Aircraft

Red Army aviaotryads (aviation dctachf^| attempted, often unsuccessfully, to equip th<. fl with aircraft of a single type for logistic Among the Russian-built aircraft available fl

belligerents was the armoured train or bronepoyezd. In the vast Russian countryside, where roads were a rarity, the railways provided the only reliable and relatively fast means of transportation. As a result, the most serious fighting almost always took place at major railway junctions.

At first armoured trains were built as 'one-offs', and installed with as many artillery pieces and machine-guns as they could feasibly carry (typically between two and four cannons and four to 16 machine-guns), from March 1916 the trains were graded into three categories: the first was a 'shock' type with 76mm field guns; the second, a 'fire-support' type, with 107mm or 122mm naval guns; and the third, a 'heavy fire-support' type with 152mm or 203mm naval guns. The first two types were usually allocated to front commanders, while the third was under the direct control of the RMSR.

All armoured trains received numbers and names, as, for example, armoured train No.6, built in 1918, which was named after \ ladimir Lenin. The chairman of the RMSR, Trotsky, carried out his command functions from a specially equipped armoured train known as Revvuyensoret - Revolutionary Military Soviet.

- iort supply) were the Ilya Muromets, the er, the Lebed-12 fighter and the C-20

- rds of all planes were foreign made, more than 30 foreign models were in use,

Vr Nieuport fighters and reconnaissance air-ju ng up more than 50 per cent of the force, ch makes included Farman bombers and ■ •-•'ce aircraft, and the Yoisin (respectively 15 per cent of the total). About four per cent of n->isted of obsolete .Vloranes anil Bleriots. isticatcd aircraft, such as Spads, Sopwiths Lcrs. could only be obtained by capture from cs ind interventionist forces.

\rmour and armoured trains n-Putilovets was the only armoured car man-n Tsarist Russia to participate in the Civil n _n-made tanks, notably the British Mark 1 Renault, were available only when captured \\ hites. A variety of Soviet-built broneviks . jrs) were available, and were mostly armed

- two machine-guns. . lfluence on the strategy anil tactics of both

. lour party before the southern ■ The ex-Tsarist uniforms with . ma are typical m<>d. The two ■« res on the corn-It eve indicate a mpany com-I Me chest badge i mrttcoat is the Jirst ■a Irmy metal rt .1 star within a .. wreath. His . tpment is of 1911 ".J he carries a shashka sword. . . I-bearer's assis-right is armed .i >t dagger and, ■ ther men, has a fridge belt and icd crust' bag.

Red voycnliot (military pilot) Vastly Nazartchuk (seated) and his mechanic near their British Sopwith Camel. Both wear black leather coats and black cloth breeches and have pilots' caps (black piped red), and gilded metal badges taken Jrom old shoulder-boards. The crowns and peaks oj the caps are crumpled in a manner fashionable in the Civil liar.

Red voycnliot (military pilot) Vastly Nazartchuk (seated) and his mechanic near their British Sopwith Camel. Both wear black leather coats and black cloth breeches and have pilots' caps (black piped red), and gilded metal badges taken Jrom old shoulder-boards. The crowns and peaks oj the caps are crumpled in a manner fashionable in the Civil liar.

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