The Plates

A: Early formations

Al: Infantryman, 3rd Petrograd City Guard Rifle Regiment, 1()1S

The 3rd Petrograd Rifle Regiment was formed from the disbanded Semenovsky Lifeguard Reserve Regiment, which had been stationed in Petrograd (St Petersburg). The Semenovsky Regiment proper had been created by Peter the Great in 1695, and was one of the key Imperial Guard regiments, but the Reserve Regiment had never shared this elite status.

Immediately after the October revolution all ranks of the 3rd Petrograd Regiment wore their old uniforms but with shoulder-boards removed, and with Tsarist cap insignia replaced by the red star. The old greatcoat collar patches remained in use for some time as a mark of regimental traditions, but they were abolished on 29 September 1918 and replaced by an oval-shaped, cloth

The evacuation of wounded during the Kronstadt revolt, March 1921. On the right stands the railway station commandant. His sleeve insignia qualifies him as a kombat (battalion commander) - the white thread around the three red squares is probably a local innovation. His cap badge is the old Tsarist railway unit emblem made of 'German silver'. A medical orderly at the carriage door wears the Red Cross sleeve insignia oil a white doth shield which is piped in red.

sleeve badge, inscribed 'GOR/OKhR', an abbreviation for Gortxhkaya Okhrana (City Guard).

This soldier's red star cap badge appears to be upside down; in fact, this was the correct way of wearing it in the first months of the Soviet rule. The khaki canvas bandolier is a version introduced during the Great War, while the so-called beboot dagger was carried by machine-gunners and scouts of infantry regiments of the Russian Army.

The 3rd Petrograd Rifle Regiment took part in the defence of Petrograd against General Yudenich's W hite North-Western Army, but the men defected en masse to the Whites on 29 May 1919 after killing the commissars and communists in their ranks.

A2: Infantryman, T.pijan Kovtiukh V Detachment, Army of Tainan, 191H

The Army of Taman was a typical early Civ il War formation. It was made up of many small detachments of infantry and cavalry which had been forced together under pressure from the Whites. As a result its soldiers were dressed in all imaginable types of clothing, from ex-Tsarist uniforms to civilian attire. This infantryman belongs to the 'First Column' or vanguard detachment of the Army a crack force which enabled the Army to break out of encirclement. He is dressed in Tsarist infantry uniform with insignia and shoulder-boards removed; this includes a cotton gymnasterka, sharovary breeches and puttees. The headgear is an infantry papakha of fake astrakhan fur with a diagonal red cloth band instead of an official red star badge. (Only units formed in major industrial centres could be supplied 38

with red stars in the early years of the war.)

The chevron badge of the Arm\ of Taman is worn on the left sleeve. This was 22.3cm long and 4.5cm wide, and was introduced to commemorate the Army's breakout through enemy lines. Unlike many other Red units, the Army of Taman's commanders were striet about this chevron, and a unique Prikaz prohibited soldiers from modifying it with lace, inscriptions, bows oi other 'aesthetic' personal inventions.

Criss-crossed machine-gun belts were worn widel throughout the Red Army in this period, especially it semi-regular units, as there was little alternative mean-of carry ing ammunition.

A3: Commander, Xaval Infantry Regiment, 191X-22 When, after the October revolution, sailors were required for service on land, they were formed mtâ–  Watrosskiyc pekholniye polki literally sailors' foot regiments. Further naval infantry units were formed ii major naval bases from the crews of the Black Scj Fleet after the ships were scuttled, so as not to fall int< German hands. Several other fleets and flotillas als raised volunteer naval infantry units.

Naval infantry saw widespread land service, often it the hottest of actions, since sailors were renowned for their high morale and loyalty to communist ideals, high level of technical training made sailors high] sought after for specialist duties, and they were i favourite choice for crews of armoured trains, an. artillery and machine-gun units.

Naval infantry were dressed in a combination of Imperial Army and Navy uniforms, but without the gnia anil shoulder-boards abolished in 1917. This ir has a beskozirku (peakless cap) with the band of Black Sea Fleet destroyer Kerch. His black bushlat fer jacket) has a gold anchor sleeve badge which, ugh changing slightly, was to become a symbol of Soviet Xavy for 70 years. The black and white tel-(hka undershirt had long been the object of great al pride, and was worn almost as a branch-of-ser-. badge. According to the Navy's code of honour, n a sailor stripped to his tehiittshka in battle, this e it impossible lor him to surrender or retreat. The ite canvas trousers are tucked into infantrv jack-its, but could equally be worn loose. Weapons lude a Nagant revolver and an officer's kortik (dirk), railitional symbol of authority in the Imperial Navy.

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