New Hampshire

According to a veteran of the 2nd New Hampshire Infantry Regiment, when the unit was raised in 1861 'the uniforms were gray, the jaunty forage caps and spiketail dress coats banded with red cord'. The New-Hampshire Gazette of 11 May 1861 described the uniform as including a 'grey coat and pants, grey overcoat, grey fatigue cap, two flannel shirts, one pair of flannel drawers, one extra pair of socks, one pair of shoes, and one large camp blanket'. This was what was decided upon for the state...

Minnesota

A frontier state, Minnesota clothed its first volunteers with chequered flannel shirts mostly red, although some were blue and some had various designs printed on them , broad-brimmed black felt hats, black trousers, shoes, blankets, and woollen drawers. It was not until the summer of 1861 that the 1st Minnesota Volunteer Infantry Regiment received US Army regulation uniforms. The 2nd Regiment was also clothed by the state, but later regiments received clothing directly from the US Army. Both...

Rhode Island

On 18 April 1861 the Boston Daily Advertiser reported 'The following uniform has been selected for the Rhode Island Regiment gray pantaloons, blue tunic, and a black felt hat with cockade and feathers'. The 'tunic' was actually a loose shirt worn outside the trousers. This was indeed the basic uniform adopted by the state in 1861 for all its volunteers. It was worn until late June 1862. However, in September 1861 the state ordered that 'the uniform of the Volunteers shall consist of a blue army...

South Carolina

South Carolina's basic uniform regulations were written in 1839 and, while they were reprinted as late as i860, they were fairly irrelevant to the Civil War period. New orders appeared in 1861 which brought them up to date for officers and senior noncommissioned officers, at least, and imposed uniformity within South Carolina's military force. Officers, according to the 1861 orders, were to wear dark blue frock coats and trousers like those of US Army officers. The trousers were to have a...

Florida

Blockade Runner Frock Coat

Standard Confederate-type uniforms, with a larger than usual number of plain shirts and straw hats being worn in tropical areas, appear to have been the norm lor Floridians. The state was relatively thinly populated, and the militia had fallen into This youth wears the insignia adopted for the commissary sergeant of the 20th Connecticut Regiment an insignia used, apparently, by other Connecticut regiments as well. The plain frock coat without regulation trim also seems to have been common among...

Missouri

Missouri's Union troops wore standard US Army dress and carried regulation weapons and accoutrements. Her contributions to the Confederate Army were attired in so motley a fashion that Missourians had to wear a field sign a white flannel stripe on the left shoulder according to the 11 September 1861 Rock Island Register. Missourians on both sides wore US-type oval, stamped brass belt plates bearing the Roman letters 'SMM', for 'State of Missouri Militia', whenever they could get them.

American Civil War Armies 4 State Troops

Text by PHILIP KATCHER Colour plates by RON VOLSTAD Published in 1987 by Osprey Publishing Ltd Michclin House, 81 Fulham road, London SW3 6RB Copyright 1987 Osprey Publishing Ltd Reprinted 1988 twice , 1989, 1991, 1992, 1993 All rights reserved. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study, research, criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright Designs and Patents Act, 1988,110 part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in...

New Jersey

3rd New Jersey Cavalry

Newjersey ordered for its first volunteers a uniform that included 'a dark blue frock coat, light blue pants, and army cockade hat'. These coats appear to have been made like the US Army's fatigue blouse, but with five buttons down the front instead of lour. State-made or -bought uniforms were issued to New Jersey's first nine infantry regiments, the US Army equipping those raised later. Exceptions were the 33rd and 35th New Jersey Volunteer Infantry Regiments, which received directly from the...

Muskets Issued To Ohio Regiments

65th New York Volunteers

Jacob D. Cox toured Ohio's state arsenal and found 'a few boxes ofsmooth-bore muskets which had once been issued to militia companies and had been returned rusted and damaged. No belts, cartridge boxes, or other accoutrements were with them'. Still, plans had to be made to handle the 10,000 expected volunteers. 'There was no time to procure uniforms', Cox recalled, 'nor was it desirable for those companies had chosen their own, and would have to change it for...

Georgia

The Battle Rich Mountain

Most officers from Georgia which does not seem to have printed state dress regulations wore copies of the 1861 US Army uniform. James Cooper Nisbet, Co. H, 21st Georgia Infantry Regiment, recalled that in 1861 each man in his company was 'uniformed in gray', while 'the lieutenants were uniformed in home-made blue jeans. My uniform was of a regular United States Army blue, tailor-made, a present with my sword and belt from my sister. . .' Most enlisted men wore jackets, although frocks were worn...

Mississippi

Mississippi Infantry

Ten Mississippi prisoners of war were said to have arrived in Washington, DC, by the Daily National Intelligencer of 25 July 1861 'One of them is Lieut.Col. B. B. Boone, a splendid officer in appearance, though clad in rough gray cloth, trimmed in faded cotton velvet facings'. Col. Boone's uniform appears to have been that prescribed by the state's military board in January 1861 'All officers shall wear a frock coat of gray cloth, the skirl to extend from two-thirds to three-fourths of the...

The Plates

8th South Carolina Infantry

A Captain, South Carolina, 1861 The dark blue uniform worn by this stallcaptain is described by British correspondent William H. Russell on 17 April 1861 as 'blue military caps, with I palmetto trees embroidered thereon, blue frock- 1 coats, with upright collars, and shoulder-straps I edged with lace, and marked with two silver bars, to I designate their ranks of captain gilt buttons with I the palmetto in relief blue trowsers, with a gold- I lace cord, and brass spurs no straps'. A2 Corporal,...

North Carolina

Confederate Army Uniform Regulations

In 1861 there was the usual collection of volunteer companies in various uniforms in North Carolina. There were eight companies of 'Blues' and 23 of 'Grays', indicating a clear preference for grey uniforms. These uniforms quickly wore out, however, and the men needed new ones. North Carolina was unique among Southern states in that from 20 September 1861 it took over the responsibility for clothing its own troops. The state set up a clothing factory in Raleigh which made, during its one year of...

Illinois

Confederate Generals Gettysburg

The only state regulation on dress in use in Illinois at the outbreak of the Civil War was a requirement that officers could wear uniforms 'similar' to those worn by US Army officers. The state did not, however, have a unique state uniform for its Civil War troops. It was hoped that the US government could uniform and equip all the state's volunteers from the beginning. This was not to be the case and the first Illinois infantry volunteers received a state-provided issue of grey shirts, blue...

Massachusetts

M1842 Musket

Massachusetts had a button that used 'the Massachusetts arms with the word Massachusetts' for generals and the words 'Mass. Vol. Militia' for other officers and enlisted men. Among officers examples were to be seen of both cast brass rectangular and two-piece brass sword bell plates bearing the state coal of arms. US regulation plates, though, were the most common type used by Massachusetts volunteers. Sergeant Frederick A. Cline, 40th Missouri Infantry Regiment, wears the short uniform jacket...

126th Pennsylvania Infantry

Blue Dragoon

'When my regiment was organized that spring', wrote 4th 'Texas Infantry Regiment Pte. Val C. Giles, 'there were no two companies who had uniforms alike. 11 was some time after the war began before the Confederacy adopted any particular style of uniform. The color was universally gray, but the cut of cloth varied considerably. We were a motley-looking set, but as a rule, comfortably dressed. In my company we had about four different shades of gray, but the trimmings were all of black braid.'...

New York

Breech Loading Cap Tins

When lilt' Federal government requested troops to put down the rebellion, New York sent 11 of its militia regiments to Washington, and called for another 30,000 volunteer militia for two years' service. Those went into ncwlv organised regiments. New York's governor cabled the Secretary of War on 28 June 1861 that he had 'already contracted for the making of 10,000 suits of uniforms with two parties, 2,500 to be delivered this week, of the best army goods, at 16.50 per suit, and for 20,000 caps,...

Maryland

Maryland's Union troops wore standard US Army uniforms and carried issue weapons and accoutrements. The state's approximately 25,000 men who fought in the Confederate Army were luckier than many in that they had families behind Federal lines who had access to much more material than did those living in the South, and they were therefore often better supplied from home than typical Confederates. On 19 September 1862 a 9th New York Infantry Regiment private saw the Confederate 1 st Maryland...

Wisconsin

16th Wisconsin Infantry

Wisconsin's officers were to wear US Army uniforms after 1858, but, as in so many Northern states, there was not enough blue material for all its volunteers on the outbreak of war. The state's 1st and 2nd Infantry Regiments therefore wore plain, single-breasted grey frock coats, grey trousers with a black cord down each leg, a grey kepi trimmed with black, and a grey overcoat with black piping on cuffs and pockets. The 3rd's uniforms included dark grey hunting shirts or frocks, light grey...

Pennsylvania

Peninsular Campaign

When, in May 1861, Pennsylvania's Quartermaster General began to let contracts for uniforms for the state's thousands of volunteers, there was no regulation state uniform to guide his contracts. His plan was to dress them all in blue but this material was difficult to obtain, and grey uniforms were A group of New York infantry privates, showing how the bottom front edges of the state-issue jacket were rounded. The two in the centre hold their weapons at 'shoulder arms', while the two on either...

Virginia

State Seal Buttons Without Eagle

This stamped brass oval belt plate, the back filled with lead, bears the state seal of Pennsylvania and the letters 'RB', for the Reserve Brigade of Philadelphia. The plate is typical of the state seal-issued belt plates which were the same size as the US Army issue type. Author's collection There were 110 Vermont-wide dress regulations, so when the 1st Volunteer Infantry Regiment was raised in 1861 the Quartermaster General simply chose grey as a popular and easy-to-acquire uniform colour. He...

Maine Infantry Regiments

10th Illinois Infantry

There was 110 regulation Maine uniform. The first six volunteer infantry regiments, when raised in 1861, received state-purchased uniforms that included grey frock coats, with eight Maine buttons down the front plain grey trousers and plain grey forage caps. The actual colours varied from 'Canada gray', through 'light gray' and 'dark gray', to 'cadet gray'. A major of the 3rd Maine Infantry Regiment recalled that when they were organised in 1861, 'We were clothed in new gray uniforms, and...

American Civil Hr Armies

8th Wisconsin Infantry Regiment

'The War Between the States' is the term used for the American Civil War throughout much of the South even today. While it was actually a war fought between two central governments, many men on both sides not just the South felt that they were serving their states as much, if not more, than their central governments. Many of the stales agreed, the state governments raising their own units, commissioning their officers, and supplying their men. Indeed, many of the units that fought the Civil War...

Connecticut

Alabama Infantry Regiment

In 1851 Connecticut issued dress regulations which closely followed those of the US Army of that time, save for the use of state buttons and cap badges. While this uniform was obsolete in 1861, some of its features survived well into the Civil War. Companies A and B of most Connecticut infantry regiments, for example, were rifle companies and wore green trim 011 their uniforms, while the rest were 'regimental companies'. The state provided the first clothing, accoutrements, and arms issues to...

Alabama

Buttons New Orleans

Alabama's troops formed what the state called the 'Alabama Volunteer Corps'. Its uniforms, according to General Orders No. i, issued 28 March 1861, included dark blue frock coats, cadet grey wool pants both trimmed 'as prescribed for the Confederate states service' and US Military Academy-style shakos. These were to have 'the letters A.V.C. to be placed 011 the cap below the eagle'. Such letters were noted as being worn by Alabamians in Virginia in 1861. Woollen overcoats of jeans material...