A monarchist coup

Did the Fascists hope to overthrow the Republic and re-establish the monarchy It is true that some of the conspirators, such as Kindelan and the two Vigon brothers, were monarchists, but Payne is quite right when he observes that 'the majority of the directors of the conspiracy, such as Mola, Goded, Cabanellas and Queipo de Llano felt a veritable antipathy towards monarchy as an institution. Franco himself was obliged to declare that the Moors would act only under the flag of the Republic.'21...

Efforts to prevent the assassinations

No final method has yet been established for making a quantitative comparison between the numbers executed or assassinated on the two sides, although the rigorous studies now being undertaken are making it appear that the number of victims in the rebel zone was the greater. There is, however, another very important comparison to make, the result of which cannot be denied in the Republican zone the killings occurred despite the efforts of the authorities (Republic, Euskadi, Generalitat) to stop...

A nineteenthcentury inheritance

The Republic had no more invented the Religious Question than it had the other questions listed by Jimenez de Asua rather, it was one that the Republic had to try to resolve as other European countries had resolved it, or at least brought it under a measure of control, a century before. During the eras of Medieval Christendom and the absolutist monarchies of the early modern states of Europe, the union between Crown and Church had been undisputed dogma. (Not that this had prevented serious...

The speech at Castelgandolfo

The ecclesiastics and Rightists who in the first months, which were the most bloody, managed to escape to Marseilles, Genoa or Rome were able to serve, as I have said, as a powerful sound-box in a manner comparable to that of the French aristocrats who escaped the revolutionary Terror and found refuge in England or in the German kingdoms and principalities on the far side of the Rhine. The victims of the guillotine in 1792 have inspired many more books, plays and films than those of the...

Two cardinals pass round the collection box

Organizing a collection is one of the things that ecclesiastical authorities have to do very frequently indeed, and the disasters of the Civil War provided every justification for it. In the Republican zone, priests in hiding, ill prepared for common labour and often without documents, depended on the charity of families known to them. On the other side, the clergy suffered great economic hardships, for the new State, which likewise lacked resources, directed everything it could into the war...

Prologue

Within the massive boom of publications on the Spanish Civil War that followed the death of Franco one book stands out both for its rapid success and for its equally swift disappearance. In fact, much of what was published in the wake of the disappearance of the dictatorship's censorship apparatus was ephemeral. However, among the titles of enduring value was the book in question, a study of the Catholic Church during the Spanish Civil War by a Benedictine monk, Hilari Raguer. Father Raguer's...

The journeys of Dr Albert Bonet

In Maria Luisa Rodriguez Aisa's book about Cardinal Goma, which has been repeatedly cited in this chapter, there are some references to Dr Albert Bonet i Marrugut which deserve amplification, not only on account of the influence he had upon the reception of the Collective Letter but because his adventures tell us much about the religious situation in the Francoist zone and the adverse fortunes of the Catalan Catholics. He was a typical example of the splendid Catalan clergy of the 1920s and...

A typical pamphlet

A Francoist propaganda pamphlet, which appeared in Belgium in the middle of 1937 with no indication of publisher, place or date, put into circulation an anthology of episcopal tracts about the Civil War. Nearly all of them were written on dates that were later than that of the speech at Cas-telgandolfo. Instead of the usual acknowledgement of ecclesiastical approval, there is a prologue written by Cardinal Goma at Pamplona on 4 February 1937. It was not until 12 June, however, that Sangroniz,...

The rules of Father Huidobro

The Jesuit Fernando Huidobro, cited above, enthusiastic for the cause of the Uprising, produced two writings, one directed to 'the military authorities' and the other to the Cuerpo Jur dico Militar Military Legal Corps , both entitled Sobre la aplicaci n de la pena de muerte en las actuales cir-constancias. Normas de conciencia 'On the Application of the Death Penalty under the Present Circumstances. Rules of Conscience' . With these he proposed 'to arouse the consciences of the chiefs and...

The Vatican press in the Civil War1

In the propaganda war, which was fought internationally and to a considerable extent determined the course of the military war inside Spain, the Vatican press played a role of notable importance, owing to the fact that one side had taken on a religious and the other an anti-religious character. It might, therefore, be helpful, before examining how the Holy See adopted its position regarding the conflict, to take a general look at the Vatican press itself. When speaking of the press of the...

In defence of religion

As for religion, we have already said that not one of the edicts of the pronunciamiento mentions it. Mola's communique from Burgos on 23 July -which announced that the Junta de Defensa Nacional de Espa a, presided over by Miguel Cabanellas, the oldest general, was to be constituted that same afternoon - invokes the propositions of reconstruction, order and discipline against the savagery of the mob, but says nothing about religion. Nor, the next day, did the declaration of the Junta de Defensa...

The consecration of the pronunciamiento

During the tourist boom of the 1950s and 1960s under the ministry of Fraga Iribarne, a propagandistic slogan, ' Spain is different', was adopted in the hope of attracting foreigners. It referred, quite obviously, to the peculiarities of landscape and typical' customs of Spain. The phrase, however, had not been invented then but had first appeared, I believe, in an allusion to the religious dimension acquired by the Civil War as perceived through the astonished eyes of a group of tourists....