Mobilize and survive the Republic at war

Our modest task is to organise the Apocalypse The rapid mobilization of the Republic's domestic resources -human and material - was made doubly crucial in view of its international isolation. When the coup occurred the Republican government had straightaway attempted (19 July) to secure military aid from the Western democracies - Britain and France. But it came up against British hostility and French reluctance (after an initial offer of assistance). Instead, the two democracies proposed and...

The origins of Spains civil war

Long live those who bring us the rule of law. The Spanish Civil War began with a military coup. There was a long history of military intervention in Spain's political life. But the coup of 17-18 July 1936 was an old instrument being used for a new purpose. It aimed to halt the mass political democracy set in train by the effects of the First World War and the Russian Revolution, and accelerated by the ensuing social, economic, and cultural changes of the 1920s and 1930s. In this sense, the...

Further reading

Primer and introductory texts in English on the Spanish Civil War include S. Ellwood, The Spanish Civil War Oxford Blackwell Historical Association Studies, 1991 M. Blinkhorn, Democracy and Civil War in Spain 1931-1939, 2nd edn. London Routledge, 1992 A. Forrest, The Spanish Civil War London Routledge, 2000 F. Lannon, The Spanish Civil War Oxford Osprey Essential Histories, 2002 and P. Preston, A Concise History of the Spanish Civil War London Fontana, 1996 . Those looking for a bibliographical...

Rebellion revolution and repression

Amparo Barayon

Every age remains in the memory of future generations. But every age has its own internal logic, its own structure of feeling. J. Ugarte Telleria, La nueva Covadonga insurgente The military coup against the Republic began on 17 July 1936 among elements of the colonial army based in Spanish North Africa Morocco . A day later the rebellion spread to mainland Spain in the form of provincial garrison revolts. It was both a failure and a success it failed to take over the whole of the country at a...

Victory and defeat the wars after the war

Camps Argel Sur Mer 1938

Franco's victory in the Civil War meant the beginning of an attempt to achieve economic modernization in Spain without the accompanying products of 'modernity' the mass political democracy and cultural pluralism symbolized by the Republic. Over 400,000 Spaniards sought sanctuary in exile. Some achieved the relative safety of Mexico and the Americas. But thousands of others were sucked straight into the European maelstrom of war and annihilation. The other fronts of Republican Spain a lone...

E

Milicianas

Working-class boy from the Bronx who became a captain in the n guerrilla and later, in 1938, participated in an important commando U raid that constitutes the only operation of its kind ever undertaken . by the Spanish army see Chapter 5 . A few years later, Aalto's comrade-in-arms and fellow participant in that commando action, Irv Goff, would have an opportunity to re-use the skills learned in Spain when during the World War he was parachuted back into occupied Europe by US special services...

The uses of history

we can only forget what we have previously known. The first thing we must do, then, is to know. Never again will a single story be told as though it were the only one. For Spaniards, the Civil War remains a political touchstone of huge importance precisely because of the ideological uses to which it was put by the Franco dictatorship. The regime manipulated a monolithic and highly partisan version of the war - always referring to it as the 'crusade' or 'war of national liberation', never as a...

Fight For Republican Spain

Unit ever to exist - the United States Army itself continuing to U operate segregation throughout the Second World War. Viewed . through this optic, what the International Brigades symbolize is a certain spirit of future possibility. They were - though very imperfectly and by no means consciously - the soldiers of cosmopolitan cultural modernity. It was these egalitarian aspirations that shaped the idea of the Republicans' fight in the Civil War as 'the last great cause', as the front line in...