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7 Franco was eventually invested with the supreme civil and military power. The outlook changed dramatically when, contrary to all studied opinion, the African Army was ferried across the Straits of Gibraltar, and in Spain itself the Republicans failed utterly to exploit their initial successes. By a combination of audacity, sound planning and luck, 80 per cent of the 23,000 men making up C,the African Army were regrouped in the Sevilla area by the first week in September. A major airlift the...

The Campaign

1936 Once the fog surrounding the confused and bloody events of that first weekend of 17 18 July began to clear, the balance of power seemed heavily weighted in favour of the Republicans. Their forces of trained men, both regular and militia, outnumbered those of their opponents. Most of the main cities and all the industrial areas were in their hands. Leading members of the U.M.E., among them Generals Goded and Burriel, were in their hands, soon to be executed. Jos Antonio Primo de Rivera,...

The Pti tes

Spanish Uniform Ifni War

Main sources, apart from photographs in published and unpublished collections, and surviving items of uniform and equipment in the Imperial War Museum, London, were J. M. Bueno, Uniformes Militares de la Guerra Civil Espa ola, San Martin, Madrid, 1971 articles by C. A. Norman in issues 66 and 67 of Tradition magazine and an article on armoured vehicles by Stephen Zaloga in Model world magazine, now defunct. A1 Alf rez, Tiradores de Ifni, campaign dress The...

The Spanish Civil lMngj6jg

Uniforms Pictures From Gen Franco

By the spring of 1936 it was becoming increasingly evident that Spain was heading for an armed clash between the forces and of the extreme Right and the extreme Left. The moderate Republican government of Madrid was helpless to curb the activities of militants of opposing factions, or to check the tide of political assassinations. Over the period of 16 June to 13 July, terrorists murdered 61 people and wounded a further 224. There were 132 bomb incidents, ten churches and nineteen public...

Jeffrey Burn

Legion Condor Tank

2 Cabo, infantry, winter campaign dress 3 Soldado, infantry, winter campaign dress 1 Staff captain, Div. 'Littorio', Italian Volunteer Corps 2 Volunteer, Div. 'XXIII di Marzo', Italian Volunteer Corps, 1937 3 Leutnant, Legion Condor tank companies 4 Alf rez, Spanish Foreign Legion tank companies, with Pzkpfw. I Aus. A 5 Unteroffizier, Legion Condor tank companies 2 Cabo, Guardias de Asalto, 1937

The Republican Army

It is a common, but erroneous, belief that the Spanish Army joined solidly with the insurgents, just as it is equally erroneous to state that the war was waged between the 'haves' and the 'have nots'. Though in Morocco the troops were almos.t unanimous in supporting their leader, General Franco, this was far from being the case in metropolitan Spain. On 17 July the mainland army consisted of eight infantry divisions centred on Corunna, Saragossa, Burgos, Valladolid, Sevilla, Valencia,...

Spanish Foreign Legion

Spanish Foreign Legion

1 Cabo, infantry, service dress 2 Falangist militiaman, summer campaign dress, 1937 3 Navarrese requet , winter campaign dress, 1936 Background Colours of Regimiento de Infanteria 'San Marcial' no. 22 1 Sargento porta-gui n, 2' Bandera, Spanish Foreign Legion summer campaign dress, 1936-37 2 Legionario de Ia clase, Spanish Foreign Legion winter campaign dress, 1938 3 Teniente, infantry, summer campaign dress 2 Cabo, infantry, winter campaign dress 3 Soldado, infantry, winter campaign dress

Executed Spanish Republican Prisoners

Irregulares Spanish Civil War

Republican prisoners being marched in by Nationalist infantry in the Somosierra sector. The Republicans wear civilian clothing, the Nationalists gorillo caps and what appear to be khaki monos. Keystone Republican prisoners being marched in by Nationalist infantry in the Somosierra sector. The Republicans wear civilian clothing, the Nationalists gorillo caps and what appear to be khaki monos. Keystone score a spectacular success, kept throwing in repeated round-the-clock assaults. Franco was now...

Legion Condor Red Beret

Black Shirt Militia Uniforms

Illustration by Embleton after Bueno. Black beret with white death's-head dark-brown overall with death's-head repeated on right and silver rank stars on black 'biscuit' on left breast brown belt and holster. For further comments on Nationalist tank uniforms, see description of colour plate 4. shows a red crab motif painted on the helmet and sewn on the blouse, and identifies the soldier as a Galician volunteer. WTiether the crab motif was common among men...

Spanish Capote-manta

Espagnols Uniforms

Much more common on the Republican than the Nationalist side, which seems to have favoured the capote-manta. Republican stocks came from many sources, and many were of French origin. In the absence of coats, rough ponchos or capote-mantas were made from blankets or canvas. Khaki trousers or corduroys were worn either loose, or with puttees, with ankle- or high-laced boots, or even with sandals. Rolled blankets of civilian origin were common. Standard infantry equipment is worn here, with two...