Under

His Excellency Sir Thomas Faiuka x,

As it was

Lately prdcnted at Saffron- Walden in Eflcx,unto

Major-Generall Shppeit, i j Commiflary-Gcncril Ireteti,

Lievtenant-Genetal Crcwivi/y" And Coionell Fhctwoci, Members of the Houfe of Commons, and Commirtioncrs there for the Parliament, by Coionell >vhtic], •) c Coionell Okn, Coionell Rich, ( ) Coionell Htvfon,

Coionell Hdmmonti, C ) And Coionell L.unhrt, J C MajorDijierm,

With the names of two hundred thirty and more CommilTion-Officers annexed.

Which Declaration is to ma ni ft ft and fct forth to them, they being Members of Parliament, and of the Army, the Armies real! love and diligent < are to diftharge that duty for which they were raifed as will manifeftly appcare in time to all that withwell to Merc)', Peace, and Jultice.

Tlx rim, ú comi »hen (jai xi!l execute ¡ujiiee *»d judgment or. tht rank.

Printed by tV appointment of the Officers, whole names are hcreiiiito fubfvribed, 1 6 4 f.

'The Declaration of the Army'. This famous pamphlet contains the declaration addressed to Skippon, Cromwell, Ireton and Fleetwood by 'The Officers of the Army now convened at | Saffron | Waldon'. The soldiers sought satisfaction of their arrears of pay on disbandment, and indemnity for the civil crimes they had committed during the war.

pistol at it to prove its strength, but it was in fact usually made with a chisel as a 'sales pitch'.

/•j, 5, 6 Trained Band Musketeers These soldiers were obliged by statute provide themselves with military equipment, either as musketeers or pikemen, for service in defence of the realm. They wore their own civilian clothes, not uniforms, but contemporary references show that it was the common practice of Trained Band musketeers from London and its suburbs to wear buff-coats as additional protection. To judge from contemporary illustrations these were sleeveless, thinner and cheaper than the heavy sleeved coats worn by cavalry tropers.

As they were responsible for buying their own equipment, sometimes as cheaply as possible, Trained Band soldiers always carried a wide variety of equipment. Each of these men carries a musket heavy enough to require a rest. Although still part of the statutory requirement for a musketeer, only l;,5 wears a helmet most musketeers had abandoned its use in the field. Note particularly the unusual covered bandoleer (based on an example in the l ower Armouries) worn by E5; this was an experiment in providing some protection from the weather for tlx1 powder containers, bill as there is no evidence that il was ever a military issue it was probably custom built for a Militia soldier.

(•: Encampment: Army oj the Solemn League and

Covenant, / 6-/./ On 27 September i()/|;5 an alliance termed the Solemn League and Covenant was signed in Westminster by members of both Houses of Parliament and a group of Commissioners from Scotland. This document contained both c ivil and religious clauses and the price of Scottish military aid was the supremacy of the Presbyterian discipline in Lngland, Scotland and Ireland. 1 lie rather loose phrasing of this document left plenty of room for debate in the future and the Scots later accused the English oldeceiving them. In reality, however, this was an alliance of necessity, not conviction, as the king's cause was then in the ascendant and neither Parliament nor the Scots could afford to see King Charles triumphant. The Scots commander, the Earl of I,even, crossed the Tweed into England 011 i() January 1 (>4.4 with an army of iq regiments ol loot, nine of horse and one of dragoons.

As might be expected, elaborate arrangements were made for the religious well-being of this army, with morning and evening prayers and sermons on Sundays, in emulation of the godly army of the Swedish champion Gustavus Adolphus. I11 the event, however, lew ministers could be persuaded to follow the army to England, and it fell away from the high standards of the Scots army during the Bishops' Wars. This group ol soldiers are unlucky to have been surprised playing dice on the Sabbath by a minister zealous enough to slay with the army.

Ci: Sergeant

Large numbers of Scots has served as mercenaries (luring the Thirty Years' War 111 Europe, cularly in the Swedish army, and many returned home once a native Scots army was formed. This made it an unusually professional force; although the colonels and the captains of companies were men of local standing hut little experience, the lieutenant-colonels and majors were usually all professionals. Like many of his colleagues this professional wears a buff-coat and a gorget for protection; and the halberd he carries is an indication of his rank.

G2: Musketeer Gj: Musketeer

Scots infantry were distinguished by the 'hodden-grey' coats they wore and their blue bonnets, so much so that at the siege of Carlisle 'one died in ye towne, who wereing a blue cap wych he had taken from ye Scotch at Stannix, was mistaken in ye last action at Denton House, received his death wound by Richard Grave, a Cavalier'. One soldier has put his 'Swedish feather', on the ground beside him; this was simply a short stake topped with a pike-head which was set in front of a line of musketeers as an additional defence against cavalry, and as the name suggests it was used in the Swedish army in which so many Scots served. The Scots are the only troops known to have been issued with these stakes during the Civil War, but it is uncertain whether they ever used them in action. Scots pikemen were not issued with armour. This may have been because of the influence of professional soldiers with experience of the European wars in which armour had largely been abandoned to achieve swifter marches, or it may simply have been an example of Scots economy.

G4: Presbyterian Minister

A number of ministers had accompanied the Scots army during the Bishops' Wars and, as Robert Baillie recalled of its encampment, 'Had ye lent your ear in the morning, or especially at even, and heard in the tents the sound of some singing psalms, some praying, and some reading Scripture, ye would have been refreshed'. Few, however, were prepared to march with the army into England, or to stay long if they did, so that in April 1645 'in two and twenty regiments there is not one Minister'. The danger from the Scots' point of view was that the lack of religious fellowship led to a breakdown of discipline as professional officers introduced the habits they had picked up in the vicious European wars. Worse than this from a Presbyterian point of view was the possibility of Independents of the Earl of Manchester's Army corrupting 'our simple silly lads'.

II: Battle: The New Model Army, Naseby 1645 This scene shows the closing stages of the Battle of Naseby as Parliament's New Model Army overran the last of the infantry of the King's Oxford Army. The campaigns of 1644 had shown that by combining several of its regional armies, Parliament could achieve a significant numerical advantage over the King's forces, but divided command and internal rivalries prevented its exploitation. The New Model Army shared the equipment and theoretical unit organisation of its predecessors but it had a unified command, strongly-recruited

'A Representation from His Excellency Sir Thomas Fairfax': another expression of the 'Desires of the Army', setting out their conditions for disbandment. By September 1647 both officers and men were united in their demands.

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