The Fleet Brigade

Ted Williams Marines

After the fall of Atlanta, 60,000 Federal soldiers under MajGen William T.Sherman began what became known as the March to the Sea on November 15, 1864. Nine days later a Federal naval brigade, sometimes referred to as the Fleet Brigade, was organized to assist MajGen John G.Foster, commander of the Department of the South. In particular, this OPPOSITE Born at Carlisle, Pa, in 1842, John Wilson Haverstick was commissioned second lieutenant of US Marines to rank from March 18, 1864. He served at...

The loss of the Atlanta

Marine Corps Battlefield Pictures

Commissioned at Savannah on November 22, 1862, the ironclad CSS Atlanta was converted from the Scottish-built blockade-runner Fingal. Under Cdr William A.Webb, she limited her activities to patrolling the waters below Savannah for the first six months of her service afloat. However, on June 14, 1863, Webb learned that the Federal monitors Weehawken and Nahant were inside Wassaw Sound, and determined to attack them. With a spar torpedo attached to the bow of his vessel, and armed with four...

The occupation of New Orleans

Farther south, Flag Officer David G.Farragut, commanding the Western Gulf Blockading Squadron, had forced the mouth of the Mississippi six Marines died and 22 were wounded as his fleet fought its way past Forts St Philip and Jackson to threaten New Orleans. Men from the remainder of the 333-strong Marine battalion at Farragut's disposal played a vital role in the final capture of the Crescent City. Thirty Marines from the USS Pensacola, under 2nd Lt John C.Harris (nephew of the Marine...

Return to Fort Sumter

Following Sherman's advance from Savannah on January 17, 1865, the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron was once again required to form a Fleet Brigade to assist the land forces. Led by Cdr Fabius Stanly, USN, the Marine Bn was again placed under command of Lt George Stoddard. These Marines hacl an opportunity for action during the landings at Bull's Bay, SC, on February 12-17, 1865. With Sherman's columns approaching from the interior, and naval forces driving up the coast from Bull's Bay, the...

Hampton Roads

Upon arrival at Richmond, detachments from Co C were assigned to the gunboats Patrick Henry and Jamestown, while the remainder were ordered to report to Flag Officer French Forrest at the Gosport Navy Yard, near Norfolk. Commanded by Capt Thom, they eventually went aboard the ironclad CSS Virginia, and took part in the battles of Hampton Roads on March 8-9, 1862 see above . With little opportunity to serve as sharpshooters aboard the ironclad, these Marines manned several of the guns, with Capt...

Drewrys Bluff

Marine Corps Officer 1861

With the Confederate withdrawal from the Peninsula and the evacuation of Norfolk during early May 1862, the Virginia, Patrick Henry, and Jamestown were forced to withdraw up the James River towards Richmond. As her draught was too deep to negotiate the shoals, the Virginia was abandoned and burned off Craney Island on May 11. The smaller gunboats steamed up as far as Drewry's Bluff, about eight miles below Richmond, where the Jamestown was sunk to complete the river obstruction, while the...

Enlisted men

Mens Clothes 1864

The full dress for enlisted Marines consisted of a dark blue, double-breasted frock coat with two rows of seven Marine buttons. The high standing collar bore two loops of yellow worsted lace, with a small A sergeant of the Marine Guard aboard the USS Miami wears the pullover fatigue sack prescribed for seagoing duty at the beginning of the Civil War -see Plate B3. Detail from Naval Historical Center photo HH 60873 ABOVE RIGHT April 1865 a Marine sentry aboard USS Montauk guards Lewis Paine, one...

Fort Fisher

By the end of 1864 the only Confederate port on the Atlantic coast that remained open to blockade runners was Wilmington, NC, which was defended by the formidable Fort Fisher on Cape Fear. An abortive attack launched on Christmas Eve by MajGen Benjamin F. Butler, commander of the Army of the James, was followed on January 15,1865, by the greatest amphibious assault of the Civil War, by a force commanded by Gen Alfred H.Terry. The US Army's 24th Corps landed to secure the Confederate works from...

The siege of Savannah

Sherman's march through Georgia during December 1864 brought Federal troops to the outskirts of Savannah, and all available Confederate forces, including Marines, were required to take their place in the defenses. The Marines available to Capt John R.F.Tattnall consisted of about 50 men of Co E, who were assigned to the trenches near King's Bridge on the Little Ogeechee River west of the city. Resisting stubbornly for 12 days, they withdrew with other Confederate troops when the city was...

Battle for Mobile

Uss Drum Collision

Following the capture of New Orleans, Adm Farragut planned to attack the port of Mobile on die Gulf Coast of Alabama, but events conspired against this. Forts Morgan and Gaines, guarding the narrow entrance to Mobile Bay, were protected by obstrucdons in the channel which prevented warships from getting close enough .to reduce them the Army had to be involved, but insufficient troops were available. Farragut therefore turned his attention back to the Mississippi, and the capture of Port Hudson...

American Civil War Marines 186165

Osprey Publishing Marine

Ron Field Illustrated by Richard Hook First published in Great Britain in 2004 by Osprey Publishing Elms Court, Chapel Way. Botley, Oxford 0X2 9LP, United Kingdom Email irfa0ospreypublishing.com All rights reserved. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study, research, criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988. no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means,...

The defense of Charleston

Although there was an occasional Marine presence at the port of Charleston, SC, during the first 18 months of the war, the first substantial activity appears to have begun during February 1863. In anticipation of a Federal naval offensive, the Confederate Navy Department sent Cos B and C of the Marine Bn from Drewry's Bluff to Charleston, to play a key role in countering the threat posed to the harbor by the Federal monitors. Under cover of darkness, specially trained sailors, plus Marines from...

Index

Figures in bold refer to illustrations. sinking of 16 17 amphibious landings first by US Marines 7,7-8 Anderson, General Richard H. 43 Appomattox campaign 53-4 Ariel, USS steamer 12, 13 Atlanta, CSS ironclad 46-7, 48, 51 Baltic, CSS 46 Baltimore 5 Beall, Camp 45,46 Beall, Colonel Lloyd j. 30, 50 Benthuysen, Captain Alfred C. Van 8, 32, 43, 45, 52, 55 Binder, Sergeant Richard 23, 25 Bradford, Lieutenant David 47, 52 Broad River expedition 23-4 Brooklyn, USS 18, 19, 20, 21 Brother, Private...

The braggart sergeantmajor

The First and only sergeant-major of the CS Marine Corps was appointed at Mobile, Alabama, after being recruited by Capt Meiere on February , 1864. Born in Scotland, a mart calling himself Edwin Wallace claimed that he had served in the British Royal Marines, and that his father had also been a sergeant-major in that corps. However, no record of such service has been found, despite a careful search of R i records for enlisted men. Wallace was transferred on February 8 to Drewry's Bluff, where...

The Plates

Usmc White Leather

A US MARINES AT FIRST MANASSAS BULL RUN , JULY 21, 1861 Major John G.Reynolds rallies his Marine battalion at the crossroads near Henry Hill during the latter stages of the battle. Despite the heat the Marines wore full uniforms and carried their Army-issue canteens, although they had dropped off their gray blanket rolls and haversacks at the Sudley Road Church. Major Reynolds right wears the officer's fatigue cap with black ribbed silk braid, and double-breasted undress coat with gold shoulder...

Port Royal

Css Savannah

Captain George Holmes arrived at Savannah, Georgia, with Co A of the CS Marines on September 18, 1861, following which he probably supplied ships' guards for the so-called Mosquito Fleet commanded by Flag Officer Josiah Tattnall, which consisted of the converted river steamboat Savannah, the converted tug boat Sampson, the screw steamer Lady Davis, and the transport Resolute. With the approach of the Federal fleet to the bar of Port Royal, SC, on November 4, these four tiny vessels steamed out...

Defense of Fort Fisher

Surrender Nanna Hubba Bluff

The US Army and Navy planned several assaults on Fort Fisher and the port of Wilmington, NC, but made no attempt until December 24, 1864. After two days of fierce fighting with little result, Federal commanders concluded that the fort was too strong and withdrew their forces. The garrison was reinforced by a number of CS Marines during this action. A detachment under Lt Francis M.Roby served two 7in Brooke rifled guns until they both burst, following which they were assigned to other guns,...

The outbreak of the Civil

Civil War Federal Uniforms 1861

Like the other military services, the small US Marine Coips was crippled by resignations as men went south to join Confederate forces at the beginning of the Civil War. Although few enlisted men quit, 20 officers out of a total of 63 either resigned or were dismissed from the service. To make up for these losses and meet the demands of wartime, on July 27, 1861, Congress authorized that the Corps be increased to 93 officers and 3,077 enlisted men, thus nearly doubling its pre-war strength of...

Robert E Lee At Harpers Ferry

Uniforms Historic Military Scarlet

Col John Harris, Commandant of the US Marine Corps 1859-1864. He wears the 1859 full dress uniform for a field officer the dark blue double-breasted frock coat, trimmed on collar and cuff flaps with gold lace loops and scarlet piping. United States Army Military History Institute n the night of Sunday, October 16, 1859, the abolitionist John Brown and his 22 followers seized the US Arsenal at Harper's W Ferry, Virginia, in a vain attempt to incite an armed slave rebellion in the Southern...

The Port Royal expedition

Port Royal Expedition

During the fall of 1861 it was proposed to capture Port Royal and thereby gain a foothold on the coast of South Carolina and Capt Samuel F.DuPont, USN, requested that a battalion of 300 Marines be attached to his fleet. Nineteen officers and 330 enlisted men were organized under the command of Maj John Reynolds by mid-October taken mainly from the Washington headquarters, plus die Boston and Brooklyn navy yards, these Marines left Hampton Roads in the chartered steamer Governor with the rest of...

The surrender of the Ariel

Marines Rigging

At the end of that year the battalion of 136 Marines under Maj Addison Garland were not so successful. Embarking at New York on the mail steamer Ariel on December 1, they were assigned as a permanent garrison for the new naval base at Mare Island, California. Six days into her voyage the Ariel was off Cape Maysi, on the eastern tip of Cuba, when she was intercepted by the Confederate commerce raider Alabama, commanded by Capt Raphael Semmes. Initially forming his Marines to repel boarders,...

Hatteras Inlet

The first amphibious landing by Marines in the Civil War occurred on August 28, 1861, when Flag Officer Silas H.Stringham sent a combined battalion of soldiers and Marines ashore in surfboats to capture Forts Hatteras and Clark in Hatteras Inlet, North Carolina. The action began at 6am when Marines from the screw frigate Minnesota, led by Capt William L.Shuttleworth, arrived aboard the steamship Monticello, to be joined shortly afterwards by the Marines from the frigate Wabash. At 11.45am this...

Organization and recruitment

Marines 1862

Seventeen days after its establishment on February 4, 1861, the provisional government of the Confederate States of America passed an act to create a Navy Department, with Stephen R.Mallory as Secretary of the Navy. Working closely with Congress, by March 12 Mallory had prepared a budget that provided for the creation of a Navy and Marine Corps. Four days later ail Act of the Congress established the Confederate States Marine Corps, and authorized the creation of a headquarters consisting of a...

The capture of the Underwriter

Campbell Murdoch Csmc

Like their Federal counterparts, Confederate Marines were occasionally detailed for special service to cut-out and capture enemy vessels. In February 1864 men from Co C, under Capt Thomas S.Wilson, took part in the capture of the side-wheel gunboat USS Underwriter va the Neuse River near New Berne, North Carolina. About 2.30am on February 2, a force consisting of 250 seamen and 25 Marines aboard ten small boats glided up to the Underwriter as she lay at anchor. Discovered too late, the first...

Bull Run First Manassas

The first significant action by the Marine Corps took place during the battle of Bull Run on July 21, 1861. When MajGen Irwin McDowell's hastily prepared 35,000-man Federal army marched south to attack Confederate forces gathered around Manassas Junction in northern Virginia on July 16, Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles volunteered the Marine battalion at the Washington Navy Barracks for service during the campaign. The unit was a product of the call to arms and the expansion of the Corps,...

Uniforms Arms Equipment

Confederate Marines

It was hoped by the South that a peaceful separation of the slave states from the Union would be achieved in 1861 hence, the original uniforms chosen by the Confederate States Marine Corps were probably intended to be similar to those adopted by the US Marine Corps in 1859. Some evidence in support of this is to be found in General Order No.2, General Headquarters, Navy Department of the State of Virginia , Richmond, Virginia, April 25, 1861, which stated The uniform of the Officers, Seamen and...

Officers

Patrick Mullen Civil War

The uniform worn by the US Marine Corps in the Civil War was adopted on January 24, 1859, although it was mid-1861 before all Marines were supplied with the new outfit. William H. Parker wears the full dress for U5MC lieutenants. His rank is indicated by two gold loops on each cuff flap, and bullion fringing one-eighth Inch In diameter on his epaulettes. The red feather fountain plume on his cap indicates that this is a late-war image. National Archives 127-N-517102 OPPOSITE Excellent study of...

The Ship Island expedition

Mississippi Uniform 1863

In June 1861 the whole crew of the CSS McRae, plus its Marine Guard, were involved in the successful action on Ship Island in the Gulf of Mexico, about 12 miles south of Biloxi, Mississippi. This island was the site of the construction of a Federal fort begun in 1859, but little had been completed of what became known as Fort Massachusetts by the beginning of the Civil War. A plan to occupy and fortify Ship Island for the Confederacy was conceived by MajGen David F.Twiggs during May 1861. In...

Expedition against the Judah

Confederate Marine Corps

On the night of September 13-14 the Marines attached to the Gulf Blockading Squadron saw action. Moored in the Pensacola Navy Yard in Florida, the schooner Judah was believed to be fitting out as a privateer, and it was decided to destroy bodr her, and a 10in Columbiad gun manned by Confederate Marines under Capt Van Benthuysen at the southeast end of the yard. The expedition consisted of about 100 sailors and Marines from the US flagship, the screw frigate Colorado. Commanded by Navy Lt .I...

The siege of Charleston

Confederate Marines

During July 1863, Maj Zeilen, by then post commander at Brooklyn Marine Barracks, was ordered to recruit a Marine battalion to assist Rear Adm John A.Dahlgren and the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron in the siege operations against Charleston, South Carolina. The 276-strong battalion arrived at Morris Island, SC, on August 6. With those already taken from the vessels of his squadron Dahlgren now had at his disposal about 540 Marines, who were formed into 1 a four-company battalion. By...