A monarchist coup

Did the Fascists hope to overthrow the Republic and re-establish the monarchy It is true that some of the conspirators, such as Kindelan and the two Vigon brothers, were monarchists, but Payne is quite right when he observes that 'the majority of the directors of the conspiracy, such as Mola, Goded, Cabanellas and Queipo de Llano felt a veritable antipathy towards monarchy as an institution. Franco himself was obliged to declare that the Moors would act only under the flag of the Republic.'21...

Efforts to prevent the assassinations

No final method has yet been established for making a quantitative comparison between the numbers executed or assassinated on the two sides, although the rigorous studies now being undertaken are making it appear that the number of victims in the rebel zone was the greater. There is, however, another very important comparison to make, the result of which cannot be denied in the Republican zone the killings occurred despite the efforts of the authorities (Republic, Euskadi, Generalitat) to stop...

A nineteenthcentury inheritance

The Republic had no more invented the Religious Question than it had the other questions listed by Jimenez de Asua rather, it was one that the Republic had to try to resolve as other European countries had resolved it, or at least brought it under a measure of control, a century before. During the eras of Medieval Christendom and the absolutist monarchies of the early modern states of Europe, the union between Crown and Church had been undisputed dogma. (Not that this had prevented serious...

The journeys of Dr Albert Bonet

In Maria Luisa Rodriguez Aisa's book about Cardinal Goma, which has been repeatedly cited in this chapter, there are some references to Dr Albert Bonet i Marrugut which deserve amplification, not only on account of the influence he had upon the reception of the Collective Letter but because his adventures tell us much about the religious situation in the Francoist zone and the adverse fortunes of the Catalan Catholics. He was a typical example of the splendid Catalan clergy of the 1920s and...

Initial attitude of Bishop Pla Y Deniel and Cardinal Goma

Of all the Episcopal documents selected for this pamphlet, the most important, as much for its theological soundness as for its influence on the ideology and propaganda of the rebels, was the letter by Pla y Deniel that we have already mentioned, Las dos ciudades 'The Two Cities' . Although, unlike Goma, Pla y Deniel was not a fundamentalist but belonged to the camp of Social Catholicism, he was nevertheless much more generous than Goma in applying the title of 'Crusade' to the conflict. But...

The Vatican press in the Civil War1

In the propaganda war, which was fought internationally and to a considerable extent determined the course of the military war inside Spain, the Vatican press played a role of notable importance, owing to the fact that one side had taken on a religious and the other an anti-religious character. It might, therefore, be helpful, before examining how the Holy See adopted its position regarding the conflict, to take a general look at the Vatican press itself. When speaking of the press of the...

The consecration of the pronunciamiento

During the tourist boom of the 1950s and 1960s under the ministry of Fraga Iribarne, a propagandistic slogan, ' Spain is different', was adopted in the hope of attracting foreigners. It referred, quite obviously, to the peculiarities of landscape and typical' customs of Spain. The phrase, however, had not been invented then but had first appeared, I believe, in an allusion to the religious dimension acquired by the Civil War as perceived through the astonished eyes of a group of tourists....