Select Bibliography

Abel, Annie H., The American Indian in the Civil War University of Nebraska Press, 1993 Allely, Steve, amp Jim Hamm, Encyclopaedia of Native American Bows, Arrows and Quivers, Volume 1 The Lyons Press, 1999 Britton, Wiley, Memoirs of the Rebellion on the Border University of Nebraska Press, 1993 Britton, Wiley, The Civil War on the Border, Volumes 1-2 Kansas Heritage Press, 1994 Catlin, George, Letters and notes on the Manners Customs and Conditions of the North American Indians, Volume 2 Dover...

The American Civil War in the Indian Territory

One of the most tragic theaters of the Civil War conflict was the Indian Territory modern Oklahoma , and the borderlands of Kansas, Missouri, Arkansas and Texas. Both the Union and the Confederacy raised Native American units to contest this ground, and tribes were divided against one another and amongst themselves. Federal and Confederate cavalry also struck into the Territory from Kansas and Texas and the irregular marauders who raided the area such as Kansas Red Legs and Quantrill's Raiders...

Contents

Origins of the Native American population of the Indian Territory SUMMARY OF MAIN CAMPAIGNS amp ENGAGEMENTS 4 Jayhawkers, guerrillas and bushwhackers UNION UNIFORMS amp EQUIPMENT 14 Quartermaster issue - the Indian Home Guard - Kansas troops - Wisconsin troops Rifles amp muskets - carbines amp revolvers - specific regimental issues - edged weapons CONFEDERATE UNIFORMS amp EQUIPMENT 24 Battle-shirts and captures - quartermaster issue -Chilian clothing Firearms in the Indian Territory - Texas...

Summary Of Main Campaigns Engagements

Images The First Bull Run Campaign

Union garrisons were withdrawn from Texas, Arkansas and the Territory, and Confederate troops occupied the forts. Abandoned by the government, the Cherokee and Creek once more suffered internal divisions, and the Civilized Tribes raised regiments for self-defense. Indian Commissioner Albert Pike negotiated treaties, promising that the Confederate States would recognize the Civilized Tribes as sovereign nations, honor their annual payments, and not require them to serve outside the Territory....

Confederate Forces

Gano's Brigade Col Richard M.Gano 29th Texas Cavalry Gano's Texas Cav Bn Col C. De Morse 30th Texas Cavalry 1st Partisan Rangers LtCol N.W.Battle 31st Texas Cavalry Maj M.Looscan Welch's Texas Cavalry Company Lt F.Gano Texas Horse Guards Artillery Capt W.H.Krumbhaar 737 present for duty, PFD Fort Washita, Indian Territory Indian Division BrigGen D.H.Cooper Walie's Brigade Col Stand Watie 1st Cherokee Mounted Rifles LtCol J.M.Bell 2nd Cherokee Mounted Rifles Col W.P.Adair Frye's Cherokee Cavalry...

Philip Mcusker Caddo Confederate

Osprey Plate Uniforms

References to illustrations are shown in bold. Plain are shown with pgr and caption locators in hrackets. Adair. Col William Penn 30 African-Americans 3, E2 37, 61 w also Union forces Kansas Colored Volunteer Infantry. 1st Americans, native see also individual tribes and units clothing 46-48, 59. 60 Five Civilized Tribe Confederacy 4 treaties 3 war customs, traditional 48-52 weapons 52-53 Arapaho tribe 3, 4, 50 Ararhe 50 Arkansas 6-7 Bird Creek, First Battle of 6. A 33, 57-58 Bird Creek, Second...

Confederate Weapons

Colt Detachable Butt Stock

Arkansas seized 10,000 arms, all but 400 of them flindocks, from the State Armory at Little Rock, and supplied 200 rifles of unknown pattern to the Cherokee in 1861. Few more were forthcoming, and Gen Pike was frustrated by the diversion of firearms and ammunition to other Texas commands. General Steele accepted that his request was unlikely to be fulfilled, as Arkansas struggled to supply its own units. Another difficulty was the often poor quality of black powder imported from Mexico. In...

Introduction

Oklahoma Historical Society Photos

Lieutenant Pleasant Porter, a Confederate officer of the 2nd Creek Cavalry after the action at Flat Rock Ford in September 1864, the Cherokee General Stand Watie commended him for capturing seven revolver-armed Kansas cavalrymen. He wears a battle shirt under a captured Federal overcoat, and carries a Colt .36in Ml851 Navy revolver. Smithsonian Institution The Indian Territory was one of the most tragic battlegrounds of the Civil War, setting members of the same tribes against each other. It...

Union Forces

Confederate Sack Coat

The dandified George Maddox, a member of Quantrill's Raiders, wears a plumed hat and a classic guerrilla shirt under a Confederate frock coat with light-colored - yellow - facings at collar and cuffs. He holds Remington Army revolvers, with another pair and a knife on his belt. Dr Thomas P.Sweeney The list below gives an idea of the average strength of Union forces available for operations in the Territory. The majority of the regiments were raised in Kansas, although most Indian and Colored...

Union Weapons

Cowboy Wearing Gilt Cord

Volunteers did bring their own firearms with them when they enlisted, but the government accepted responsibility for arming State volunteers from the outset of the war. Rifles and muskets The Springfield ,58in rifle-musket Ml855 and the .58in rifle Ml855 were the regulation firearms, but wartime production was concentrated on the rifle-musket. The M1861 omitted the Maynard tape primer and patch box. Further modifications were made to the Models 1863 and 1864. Rated as a first-class arm...

Horses Saddlery

Mcclellan Saddle Bags Patterns

Few Indians or Texans would volunteer as infantrymen, but would dismount and fight on foot when necessary. Irregular units such as Quantrill's and the Jayhawkers relied on the horse, and the Federal authorities also raised cavalry regiments. Mules and oxen were also needed to operate supply trains. Horses from Texas and the Territory were generally mustang or Spanish breeds those from Kansas, Missouri and Arkansas were American saddle horses, gaited saddlers or hunters, though work horses and...

Confederate Uniforms Equipment

Confederate Uniforms

Early uniforms were improvised, and one of the most popular garments was the battle shirt. Derived from the common pullover work shirt, these generously cut smocks or overshirts could be of homespun, cotton or wool, brightly colored or drab they were frequently trimmed or braided with contrasting colors and materials, and fitted with breast pockets. Many were worn open at the neck, revealing a civilian shirt and sometimes a necktie beneath others - such as the pattern worn by Gen Maxey's 9th...

Native American Clothing

Caddo Indian Clothing

Bind old pieces of cloths and rags about my legs in imitation of the dressed and smoked buckskin leggings so universally worn by the full blood Creeks of that day Headgear In 1859, Grayson, who made a point of having his clothing cut and sewed by the tailor and in the prevailing style, was embarrassed to be seen with his father, who habitually wore a turban fashioned out of a shawl. Such turbans, brightly colored and fringed and often imported from Russia, were still worn and decorated with...

The Plates

American Indian Quillwork War Shirts

A THE CREEKS' RETREAT TO KANSAS Battle of Bird Creek, December 9, 1861 Following the Union evacuation, divisions within the Creek tribe led the respected pro-Union chief Opothleyohola to rally his followers near North Fork on the Canadian River it was estimated that he could field some 1,500 warriors, mostly Creek but including a number of Seminole and also fugitive African-American slaves. Forced by the need to find grazing land, and in hopes of military support, Opothleyohola moved his people...

Union Uniforms Equipment

10th Kansas Volunteer Infantry

1 For the purposes of his tide, obviously only a brief general summary can be given. For more detailed information see Men-al-Arms 177 Amrhron Civil IVnr Armirs 2 Union Troops, MAA 179 3j Sprrialnl Troops, MAA 190,., 4 Stair 14 Troops. MAA 207 Yolunt rr Alili in After shortages in 1861, State regiments were equipped with regulation pattern clothing by the Federal government.1 Some variations were as follows Headgear The M1858 dress hat Hardee hat was adopted for all troops. It was trimmed with...

Quantrill Raiders

Indian Home Guard Oklahoma Civil War

Tragedy of the Civil War in the Territory began. Opothleyohola, a full-blood Creek chief loyal to the Union, gathered 5,000 followers, including some Semin les and fugitive slaves, and moved towards the Kansas border hoping for military support. Douglas Cooper, now colonel of the Choctaw amp Chickasaw Mounted Rifles, led an expedition to force him into allegiance to the Confederacy or drive him from the Territory. Map of the Indian Territory and neighboring states, 1861-65, with locations...