Blair

First Brigade: 113th Illinois, I 16th Illinois, 6th Missouri, 8th Missouri. 13th U.S

Second Brigade: 55th Illinois, 127th Illinois, 83rd Indiana, 54th Ohio, 57th Ohio

Third Brigade: 30th Ohio, 37th Ohio, 47th Ohio, 4th West Virginia

3rd Division: Brigadier General James M. Turtle

First Brigade: I 14th Illinois, 93rd Indiana, 72nd Ohio, 95th Ohio Second Brigade: 47th Illinois, 5th Minnesota, I Ith Missouri, 8th Wisconsin Third Brigade: 8th Iowa, 12th Iowa, 35th Iowa

Major General James B. McPherson

3rd Division: Major General John A. Logan

First Brigade: 20th Illinois, 31st Illinois, 45th Illinois, 124th Illinois, 23rd Indiana Second Brigade: 30th Illinois, 20th Ohio, 68th Ohio, 78th Ohio Third Brigade: 8th Illinois, 17th Illinois, 81st Illinois, 7th Missouri, 32nd Ohio

6th Division: Brigadier General John McArthur

First Brigade: 1st Kansas, 16th Wisconsin

Second Brigade: I Ith Illinois, 72nd Illinois, 95th Illinois, 14th Wisconsin, 17th Wisconsin

Third Brigade: I Ith Iowa, 13th Iowa, 15th Iowa, 16th Iowa

7th Division: Brigadier General Marcellus M. Crocker

First Brigade: 48th Indiana, 59th Indiana, 4th Minnesota, 18th Wisconsin Second Brigade: 56th Illinois, 17th Iowa, 10th Missouri, 24th Missouri, 80th Ohio

Third Brigade: 93rd Illinois, 5th Iowa, 10th Iowa, 26th Missouri

Herron's Division: Major General Francis J. Herron

First Brigade: 37th Illinois, 26th Indiana, 20th Iowa, 34th Iowa, 38th Iowa Second Brigade: 94th Illinois, 19th Iowa, 20th Wisconsin

Unattached Cavalry: Colonel Cyrus Bussey

5th Illinois, 3rd Iowa, 2nd Wisconsin

These were the three corps that formed Grant's Army of the Tennessee throughout the Vicksburg campaign. The list does not include the reinforcement units that joined the army when Vicksburg was besieged. Grant's total effective force ranged from 43,000 men at the beginning to 75,000 at the close of the campaign. The garrison force left behind at Mil-liken's Bend, half white, half Negro, was called the African Brigade and was commanded by Colonel Isaac J. Shep-ard. It comprised six infantry regiments.

surprisingly - better armed than the Federal troops.

In his Memoirs Grant mentions that when Yicksburg finally surrendered he seized, among other things, some 60,000 muskets, and goes on: 'The smallarms of the enemy were far superior to the bulk of ours. Up to this time our troops in the West had been limited to the old United States flint-lock muskets changed into percussion, or the Belgian musket imported early in the war - almost as dangerous to the person firing it as to the one aimed at - and a few new and improved arms. These were of many different calibres, a fact that caused much trouble in distributing ammunition during an engagement. The enemy had generally new arms which had run the blockade and were of uniform calibre. After the surrender I authorized all colonels whose regiments were armed with inferior muskets, to place them in the stack of captured arms and replace them with the latter.'

This is surprising because it is generally assumed that the North, with its vastly stronger industrial capacity, was better able to provide for its soldiers.

By this half-way stage of the Civil War the usual infantry weapon, on both sides, was the Springfield 1855 rifle-musket, which weighed nearly ten pounds, was muzzle-loaded, and which fired a .58 calibre lead bullet through a 40-inch barrel that had been rifled for greater accuracy. The common artillery weapon, again on both sides, was the M 1857 12-pounder gun which could project a round-shot ball up to 2,000 yards. Muzzle-loaded, it could also fire shells or canister. Several other guns were used - howitzers for high-trajectory fire; 6-pounder smooth-bores; and various kinds of rifled guns that were more accurate. But artillerymen on both sides felt more at home, and safer, with the smooth-bore 12-pounder which was known as the 'Napoleon'.

ORDER OF BATTLE: THE CONFEDERATE ARMY

Commander: Lieutenant General John C. Pemberton

1st Division: Major General W.W. Loring (Most of this division was lost to Pemberton after the battle of Champion Hill and joined forces with General Joseph B. Johnston, who became Pemberton's senior officer in November 1862 but who played only a minor part in the campaign). First Brigade: 6th Mississippi, 15th Mississippi, 20th Mississippi, 23rd Mississippi, 26th Mississippi Second Brigade: 3rd Mississippi, 22nd Mississippi, 31st Mississippi, 33rd Mis-sissipi, I st Mississippi Third Brigade: 27th Alabama, 35th Alabama, 54th Alabama, 55th Alabama, 9th Arkansas, 3rd Kentucky, 7th Kentucky, 12th Louisiana

Stevenson's Division: Major General Carter L. Stevenson First Brigade: 40th Georgia, 41 st Georgia, 42nd Georgia, 43rd Georgia, 52nd Georgia,

Second Brigade: 20th Alabama, 23rd Alabama, 30th Alabama, 31st Alabama, 46th Alabama

Third Brigade: 34th Georgia, 36th Georgia, 39th Georgia, 56th Georgia,

57th Georgia

Fourth Brigade: 3rd Tennessee, 31st Tennessee, 43rd Tennessee, 59th Tennessee

Texas Legion

Forney's Division: Major General John H. Forney

Hébert's brigade: 3rd Louisiana, 21st Louisiana, 36th Mississippi, 37th Mississippi, 38th Mississippi, 43rd Mississippi. 7th Mississippi, 2nd Alabama Moore's brigade: 37th Alabama, 40th Alabamé, 42nd Alabama, 1st Mississippi, 35th Mississippi, 40th Mississippi, 2nd Texas

Smith's Division: Major General Martin L. Smith

First Brigade: 17th Louisiana. 31 st Louisiana, 4th Mississippi, 46th Mississippi

Vaughn's Brigade: 60th Tennessee, 61st Tennessee, 62nd Tennessee Third Brigade: 26th Louisiana, 27th Louisiana, 28th Louisiana Mississippi State Troops:

Bowen's Division: Major General John S. Bowen

First (Missouri) Brigade: I st and 4th Missouri, 2nd Missouri, 3rd Missouri, 5th Missouri, 6th Missouri

Second Brigade: 15th Arkansas, 19th Arkansas, 20th Arkansas, 21st Arkansas, I st Arkansas, 12th Arkansas, 3rd Missouri Cavalry

Commander: General Joseph E. Johnston

Gregg's Brigade: 3rd Tennessee, 10th and 30th Tennessee, 41st Tennessee, 50th Tennessee, 7th Texas Gist's Brigade: 46th Georgia, 14th Mississippi, 24th South Carolina Walker's Brigade

At its greatest number, including the units that confronted Grant at Raymond and Jackson, Pemberton's army probably numbered just over 40,000 men. In his official report, Pemberton said that his effective total, during the siege of Vicksburg, was not more than 28,000.

According to Johnston's reports, his effective strength at the beginning of June 1863 was 24,000 men.

For the ultimate siege of the city, of course, Grant brought up guns of greater calibre, up to 32 pounds, and also used a navy battery. In the matter of cavalry, Grant had enough for his needs and Pemberton had not, and this was an important factor.

An even more important factor was command of the river and this was Grant's entirely. He had willing and expert support throughout the campaign from Admiral Porter and his sailors and ships, of whom he wrote: 'The most perfect harmony reigned between the two arms of the service. There never was a request made, that I am aware of, either of the flag-officer or any of his subordinates, that was not promptly complied with.'

< Union soldiers. Left, an infantry private; right, a company quarter-master sergeant of cavalry. (Ron Vols tad)

Kansas Vol Cavalry
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