Georgia

Most officers from Georgia—which does not seem to have printed state dress regulations wore copies of the 1861 US Army uniform. James Cooper Nisbet, Co. H, 21st Georgia Infantry Regiment, recalled that in 1861 each man in his company was 'uniformed in gray', while 'the lieutenants were uniformed in home-made blue jeans. My uniform was of a regular United States Army blue, tailor-made, a present (with my sword and belt) from my sister. . .'

Most enlisted men wore jackets, although frocks were worn in some companies organised before the war. On 21 August 1861 Pte. Henry Graves, 3rd Georgia Infantry Regiment, wrote home: "I wish Ma could send me a coat; let her make it of that gray woolen cloth she once made my hunting coat from... It must be a jacket, buttoning all the way up in front, with a short collar designed to stand up, buttons either brass or silver, oval shape, nearly half inch in diameter; put a short piece of white tape ^ inch wide upon the shoulder, running from front to back. Let it be warm; pockets inside and on both sides'.

Actually, the 3rd was typical of Georgia's 1861 regiments in that the uniforms varied by company, from the 'buff-colored' Georgia kersey of Company F, to the red jackets and blue-black pants with a

Georgia Infantry

Private D. R. Cpssar, Company E, ist Local Troops, Georgia Infantry, wears a plain grey frock coat with apparently black trim on the odd breast pockets, around the flap over the pocket used to carry percussion caps, and around each cufT—a variation of a Georgia state uniform. Cessar's company was formed around draft-exempt workers of the Forest City Foundry in Augusta, and saw action during Sherman's campaign in that state. (Lee Joyncr collection)

Private D. R. Cpssar, Company E, ist Local Troops, Georgia Infantry, wears a plain grey frock coat with apparently black trim on the odd breast pockets, around the flap over the pocket used to carry percussion caps, and around each cufT—a variation of a Georgia state uniform. Cessar's company was formed around draft-exempt workers of the Forest City Foundry in Augusta, and saw action during Sherman's campaign in that state. (Lee Joyncr collection)

white stripe, and 'German fatigue caps' of Company E. All the other companies wore grey uniforms, however, with black trim on them in Companies C, H, and K; green trim in Company A; and red trim in Company B. Grey was, state-wide, the most common jacket colour, with 16 companies nicknamed the 'Grays' raised, against only nine of Blues'. Of course, both grey and blue coats were worn in other companies, too.

Georgia did maintain its own 'State Army', which included two infantry regiments, one rifle battalion, one cavalry battalion, and one artillery battalion. According to General Orders No. 4, issued 15 February 1861, its troops were to wear Georgia cadet grey frock coats and trousers, while the officers wore dark blue frock coats and pants. Infantrymen had black patches on their standing coat collars, while artillerymen wore orange piping and trouser stripes. Blue flannel sack coats were to be worn for fatigues. US Army rank insignia were to be worn.

Besides a State Army, Georgia authorised a State Navy in January 1861. Its officers were to wear US Navy officers' uniforms with state buttons. 'For the men the uniform will be... Red Shirt (flannel) with sky blue falling collar edged with white and anchor at corners; and sky blue cuffs with such other insignia on arms or elsewhere as may be usual. The trousers will be the usual Navy dark blue, and the Cap a Seaman's Cap, dark blue or such other color as your men prefer (without visor) and drawn by ribbon at the side in Sailor fashion.' The State Navy was merged into the Confederate Navy in March

1861, probably before too many of its men received regulation uniforms.

Georgia also assisted the Confederate Army in clothing its natives, some 25,000 to 30,000 of whom were in the main army by the end of 1864. These uniforms were probably the typical Confederate plain grey jackets and trousers. O11 27 January 1865 Confederate Quartermaster-General A. R. Lawton reported that 'Georgia ... has issued within the past year as follows: 26,795jackets, 28,808 pairs of pants, 37,657 pairs of shoes, 7,504 blankets, 24,952 shirts, 24,168 pairs of drawers and 23,024 pairs of socks...'

The standard Georgia belt plate, apparently mostly produced before the war, was an oval, lead-backed brass plate like the US oval plate but bearing the state coat of arms. A number of these were also made into cartridge box plates. A much rarer plate was a cast brass rectangle bearing the coat of arms. A mounted man's two-piece plate was the most common sword belt plate, and this also had the state coat of arms on its 'male' part. Buttons also bore the state coat of arms.

Georgia set up its own armoury in the state penitentiary at Milledgeville. There, from early in

1862, some 125 M1841 'Mississippi' rifles were said to be produced every month. These were marked 'GA. ARMORY' over the date on the rear of the lockplate. Sabre bayonets were also made at Milledgeville. Georgia is, however, most noted for its pikes, 5,000 of which were found in storage when Milledgeville was captured on 22 November 1864. At the same time the Union troops who captured the armoury also found 2,300 'smooth-bore muskets, calibre .69', which were probably M 1842 muskets.

Newspaper woodblock engravings, while inevitably somewhat distorted, were copied line for line from eyewitness sketches, and those which are the work of skilled artists are useful references. In this study, Colonel Lew Wallace (wearing a white havelock) and members of his nth Indiana Volunteer Infantry Regiment are seen in the field in Western Virginia, August 1861. All except for the field-grade officer at the right are wearing the regiment's grey Zouave-style uniform. (Author's collection)

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Indiana volunteers bury their dead after the Battle of Rich Mountain, July 1861; note the state-issued slouch ..tsHStff hats and waist-length jackets. (Author's collection) 3

The Battle Rich Mountain
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