Coats

Officers wore dark blue frock coats reaching down about two-thirds of the way between waist and knee, with a standing collar, three small buttons on each cuff, and pockets in the skirt folds. Field officers had two rows of seven buttons each, while company grade officers had one row of nine buttons. For dress occasions they wore gilt epaulettes, with the branch-of-service indicated by a coloured disc (red for artillery, yellow for cavalry, and sky blue for infantry) set on the crescent, with...

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Inside a natural sheepskin strip ins wide was glued and sewn to the back surface to keep the caps from falling out in action. On the left side was a steel wire cone-pick, 1.5 ins long, with a -in. diameter ring handle, carried in a loop. This was used to clean out the musket cone, or nipple, if necessary. Between 1 January 1861 and 30 June 1866 the Army made or bought 376,305 cap boxes, in addition to complete equipment sets. Co. A, 23rd Massachusetts Inf. wore...

Info

These uniforms were issued as a reward for proficiency in drill to the 18th Massachusetts Infantry, 62nd and 83rd Pennsylvania Infantry, and 49th and 72nd New York Infantry Regiments, among others. Many other units also chose to dress themselves in copies of French Zouave uniform, made fashionable by the exploits of such regiments in the 1850s in the Crimea and Italy. These originally included dark blue short jackets trimmed with red tape, a dark blue vest trimmed red,...

Accoutrements

155th Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry

The infantryman's oval brass lead-backed waist belt plate was 3.5 ins long by 2.225 ins wide, bearing the letters 'US' within a raised oval border on the front. There were two studs and a hook of brass embedded in the lead on the back. Between 1 January 1861 and 30 June 1866 the Army bought 143,348 of these plates. The infantryman's shoulder belt plate was also of stamped brass, lead-backed it was circular, ins in diameter, with two iron wire loops on the back which slid through slits in the...

Headgear

21st New Jersey Infantry

Both officers and men had two types of hats issued a dress hat, and a fatigue cap. Between May 1861 and October 1865 the Army bought 2,347,524 dress hats from contractors. These hats were officially made of black felt with a 6i-in.-tall crown and a 34-in. brim, bound in black ribbed silk half an inch deep for officers, and made with a double row of stitching instead of this binding for enlisted men. In actual practice these hats, made by greedy contractors, were often considerably smaller than...

Other Uniform Items

Union Officer Private Purchase Sack Coat

Between May 1861 and October 1865 the Army purchased 11,091,639 shirts. They also bought 5,532,729 yards of Canton flannel cotton and 8,314,892 of grey cloth, apparently mostly for making shirts. The Quartermaster described the shirts as being 'Zouave, gray,' knit, and flannel. The flannel shirts were mostly grey. General orders in the Army of Tennessee in April 1862 pointed out that 'the regiments today went out in gray flannel shirts, which at a distance of 100 yards resembles the seccession...

American Civil War Armies 2 Union Troops

Text by PHILIP KATCHER Colour plates by RON VOLSTAD First published in Greal Britain in 1986 by sprey, an imprint of Reed Consumer Books Ltd. Michelin House, 81 Fulham Road. London SW3 6RB and Auckland, Melbourne, Singapore and Toronto Copyright 1986 Reed International Books Ltd. Reprinted 1987, 1988 twice , 1989, 1990,1991, 1995 All rights reserved. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study, research, criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright Designs and Patents...

The Plates

Scottish Foot Soldier Armor

This colonel wears the field-grade officer's full dress, with dress hat, frock coat, and the 1861 dark trousers. His regimental number appears on each epaulette, on a circle of sky blue, the infantry branch-of-service colour. His sword is the foot officer's sword. This sergeant major wears the enlisted man's version of the regulation full dress uniform, with a non-commissioned officer's sword, and stall noncommissioned officer's brass shoulder scales. Note also the national colour of the 13th...

Wapons

Battle Tippecanoe Weapons Used

In a scramble to furnish infantry longarms for all the men who volunteered for service in 1861, the Army obtained weapons from anywhere and everywhere. The lite Iron Brigade of the Army of the Potomac was described in January 1862 as having a mixture of Austrian rifled muskets Belgian rifled muskets, 0.69-in. calibre Sprint smoothbore muskets that had been com-flint to percussion, and Mi861 Springfield 0.58-in. calibre rifled muskets. In the same year the 69th Pennsylvania Infantry Regiment had...