Analysis 1 What Did The Dictatorship Of Primo De Rivera Achieve

When, in September 1923, as Captain-General of Barcelona, General Miguel Primo de Rivera issued a pronunciamiento overturning the Liberal government of Garc a Prieto, he was seen by many as an almost messianic figure, leading a crusade against political corruption, social chaos and imperial humiliation. He was backed by the King, the army, the Church and a wide popular consensus. Yfet, although his period of rule to January 1930 is called the Dictadura, his was not a dictatorship that followed...

Analysis 1 How Did The International Brigades And The Ussr Affect The Course And Outcome Of The

As has been seen in earlier chapters, the crash of revolution against reaction in the summer of 1936 resonated far beyond Spain. In the process, it produced responses that ranged from the altruistic to the Machiavellian. In the context of the Spanish Civil War, the concept of 'foreign volunteer' embraced a wide variety of beliefs and goals. This discussion will focus on the role of the International Brigades and the USSR, and contrasting views of their impact on the Spanish conflict. The...

Analysis 1 Did The Nationalists Win Or The Republicans Lose The Spanish Civil

This question carries echoes of the Government and Politics 'standard' 'Oppositions do not win elections. Governments lose them.' Discuss. What is inferred is that mistakes on the part of those in power impose the ultimate price defeat. In the context of the Spanish Civil War, did the Republic, through a catalogue of errors, lose to the Nationalists Had it, moreover, seized defeat from the jaws of victory Two hypotheses, admittedly qualified by hindsight, suggest that the Republic might have...

Analysis 1 Why Despite Its Achievements Did The Second Republic Prove So Unstable

Between its birth in April 1931 and March 1939 when its last Prime Minister, Juan Negr n, fell from power, the Second Republic experienced fifteen changes of government. This in itself, however, says nothing specific of individual government tenure, one criterion for 'stability'. Aza a's first stint as Prime Minister, from October 1931, lasted nearly two years at the other extreme, in July 1936 the government of Mart nez Barrio survived for barely twelve hours. Of the eleven peacetime...

Source E Dionisio Ridruejo in 1938 Francos propaganda chief interviewed by Ronald Fraser in the 1970s

The charter had very concrete origins the Italians demanded it, maintaining that it was necessary to give the new state a more progressive social outlook and to remove suspicion that it was simply a reactionary regime. It was one of the very few times that the Italians intervened in the internal politics of the new regime, unlike the Germans. The latter's main concern was repayment of their aid. I heard Serrano Suner relate privately how German pressure became so great at one time that Franco...

Analysis 2 Why During The Period April 1931 To December 1935 Did The Army Not Stage A Largescale Revolt

There was, during these years, plenty to provoke collective anxiety and revulsion within army circles, not just in the realm of military matters per se. But of widespread, carefully coordinated physical revolt there was no evidence. The one attempted military coup, the Sanjurjada of August 1932, was carried out by a tiny minority Azana's government countered the rebels with ease, sentenced Sanjurjo to death, commuted to 'life', and purged several hundred officers. Such was warning enough to...

Analysis 1 What Was The Significance Of German Aid To The Nationalist Side

Some of the reasons for Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy's intervention in the events in Spain from July 1936 were touched on briefly in the two previous chapters. What seems clear, however, is that a Nazi and Italian Fascist presence did not so much start the conflict as play a major role in sustaining it, manipulating and redefining it, and in determining its outcome in Spain, victory for Franco abroad, a deepening gulf with significant qualifications between fascist and anti-fascist powers....

Analysis 1 Why Did The Military Rising Not Achieve Immediate Control Of Spain

Was the failure due to its inability to capture key centres such as Madrid, Bilbao and Santander in the north, Barcelona and Valencia in the east, Badajoz in the west, and M laga and Ja n in the south Indeed, a coordinated enveloping attack on the capital in July 1936 proved impossible. Forty years later, in The Battle for Madrid, the Anglo-Spanish writer and broadcaster George Hills made this point explicit for example, that because of fighting on the northern Basque and Santander fronts, the...

Analysis 2 To What Extent Was Francos Regime Fascist

In November 1936 Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy accorded Franco diplomatic recognition as Chief of State. By January 1938, when by decree he installed his first government, Franco was firmly established as 'National Chief' of the Falange Espa ola Tradicionalista y de las JONS -the monumental 'movement' that was to underpin his dictatorship. In February 1939 Franco's regime was recognized by Britain and France and, on 1 April and with the Caudillo's deceptive termination of the Civil War, by the...

Primary Sources

Although most of Harry Browne's Spain's Civil War 2nd edn, London, 1996 is an established secondary work, the text includes bracketed references to the many document extracts that follow it. In contrast, Patricia Knight's The Spanish Civil War Basingstoke, 1991 is document-centred, with source-related questions at the end of each chapter. Ronald Fraser's Blood ofSpain London, 1979 86 is built on testimony from the 300-plus eyewitnesses he interviewed in the 1970s, interwoven with his own...