Analysis 2 What Was The Significance Of The Fall Of The Monarchy In 1931

Four days after the municipal elections of April 1931, and two days after the provisional government inaugurated the Second Republic, King Alfonso XIII published his farewell message. This manifesto for the past and future raises several questions about his own role in politics, the position of the monarchy, and the wider nature of Spanish politics. For example, the results of the municipal elections did indeed, as Alfonso maintained, show public alienation from the monarchy, but this was not...

Analysis 1 What Did The Dictatorship Of Primo De Rivera Achieve

When, in September 1923, as Captain-General of Barcelona, General Miguel Primo de Rivera issued a pronunciamiento overturning the Liberal government of Garc a Prieto, he was seen by many as an almost messianic figure, leading a crusade against political corruption, social chaos and imperial humiliation. He was backed by the King, the army, the Church and a wide popular consensus. Yfet, although his period of rule to January 1930 is called the Dictadura, his was not a dictatorship that followed...

Analysis 1 How Did The International Brigades And The Ussr Affect The Course And Outcome Of The

As has been seen in earlier chapters, the crash of revolution against reaction in the summer of 1936 resonated far beyond Spain. In the process, it produced responses that ranged from the altruistic to the Machiavellian. In the context of the Spanish Civil War, the concept of 'foreign volunteer' embraced a wide variety of beliefs and goals. This discussion will focus on the role of the International Brigades and the USSR, and contrasting views of their impact on the Spanish conflict. The...

Analysis 1 Did The Nationalists Win Or The Republicans Lose The Spanish Civil

This question carries echoes of the Government and Politics 'standard' 'Oppositions do not win elections. Governments lose them.' Discuss. What is inferred is that mistakes on the part of those in power impose the ultimate price defeat. In the context of the Spanish Civil War, did the Republic, through a catalogue of errors, lose to the Nationalists Had it, moreover, seized defeat from the jaws of victory Two hypotheses, admittedly qualified by hindsight, suggest that the Republic might have...

Source E Dionisio Ridruejo in 1938 Francos propaganda chief interviewed by Ronald Fraser in the 1970s

The charter had very concrete origins the Italians demanded it, maintaining that it was necessary to give the new state a more progressive social outlook and to remove suspicion that it was simply a reactionary regime. It was one of the very few times that the Italians intervened in the internal politics of the new regime, unlike the Germans. The latter's main concern was repayment of their aid. I heard Serrano Suner relate privately how German pressure became so great at one time that Franco...

Analysis 1 What Was The Significance Of German Aid To The Nationalist Side

Some of the reasons for Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy's intervention in the events in Spain from July 1936 were touched on briefly in the two previous chapters. What seems clear, however, is that a Nazi and Italian Fascist presence did not so much start the conflict as play a major role in sustaining it, manipulating and redefining it, and in determining its outcome in Spain, victory for Franco abroad, a deepening gulf with significant qualifications between fascist and anti-fascist powers....

Analysis 1 Why Did The Military Rising Not Achieve Immediate Control Of Spain

Was the failure due to its inability to capture key centres such as Madrid, Bilbao and Santander in the north, Barcelona and Valencia in the east, Badajoz in the west, and M laga and Ja n in the south Indeed, a coordinated enveloping attack on the capital in July 1936 proved impossible. Forty years later, in The Battle for Madrid, the Anglo-Spanish writer and broadcaster George Hills made this point explicit for example, that because of fighting on the northern Basque and Santander fronts, the...

Secondary Sources

Of the general surveys, Martin Blinkhorn's Democracy and Civil War in Spain London, 1988 is succinct and clearly ordered. Paul Preston's Concise History of the Spanish Civil War London, 1996 is a vivid evocation of the background and the conduct of the war itself, with an indispensable bibliographical essay. Patricia Knight's The Spanish Civil War is a recent contribution to the Access to History series London, 1998 . Of the more in-depth accounts, Hugh Thomas's The Spanish Civil War...

Analysis 2 To What Extent Was Francos Regime Fascist

In November 1936 Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy accorded Franco diplomatic recognition as Chief of State. By January 1938, when by decree he installed his first government, Franco was firmly established as 'National Chief' of the Falange Espa ola Tradicionalista y de las JONS -the monumental 'movement' that was to underpin his dictatorship. In February 1939 Franco's regime was recognized by Britain and France and, on 1 April and with the Caudillo's deceptive termination of the Civil War, by the...

Primary Sources

Although most of Harry Browne's Spain's Civil War 2nd edn, London, 1996 is an established secondary work, the text includes bracketed references to the many document extracts that follow it. In contrast, Patricia Knight's The Spanish Civil War Basingstoke, 1991 is document-centred, with source-related questions at the end of each chapter. Ronald Fraser's Blood ofSpain London, 1979 86 is built on testimony from the 300-plus eyewitnesses he interviewed in the 1970s, interwoven with his own...