The End in Spain 167

July I 700"lvlClrCT! I foy

Legion CondorBf109 Legion Condor

IJiFT: One side of the spinner of Hptm. Gouluird Ilandrieks Bf 109 I>1 was marked with the five Olympic rings to commemorate his winning a Gold Medal in the 1936 Berlin Games together with the legend "1936" and a laurel wreath.This photo was taken after the aircraft had been decorated by his ground crew to commemorate his return to Germany In September 1938.The inscription'Scheiden tut web* means "Parting Is painful". ABOVE: The other side of the spinner of Handrick's Bf 1091>1 with the five Olympic rings and the legend"! 9iO?This recorded Ilandriek s hope that he would win a second Olympic Gold Medal at the 1940 Games scheduled to take placc in Tokyo.The nose of the spinner was painted in concentric red, yellow and red bands.

LEIT:A Bf 109 I) photographed on a Spanish airfield. A total of 36 D-scries aircraft were delivered to the Legion Condor for use by Jagdgruppe 88, numbered 6«51 to 6«86.

Walter GrabmannBf109 Legion CondorBf109 Legion Condor

Messerschmitt Bf 109 D-l In September 1938, the aircraft was taken over by the new commander of J/88, Hptm. Walter Grabmann, who substltutei the script "h" with a "G". j the end of the Spanish Civ War, the aircraft was passi to the Patrulla Azul (Blue Patrol) of the Spanish Air Force, the script "G" then being replaced by the Falangist "Yoke and Arrow insignia.

ABOVE: After Handrick handed over command of J/«« in September 1938.6*56 was lakeo over by the new commander. Hptm. Walter Grabmann who substituted the script *h" with a "G". On his return to Germany, Grabmann took over command of I.(schwere J)/I.G 1 and then became Kommodorc of ZG 76. He ended the Second World War as a divisional commander. 6*56 was laicr passed to the Patrulla Azul (Blue Patrol) of the i.panish Air Force, the script *G" then being replaced by a Falangist 'Yoke and Arrows" Insignia.

BELOW: As indicated above, die Bf 109 D-l coded 6#56 was eventually passed to the Spanish Patrulla Azul (Blue PatroI)The badge of die unit was painted In blue and white on die aircraft's fin.

Legion Condor Pilots BadgeCurtiss Condor Aircraft

RIGHT: Tlic Mickcy Mouse emblem indicates iliis Hi' 1091>1 was operated by 3J/88 but unfortunately die identity of the pilot is unknown. Six white victory bars were painted

BliLOW: A mechanic poses in front of Hptm. Werner Molders" Bf 109 D-l, coded 6®79, with the Mickcy Mouse emblem introduced for 3 J/88 when it was led by Obit. Douglas Pitcairn.This photo was taken on 15 July 1938 before his first victory claim, a "Curtiss". After Molders returned to Germany, his aircraft was allocated by junior pilots to give them confidence.

ABOVE: Hauptmann Werner Molders, affectionately known as "Vati" (Daddy) was the highest scoring German fighter pilot in Spain with 14 victories. He developed the tactic of assembling his fighters in a loose formation of four (the Schwarm), tactics which were to stand the Jagdwaflc in good stead during the Battle of

Legion CondorNazi Fighter Pilot Werna Molders109 Hauptman

Details of Mölders' "Mickey Mouse" badge

Messerschmitt Bf 109 D-l

Flown by Hauptmann Werner Mölders, Staffelkapitän of 3.J/88, November 1938. Mölders' aircraft had medium green (62) uppersurfaces with the name "Luchs" (Lynx) painted on the fuselage side. This may have been applied by his ground crew to indicate that he had eyes like a lynx. Although It Is generally accepted that Mölders shot down a total of 14 Republican aircraft In Spain, the rudder of his machine was marked with fifteen victory bars.

ABOVE: The rudder of Hpun. Werner Molderss Bf 109 D-l showr fifteen white victory bars. It is widely accepted that Mulders claim fourteen victories in Spain, so this picture remains somewhat of a mystery. Whether he considered one of his victories had not be recognised, or whether one of his mechanics simply anticipated another "kill* is unknown.

Obit.Werner Mulders talks one of his mechanics as hi aircraft, coded 6#79, is pn for ¡mother operation. M61 aircraft had the named "Lu (Lynx) painted on both sli the engine cowling, with i "Mickey Mouse" emblem < 3.J/88 on the port side.

ABOVE: A mechanic working on the last Bf 109 D-l to be sent to Spain coded 6#86.The aircraft was delivered to 1 J/88 which had just adopted the "Holzaugc* emblem.

RIGHT: The aircraft neatest the camera was the first Bf 109 E-l, coded 6#87, to be delivered to Spain. Photographed at Zaidin airfield in Dcccml>cr 1938 together with a group of Bf 109 B-2s in the background.Tile aircraft had medium green uppcrsurfaccs, (similar to RLM colour (62) but possibly a little paler.The undersides were finished in pale blue (65).

Condor Legion 109

Messerschmltt Bf 109 E-l

The first Messerschmltt Bf 109 E-l to arrlvo In Spain at Zaidin airfield, December 1938. The E model Bf 109 retained the medium green uppersurface camouflage with pale blue beneath carried by previous variants In Spain. The painting of black patches around the exhaust area was common to Bf 109 Es operating In the Spanish Civil war.

Condor Legion Bf109

IBFTAND RIGHT: The-Holzauge" (wooden eye) insignia introduced by Hptm. Sicbclt Reents, the last Kapitiin of lJ/88.Thc "Holzauge" was a reference to the Spanish gesture of pulling down the bottom eyelid with one finger to indicate caution.

¡.HIT: On 2 September 193». Obit. Sicbclt Reents took over command of l.J/88 from Wolfganf Schcllmann. He introduced the "Holzcugc" emblem which was normally painted on both sides of the fuselage of the unit's Bf 109 Es. However the positioning of where the emblem was painted varied (sec page 176) as did the actual artwork.

BELOW: The fourth Bf 109 F.-l to be sent to Spain was 6»90 shown here at Zaragoza just before being handed over to the Spanish Air Force at the end of the Civil War.

BELOW: Obit. Sicbclt Reents" Bf 109 E coded 6#88. stands ready for action in the late afternoon sun. with the mechanics tidying up after completing their task

RIGHT: Three Bf 109s return from a mission with a Bf 109 E-l.coded 6#9I in the foreground.

Hans Nirminger

RIGHT. This Bf 109 B-1.6#98, was flown by Fw. Hcinrich Windcmuth who crashed and was killed during a ground attack on VUajtdga airfield on 6 February 1939. At the time he was credited with having one victory.

BELOW: A group of Bf 109 E-3s after delivery to Spain with 6* 101 in the foreground and 6®9I behind. Bf 109s with codes between 6#87 and 6« 131 were allocated to E-scries

BELOW: The Bf 109 E-1 in the background, coded <>• 104. was transferred to the Spanish Grupo 5-G-5 at the end of the war in Spain. Both Bf 109 E-ls and E-3s were sent to Spain, the latter differing mainly in having the two 7.9 mm MG 17 machine-guns replaced by two 20 mm MG FF cannon.

109 Armament

! ABOVE AND RIGHT. As the conflict drew towards its eventual Nationalist victory, German aircrews found themselves less involved. By the time the Bf 109 Es had I become common-place the Republican Airforce had more or | less been clmimatcd.Thc.sc times gave ample opportunities for living practice with the new lighter and these photos I also show the wide variety of flying uniforms worn by i German personnel.

Spain Nationalist 109Hauptmann Siebelt Reents
Another variation of the "Zylinder hut" (top hat) badge carried by the Bf 109 E, coded 6*107 of 2.J/88.
Hans Nirminger

ABOVE: A total of 15 Bf 109 Es were delivered to Jagdgruppc 88 in Spain, coded 6987 to 6*131.

109 Nirminger

ABOVE: A group photo of l.J/88, from left: Uffe. Halupczck,Uft2. Holitzke, Uflz. Nirminger (partly hidden), Obit. "Fürst" Wilcke, Lt. Rocdcl, Hptm. Rcents (Staffelkapitän), Obit, von Holte), Lt. Sandmann, Lt. von Minnigcrodc, Obit. HoUweg and Lt. Schumann

ABOVE: A total of 15 Bf 109 Es were delivered to Jagdgruppc 88 in Spain, coded 6987 to 6*131.

LEFT. This Bf 109 E-3 coded 6*111, which was flown by Lt.Werner Ursinus of 2 J/88, had the name "Bärchen" painted in while below the cockpit. "Ursinus" means "Teddy Bear" in latin :uid the German lor that toy is "Bilrchen". On his return to Germany, Ursinus led 5./JG 53 until the end of August 1941 when he took over the Ergänzungsstaffel of JG 53. He survived the war as an instructor.

Messerschmitt Bf 109 E-3 Flown by Lt. Werner Ursinus of 2.J/88, spring 1939. The name "Barchen" (Teddy Bear) was painted below the cockpit of his aircraft. "Ursinus" means "Teddy Bear" in Latin, hence the connection. Ursinus did not claim any victories with 2.J/88 in Spain but later went on to serve with JG 53 in France, the Battle of Britain and Russia.

Messerschmitt Bf 109 E-3

Flown by Hptm. Siebelt Reents, Staffelkapitän of lJ/88, spring 193S Reents' aircraft had the "Holzauge" (Wooden Eye) badge Introduced for aircraft of the l.Staffel of J/88 at this time.

Legion Condor 109

Messerschmitt Bf 109 E-3

Flown by Hptm. Siebelt Reents, Staffelkapitän of lJ/88, spring 193S Reents' aircraft had the "Holzauge" (Wooden Eye) badge Introduced for aircraft of the l.Staffel of J/88 at this time.

Condor Legion 109

RIGHT. Taken at the same time as the photo at the top left of page 175, this photo shows Hptm.Sicbclt Recnts with other pilots from the 1 J/88. In the background is Recnts' Bf 109 E.

ABOVE: The aircraft to the left of this photograph, coded 60121, was flown by Obit. Karl-Wolfgang Rcdlich of 2 J/88. Rcdlich later took over command of I./JG 27 in 1944, but was killed on 29 May of that year. He claimed four victories in Spain and was awarded tile Rilterkrcuz in 1941.
Pig Scanning Sky Civil War

WIT- while mechanics wort; on a pair of Bf 109 I>3s others scan the sky for other Messcrschmitts.The E-series Bf 109 was by far the best fighter to see service in the Spanish Civil War.

ABOVE: One of the last Bf 109 Es to arrive in Spain. 6# 125. was deliver***» to 1 J/88 but saw little operational service before it was handed over to the Spanish Air Force and the conclusion of the conflict.

WIT- while mechanics wort; on a pair of Bf 109 I>3s others scan the sky for other Messcrschmitts.The E-series Bf 109 was by far the best fighter to see service in the Spanish Civil War.

109 Mit Zylinderhut

BELOW: Obit. Hans Schmoller-Haldy s Bf 109 E-3, coded 6*123 showing clearly, the 3.Staffcl's Mickey Mouse emblem and Schmoller-IIaldy's personal badge depicting an overflowing beer mug.

The Mickey Mouse emblem was lirst painted on the He 51 of 3J/88 piloted by Obit. Douglas Pitcairn by one of his Staffers mechanics.Thc Staffcl had christened itself, among other things, The Deep Sea Divers from the Race of Mickey Mouse", a reference to the sharp diving tactics employed by the unit's aircraft.The emblem was later adopted by the remainder of the Staffcl and appeared in several slightly modified forms.

BELOW: Obit. Hans Schmoller-Haldy s Bf 109 E-3, coded 6*123 showing clearly, the 3.Staffcl's Mickey Mouse emblem and Schmoller-IIaldy's personal badge depicting an overflowing beer mug.

Micky Mouse 1936 Spain109 Tactics

RIGHT. Obll Hans Schmollcr-Haldy in his Bf 109 E-3 (see below opposite) in March 1939-This view clearly shows the aircraft's code 6» 123, as well as the Mickey Mouse badge of 3.J/88 and Schmoller-Haldys personal insignia, an overflowing beer mug was also carricd.Thc initials "CP" were to commemoniic the "Order of Cardinal Paff" - an international pilots'drinking club founded in Belgium.

109 Mickey Mouse

ABOVE AND LEFT: The emblems carried on Schmoller-Haldy's Bf 109 E. The "Mickey Mouse" badge was similar to that carried on Werner Molders' Bf 109 D-l.

Messerschmitt Bf 109 E-3

Flown by Obit. Hans Schmoller-Haldy of 3.J/88, March 1939. His aircraft carried the Mickey Mouse badge of 3.J/88 which was first painted on Douglas Pitcaim's machine. In addition, his personal insignia, an overflowing beer mug was also applied Illustrating his membership of the "Cardinal Paff" drinking club.

Werner Molders Airplane InsigniaWerner Molders Airplane Insignia

ABOVE: This close-up of a Bf 109 E shows the red oil filler triangle positioned behind the carburettor air intake with the inscription "INTAVA* underneath. The pilot has slid back the glass panel in his canopy.

Schmoller HaldyAustrian Naval Pilot Badge

BP.LOW\ T1k- former Austrian fighter pilot, Lt. Josef "Joseliko" Fo/.o achieved three victories in Spain.This photograph shows his aircraft after he completed a landing at Bardcnce hut forgot to lower his undercarriage! F6/.6 was Liter to command 1I./JG 51 before being seriously injured in a take-off accident.

ABOVE: Being unused to retractable undercarriages pilots often forget to extend the wheels of their Bf 109s before landing! However this aircraft, a Bf 109 D, looks as though it suffered engine failure because the propeller appears I undamaged.

Condor Legion 109

ABOVE: Members of the naval reconnaissance squadron AS/88 on their way back to Germany at the end of the war.The words chalked on the side of the train can he translated as: "We want to go home to the Reich"! RIGHT. The beautiful Spanish certificate awarding the Medalla dc la Lampana to "Cipitan" Dietrich von Bothmer on 1 December 1938 at Burgos.

20mm Canon

CENTRE I.EI-T-. Probably the List but one Bl" 109 sent to Spain was coded 6% 130. It was an E-3 model with two 20 mm MG FF cannon in the wings.

LEFT. It has been thought that only 130 Bf 109s were sent to Spain, but this photograph seems to prove that at least one more machine arrived with the code 6» 131.The pilot in the foreground is Gerhard Halupczck (later Herzog).This photo also shows to advantage the black patch painted around the cxliaust area of many Bf 109s in Spain.

BELOW-. At the end of the Spanish Civil War many of the surviving aircraft were either dismantled or taken over by the Spanish Airforcc. Here Bf 109s are bein« dismantled and crated ready for transport. Note the code of the aircraft in the front centre has been overpaintcd in black and the wings and tail surfaces have been removed.

Condor Legion Messerschmitt 109

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B»«jiara que conste y para satisfaz nombre be -:g~~<£~~ci flresentFSIpnr mTTñJfturttog a i.° äc feicieiröre de iqt8> HI mo £riunfal.__

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