The Pti tes

(Uniform research by Martin Windrow. Main sources, apart from photographs in published and unpublished collections, and surviving items of uniform and equipment in the Imperial War Museum, London, were: J. M. Bueno, Uniformes Militares de la Guerra Civil Española, San Martin, Madrid, 1971; articles by C. A. Norman in issues 66 and 67 of Tradition magazine; and an article on armoured vehicles by Stephen Zaloga in Model world magazine, now defunct.)

A1 Alférez, Tiradores de Ifni, campaign dress The junior commissioned ranks in the Spanish Army were open to some long-serving native NCOs; hence this second lieutenant's advanced years. His red tarbuch was regulation for native officers, and often worn on campaign by Spanish officers. It bears the branch badge of this class of Moroccan infantry—a five-point star in gold above a silver crescent—and the single six-point gold star of this rank below it. The rank is repeated on the left breast of the loose, 'lentil'-coloured candora. Officers and men alike often wore this on campaign. It is worn here over a shirt and breeches of light sandy-coloured cloth, with brown leather equipment including the holster of the Astra automatic. The buckled leggings were regulation for native officers. (After Bueno.)

Spanish officers of the Tiradores de Ifni initially wore uniforms very similar to that of figure A2. The distinctive colour of the branch was initially red; the peaked cap had a red crown with gold piping, a green band, a brown leather peak and a gold chinstrap. The star-and-crescent badge appeared on the crown, and the rank stars on the band; the latter were repeated on a red strip above the left pocket, and the former was worn on each point of the collar. In 1937 the distinctive colour was changed to bright blue, which thereafter appeared on the crown of the cap and on the chest ranking; brown leatherwork was replaced by black at the same time.

A 2 Capitán, Moroccan Regular Infantry, summer service dress

Officers of the Tropas Regulares de Marruecos wore this smart 'lentil'-coloured uniform with a red-

Spanish Uniform Ifni War

German 10 5cm leFH.18 howitzers of the Legion Condor artillery element. Germany provided no significant numbers of combat personnel, but her aid to the Nationalists in the form of technical instructors and modern matériel was of incalculable value.

crowned cap piped gold (note vertical piping at sides) with a gold chinstrap and cloth-covered peak. Ranking appeared on a galleta (biscuit) on the left breast, in the colour of the unit: see caption A3 below. It was also worn in the usual Nationalisi Army manner on the tunic sleeves. Alferez, teniente and capitán wore one, two and three six-pointed gold stars above the Polish cuff; comandante, teniente coronel and coronel wore one, two and three larger eight-pointed stars on the cuff itself. The branch badge of the Regulares, a numbered crescent in silver superimposed on crossed gold rifles, was worn on the cap crown. The Spanish officers of Moorish units wore a bright azure cloak lined white, which can be seen rolled on this officer's can tie. Bueno shows many officers and occasional enlisted men ol the Nationalist forces wearing Army Corps and, less frequently, divisional insignia on the upper left sleeve ; that illustrated is the badge of the Cuerpo de Ejército Marroquí—a green shield with a red six-point Moroccan star above a white crescent; th< gold letters C,E,M in top left, top right and bottom centre; and trimmed overall with gold. (Composite figure, after Bueno.)

A j Soldado, Grupo de Regulares de Ceuta no. 3, sum run campaign dress At the outbreak of the war the Moroccan régulai troops comprised five grupos (roughly, regiments each made up of several tabores (roughly, hall battalions) including an integral cavalry labor. The soldiers wore sashes in distinctive colours, whi< h mm

Civilians greeting Nationalist tank crews with the Fascist salute. The vehicles are German PzKpfw I tanks; it is impossible to tell whether they are crewed by Legion Condor or Nationalist personnel. The German instruction cadres handed the vehicles over to Spanish crews as soon as they were competent, and generally confined themselves to advisory and command duties in the latter part of the war. On the left rear plate of the nearest tank is the red-yellow-red Nationalist flash, and below its right hand end a tactical marking— apparently a circle divided horizontally, perhaps with red over white.

were repeated in the rank 'biscuits' of the officers. These were: Tetuán no. i (red), Melilla no. 2 (blue), Ceuta no. 3 (green), Larache no. 4 (dark blue) and Alhucemas no. 5 (dark red). During the war five more grupos were raised, and the colour-coding system broke down. These later units were Xauen no. 6, Llano Amarillo no. 7, Rif no. 8, Arcila no. 9 and Bab-Tazza no. 10. The typical summer campaign dress was a pale shirt and baggy zaragüelles trousers, a small white turban, puttees and white canvas shoes—alpargatas—with hemp soles. Puttees could be khaki, blue or sandy yellow. The turban—rexa—was decorated for parades with cords of the grupo colour; on such occasions an elaborately decorated leather wallet—skara—took the place of the plain one used on campaign. Leather equipment was often of an outmoded pattern, but this soldier has regulation issue infantry equipment with a brass buckle-plate decorated with the infantry branch badge—crossed musket and sword with a bugle-horn superimposed. The rifle is the '1916 Short' Mauser. Tied to the shoulder brace with a strip of rag is the most commonly used grenade of the war, the Lafitte bomb. Rising behind this soldier is the flag of the 2a Tabor, Grupo de Ceuta no. 3; from illustrations it seems to have been about three feet square, on an eight- or nine-foot pike. (Composite figure, after Bueno.)

A 4 Capitan of Republican infantry, service dress The flat-crowned peaked cap and single-breasted service tunic of the Spanish Army were worn by officers of both sides, with differences of detail. The khaki cloth used by the Republicans tended towards brown, while that of the Nationalists was greener in tone. The Republicans wore the cap with a red star outlined gold on the crown, a branch badge in the centre of the band, and ranking in the form of horizontal bars on each side of this. Both sides used the traditional branch badges: gold bugle-horn and crossed musket and sword for infantry, silver crossed lances for cavalry, gold bursting grenade for artillery, silver castle for engineers, and so forth. Republican officers wore the tunic collar either buttoned closed or open over a khaki shirt and tie; in all cases the branch badge appeared on the collar points. Republican ranking was worn beneath the star on the sleeves: one, two and three thin bars above the cuff for second lieutenants, first lieutenants and captains, and one, two and three thick bars on the cuffitselffor majors, lieutenant-colonels and colonels. There seems to have been some variation in details of cut, but the normal tunic had plain shoulder-straps, pleated patch breast pockets with three-point flaps, un-pleated bellows skirt pockets with straight flaps, and brown leather buttons in an imitation 'woven' style. Flared khaki breeches were normal, though often replaced in practice by brown corduroy breeches. The high-lacing boots illustrated were very widely worn by Republican personnel. Sam Browne belts and Astra or Star automatics were normal in both armies. Note that a single button often appeared on the rear sleeve seam of the tunic just above the edge of the false Polish cuff. (After Norman.)

B1 Cabo, Nationalist infantry, service dress This corporal wears absolutely regulation service dress in the greenish khaki of the Nationalist Army. His cap—known as a gorillo or 'isabelino'—is piped in the infantry branch colour, red, and has a tassel of the same shade; a pointed rank device is worn on the front. Branch badges are worn on the collar of the guerrera, the thigh-length tunic; and the red ranking of this grade stretches from cuff to elbow. Sergeants wore the same device in gold. Buttons are brown, as is all leather equipment. The distinctive

All Leather Equestrian Breeches

Spanish granadero trousers are flared at the thigh and tight at the calf, with buttons down the outside and a 'spat' foot. The haversack is in neutral-coloured canvas. The weapon is the 'Short 1916' Mauser. (After Bueno.)

B2 Falangist militiaman, 1937 The Falangist militias were territorially raised, and it was some months before their enthusiasm could be channelled into an orderly contribution to the Nationalist cause, under central control. This was reflected in their uniforms, which in 1936 varied widely. Common features were a black or dark blue gorillo cap piped white or red, a blue shirt, and the red yoke-and-arrows insignia of the Falange. In the early days they wore their own system of ranking; the breast badge of a jefe de centuria, for instance, approximating an Army teniente, was three silver arrows horizontally on a black patch, while a subjefe de bandera, the next rank up, wore a red yoke in the same position. In 1937 Army ranking was introduced, but for a time both could be seen in use together. One feature which remained constant was the red yoke-and-arrows breast badge, which was retained throughout the war. Our illustration, after Bueno, shows a Falangist in 1937 after a degree of rationalization had taken place. The blue cap is piped red; the blue shirt, highly visible, is now replaced by a khaki one, but blue collars, shoulder-straps and even pocket-flaps were often retained. The rest of the clothing and equipment is Army issue, though various puttee colours were worn according to availability. The white chevrons on cap and sleeve indicate a frontline combatant of the Falange, as opposed to other categories within the organization.

B3 Navarrese requete, 1936

The requetes, the Carlist militia of the monarchist party, were even less uniformly dressed than the Falangists. A red beret was often the only common denominator in a mass of civilian items, but this beret was almost universal. This illustration of a requete of the Navarrese brigades is taken directly from Bueno. He is surprisingly complete in his dress and equipment, wearing jacket and trousers of Army issue and regulation equipment. The short blouse or cazadora started to replace the guerrera tunic early in the war as campaign dress throughout the Army. It is worn here with the sleeve badge of the Cuerpo Ejercito de Navarra. On the left breast are two other cloth insignia; the 'detente', or Sacred Heart emblem, which was widely worn by devout Catholics (particularly Carlists) in the hope of heavenly protection, and the Cross of Burgundy, emblem of the monarchist cause. The blanket and sandals are typical of the region.

In the background, an officer in shirt-sleeve order carries the colour of Regimiento de Infanteria 'San Marcial' no. 22\ its design, and that of the elaborate red and gold bandolier, are taken from Bueno. The devices varied from unit to unit, but the red and gold tricolour ground was common to all Nationalist forces.

Ci Sargento porta-guion, 2" Bandera, Spanish Foreign

Legion; summer campaign dress, 1936-37 Each bandera—roughly, battalion—of the Tercio had its own banner; in all, 18 banderas saw service during the war. That of the i Bandera, carried by this sergeant in typical summer campaign uniform, bears a black double-headed eagle crowned and taloned gold, with a central gold shield bearing the Legion's badge: crossed musket, crossbow and halberd. The distinctive grey-green uniform of the Legion appeared in two weights for winter and summer: the hot weather dress comprised a shirt with rolled sleeves, the usual granadero trousers, and white canvas alpargatas. The cap was piped red, and differed from that of the rest of the Army in bearing the Legion's branch badge on the front, so ranking was worn on the right side. The Legion badge was

PzKpfw I Ausf.A tank being loaded onto a transporter lorry. The Nationalist flash, in tapered form, can be seen on the rear of the turret. Some of these tanks were finished in plain grey, others in grey with brown shadow camouflage. Local re-paint jobs were not unknown, usually taking the form of shadow camouflage.

Legion Condor Abzeichen

1 11UMIM ^

also worn in embroidered form on each shoulder-strap of the shirt, by all ranks. Leather equipment was always black, and often of an outmoded pattern.

Officers of the Tercio wore grey-green shirts with ranking on a black galleta and the Legion badge on the shoulder-straps; the gorillo bore the normal infantry ranking and piping. Grey-green breeches were worn with black jackboots, black Sam Brownes, and white gloves—often, even in battle. Gold chevrons trimmed red, as worn by this NCO, indicated wounds in action; they were worn on the left arm by all ranks. (Composite figure, after Bueno.)

Cs Legionario de f Clase, Spanish Foreign Legion, winter campaign dress 1938 Prior to 1938 the Tercio had worn guerrera tunics similar to those of the rest of the Army, but in that year the uniform illustrated was issued. A short cazadora was worn with straight trousers, tucked into high-lacing black boots. The colour remained grey-green and insignia were not affected. The large chevron of Private 1st Class was worn on both sleeves. (The cabo wore the three red diagonals illustrated on Plate B, and the sargento the same, in gold trimmed with red. The brigada, the senior NCO rank, wore a pointed gold device similar to that worn on the gorillo cap, but only divided by one vertical red line, sewn to the centre of the cuff at the bottom edge. These rankings were common to the Nationalist regular troops as a whole.) The rifle is the 7.92mm 'Standard Model' Mauser. (Composite figure, after Bueno.)

Cj Teniente, infantry, summer campaign dress Nationalist officers wore a service dress very similar to that of the figure illustrated as A4, though in greener tones. The peaked cap bore the branch badge on the crown and the rank stars along the band. The tunic, normally worn buttoned to the throat, bore branch badges on the collar points, and ranking on the cuffs as described under figure A2. In the field a wide variety of jackets was worn in winter, and shirt-sleeve order was normal in summer. The gorillo of this infantry first lieutenant bears red and gold piping and tassel (these colours varied with branch colour and metal) and the two stars of this rank on the front. The light sandy-

coloured shirt is worn with rolled sleeves and open neck, and the only insignia is the galleta in branch colour above the left pocket, with repeated rank stars. The Sam Browne was worn with either one crossed or two vertical braces, and in shirt-sleeve order was buttoned under the belt-loops of the flared greenish-khaki breeches. Brown jackboots; brown leggings and ankle-boots; and brown ankle-boots with khaki puttees, and sometimes white oversocks, seem to have been worn at whim. A popular if unofficial item was the sahariana jacket, copied from Italian officers of the CTV; the distinctive cut of this jacket can be seen more clearly on Plate E. It is thrown over this officer's shoulders, and bears the galleta and the sleeve patch of the Cuerpo Ejercito de Galicia. The weapon is the Star RU1935 9mm sub-machine gun; this saw limited service but was never standard issue. (Composite figure, after Bueno.)

Other branch colours worn as galletas and cap piping were: light blue (cavalry),with silver metal; dark red (engineers), with silver metal; red cap piping, and black-over-red galleta diagonally divided from bottom left to top right (artillery), with gold metal; yellow (medical), with silver metal; grass-green (light infantry—Cazadores), with gold metal; and black (tank troops), with silver metal. 'Provisional' ranks, and senior officers commanding units, wore black galletas irrespective of branch.

D1 General de Brigada, winter campaign dress The field service gorillo of generals was piped with gold in a distinctive arrangement, as here, and had a gold tassel. On the front is the ranking—a crossed sword and baton with a four-point star superimposed. (The ranking of a general de division featured the crossed sword and baton between two smaller four-point stars, one on each side.) This is repeated on the black patch of a senior commander on the left breast of the cold-weather jacket. The jacket is one of several very similar patterns collectively known as the ' canadiense', much favoured by senior officers. The breeches of the normal service uniform are tucked into high-laced boots and thick socks. (Composite figure, after Bueno.)

D2 Cabo, Nationalist infantry, winter campaign dress The capote-manta, a large, loose cape for winter campaign wear, was used very widely by both Republicans and Nationalists; it differed in a score of details from batch to batch, but the one illustrated is typical. The shoulders and neck have been doubled for extra protection, and a large vandyked flap allows the neck to be buttoned over the face from either side. Sometimes the cape was worn over, sometimes under the leather equipment; here the corporal has buckled his belt, shoulder-braces and haversack strap over it. (The leather shoulder-braces of the standard Spanish equipment met in a Y-strap arrangement on the back, with a single vertical brace down to the belt. A third ammunition box was worn centrally at the back.) Puttees and ankle-boots with white socks here replace the shaped overall-trousers. The helmet was by no means a universal issue, but it was seen in some numbers on both sides. Of Spanish design, it is based upon, but subtly different from, the traditional German design of World War I. It has a deep domed skull, a steeply-flared brim and neck-guard, and a noticeably shallow 'step' over the ears; there is one in the Imperial War Museum, London, that has a line of small rivets around the mid-point, see D3. It was usually painted a nondescript dark greenish grey. The rifle is the 'Standard Model' Mauser.

On the breast of the cape appear a stylized version of corporal's ranking in infantry red, and the branch badge sewn onto a khaki patch. Branch badges were often seen in this position on protective clothing, either on khaki or patches of branch colour, and officers wore conventional rank 'biscuits' above them. (After Bueno.)

Dj Soldado, Nationalist infantry, winter campaign dress The cazadora blouse bears the branch badge on the collar points, and is worn over a brown sweater. The granadero trousers, leather equipment, Mauser and helmet are all standard issue. It was normal for Spanish soldiers of both sides to make a horse-shoe roll of their blanket or cape. Note the large cloth-covered canteen worn on the hip, its base fastening into a metal pot and its neck covered by a metal cup, both painted dull green. A black strap round the body supports this canteen, which is copied from one in the Imperial War Museum. It is the only feature which we have added to this figure, which is otherwise exactly as in Bueno. Bueno m¡

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