Northwest Russia

Oryshin-Alma .ov (13 June to September 1918) Maj.Cen. P. Ivanov-Reenov (5 September to 24 December 1918) Maj.Cen. Dzerozhinsky (January to May 1919) Maj.Cen. Rodzianko (June 1919) Formed by October 1918 near Pskov and Dvinsk, the Northern Corps was disbanded after the Brest-I.itovsk Treaty with Germany had been declared void by the Soviet government, but was re-established in i 1919 in Estonia. At first the Northern Corps consisted of dozens ilunteer detachments...

Georgia

By January 1921 the Georgian Army could boast two Georgian divisions (1st Div. under ( en. rtmiladze and 2nd Div. under Gen. Sresclly) a mountain artillery division (with three field batteries and one anti-aircraft battery) two battalions of People's Guard and two border-guard units under Col. Sumbatov 1st Sukhumi Border Regiment, and 2nd Border Regiment. There were also some 400 civilian militia and a special punitive detachment of 150 infantry, 30 cavalry and six machine-guns. The Georgian...

The Army of the

Polvakov 17 April to 25 April 1918 Gen. P. Popov 25 April to 18 May 1918 Gen. S. Denisov 18 May 1918 to 15 February 1919 Gen. V. Sidorin 15 February 1919 to 27 March 1920 . mv was created on 17 April 1918. By 23 April it comprised seven v and two cavalry regiments, and one plastoon scout battalion, bered 5,000 infantry, 1,000 cavalry, 30 machine-guns and six It was further reinforced on 25 April, with the arrival of a ment under Ataman Popov. May the Army of the Don...

The White Cause

Mikhail Alexeyev, chief-i of the Russian Imperial 1916, and briefly supreme er of all Russia's -s between April and June ' A brilliant military scholar ve son of a soldier, he was ' popular among I officers. Monarchist to core, Alexeyev was the z - gt g organiser of the White . -- teer Army in south Russia. The term 'White Guards' bclogvardeytsi appeared only alter the Bolsheviks had started to call their own troops the 'Red Guards' krasnogvardeytsi . In all probability, the name was intended...

The Army of the Caucasus

This arm ' began life as three corps 1st Kuban Gen. Pokrovsky 2nd Kuban Gen. Llaguy later Gen. Nahumenko and 4th Kuban Gen. Shatilov later Gen. Toporkov . These were formed on 21 Ma 1919 and numbered a total of 25,000 men, 250 machine-guns and 60 artillery pieces. In October 1919 the 2nd Kuban Corps was transferred to the Army of the Don, and later to the Volunteer Army. By November 1919 the Army of the Caucasus was left with a single corps, the 1st Kuban Corps, and two large detached...

The Russian Far East

J nuary 1918 Grigoriv Semvonov, chief of the Special Mi uirian Detachment, became Ataman of the Zabaikal, Amur I L'ssurivsk Cossacks. Although subordinated to Admiral r ak. in Januarv 1919 he set up the independent ol-Buryat Republic, and. after Kolchak's death, proclaimed - it its supreme ruler, ron Ungern, Semvonov's closest aide and commander of the br Cavalry Div ision, separated himself from Semvonov's troops in . ind went to Mongolia to become its Yuna, or ruler. In May 1921 attempted to...

Wrangels Russian Army

White Russian Army

This army was created on II May 1920 by General Wrangel in the Crimean peninsula, the last stronghold of the Whites in south Russia. It was constructed out of the remnants of the White armies in the south. Initially it consisted of the following units Crimean Krymskv Corps Volunteer Corps Donskoy Corps Composite Cavalrv Division and Composite Kuban Brigade. In all it numbered 20,000 infantry. 5,000 cavalry, 126 artillery pieces and 150 machine-guns. As more men from defeated armies streamed...

Finland

Rhe Army of Finland was born from the 27th Finnish Jager Battalion of the German Army. The first Finnish White Guard detachments wore white armbands on the left sleeve. Occasionally these armbands also had the Finnish arms - a gold rampant lion on a scarlet shield. Similar badges were sometimes seen on steel helmets. Swedish uniforms were widely used bv the Finns. On parade. Finnish officers favoured white fur hats. ABOVE Lithuanian Army cockade and collar patches, 1919. The cockade was of...

North Russia

German Army Captures Armavir Russia

On 2 March 1918 the Allies agreed with the local Russian administration to protect northern Russia, with the cities of Murmansk and Archangelsk, from the German threat. By August 1918 there were 8,000 British, 5,000 Americans, 700 French, 1,300 Italians, 1,200 Serbs, Czechs and Poles in the area. These troops, along with the local Russian forces, were governed by the British commander, Maj.Gen. F. Poole, and from October 1918 by the redoubtable Maj.Gen. Edmund Ironside. The local Russian forces...

Estonia

Estonian Army Uniform History

Neral I.aidoner, the Estonian Armv commander-in-chief, was also offi-pallv in charge of all White Russian forces operating close to Estonian borders. His army consisted of two divisions 1st Div. Col. Tenissonn d 2nd Div. Col. Puskar later Col. Part . These units were generally 11 equipped, well dressed and well disciplined. Estonian Army insignia. Top cockade and shoulder-board of the first type, 1918. Middle and bottom rows 1919 cockade and parade-wear dark blue shoulder-boards for general...

Ukraine

Rudolf Gajda

The political situation in Ukraine from 1917 to 1922 was complicated, to say the least. Towards the end of 1917 a group of nationalists in Kiev declared the Ukrainian Peoples' Republic. They were led by a Central Rada council led by Vladimir Vinnichenko, a writer, and Simon Petlyura, ajournalist. Bolshevik troops invaded in January 1918 and set up their own Soviet Ukrainian government. This was short-lived on 3 March 1918 the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk formally recognised a new Ukrainian state....

Latvia

Latvia Artillery Badge

Alter the creation of the Latvian Republic, a complex struggle developed between pro-German and pro-Allied factions, and between pro- and anti-Bolsheviks. The Latvian capital Riga was strongly opposed to the Soviets, but on one occasion made ready to repulse White troops who. at the time, were more openly hostile to Latvian independence. Among the first Latvian units was the Kaplak Battalion named after its commander . This consisted of Detached Officers' Company Zesiss Company Student Company...

Belorussia White Russia

Russia North Polar

By 1917 Belorussia was overrun by Germans, and saw widespread fighting and starvation. In Julv 1917 various Belorussian nationalist organisations combined to form an independent Central Rada council , based in Minsk, which sympathised with the Provisional Government in Petrograd. Bolshevik rule was established on 15 1 Private, 1st Severny Northern Infantry Regt, 1919 2 Corporal, United States 366th 'Polar Bears' Infantry Regt, 1918-19 3 Sotnik, White Sea Mountain-Horse Demi-Regiment,1918 1...

The Northern Army

Gymnasterka

i S the following units of 'People's White Troops' were command of General Yudenich the Northern Corps _ gt F5,800 men. II guns, two armoured trains and two - White Estonian Division 6,000 man with 30 guns S. Bulak-Balakhovich's detachment 2nd White Division numbering about 1.000 men . Naval support Kiltie was provided bv a British s tiadron under Rear- 1 Walter '.owan. e new formations had joined the armv the Volunteer n der Goltz New Latvian Armv Baltic Landwehr Von l Prince Liven s 'Russian...

The Army of the West

Belov Cavalry

Khanzhin 1 January to 20 June 1919 I.t.Gen. Sakharov 26June to November 1919 Lt.Gen. Kuppel November to December 1919 The Army of the West was formed out of elements of the Kama ant Samara Army Groups. The 3rd Ural Corps was added in on 1 January 1919, in the Urals region. It consisted of 7th Ufimsky Corps Votkinskay Div., Composite Ufimskaya Div. 9th Volga Corps 4th Rifle Div., Volg. Div. 3rd Uralsky Corps 11th and 12th Uralskava Rifle Divisions . By March 1919 the...

Military Decorations

1920 Decoration Revolver

Tsarist Russia had developed an elaborate svstem of military decorations. The best known was the St George Cross also known as the 'Badge of the Military Order' - Znak Vomnogo Ordenti . This was worn on a ribbon in orange and black, colours that are believed to have represented fire and death. The awarding of this and other military decorations in a war Lt.Gen. D. Horvat centre , chief of the Chinese Eastern Railroad which linked the Far East with the TransSiberian Railroad and Admiral...

G

Patches Ukraine 1917

1 Kulak peasant rebel, Central Russia, 1917-22 2 Nestor Makhno, Chief of the Revolutionary Insurgent Army of Ukraine, 1918-20 3 Uzbek Basmachi Rebel, 1918-24 November after a trainload of pro-Bolshevik troops arrived in Minsk, but the Germans soon reoccupied the city. At the time of the Brest-Litovsk treaty, in March 1918, the Rada declared an independent Belorussian state, but after the Germans left this was soon shut down by the Bolsheviks. The Belorussian SSR was officially created in...

Armenia

Rank Insignia Former

Little information is available on Armenian military formations in the Civil War period. It is certain that six Armenian rifle battalions, part of the former Imperial Army, were in existence. These were dressed in Russian uniforms but had small crosses in place of stars on their shoulder-boards. The Armenian nationalists or Dashnaks had their own armed units who were dressed in national costume. Cockade top left and rank insignia of the Ukrainian Army of Galicia, 1919. The cockade was sky blue...

Weapons and equipment

White Army General Bulak Balakhovich

All the major weapons in use by White forces have been described in MAA 293 The Russian Civil War l The Red Army. The onl difference for the White armies was that larger quantities of foreign-made weaponry were available thanks to supplies provided bv the intervention powers. See MAA SO, 81, 245, 269 and 286. The exact quantity of foreign equipment sent to the Whites is difficult to establish. At an educated guess, the British supplied about 50 per cent, the I S about 30, the Germans 10 and the...

The Orenburg Army

Uzbek Basmachi

Formed in October 1918 and named the Detached Orenburg Army from 28 December, this formation became part of Admiral Kolchak's An Uzbek Basmachi detachment in the Ferghana Valley, 1922. An Uzbek Basmachi detachment in the Ferghana Valley, 1922. British troops in Baku, capital of Azerbaijan, in 1918, wearing tropical uniforms. The 39th Infantry Division arrived from Iran on 17 November and its commander, Maj.Gen. W.M. Thomson, proclaimed himself military governor of the city. The British presence...

Images Of Russian Army In 1919

Regiment Drozdovsky

1 Trooper, detached squadron of the Latvian 1st Kurzem Division, 1919 2 Senior NCO, 1st Plastoon Regt, Bermont-Avalov's Detachment, Russia, 1919 3 Captain, 1st Pskov Inf.Regt, North-Western Army, 1918-19 1 Strelets Rifleman , 1st 'Blue Coat' Division of Secheviye Streltsi, Ukraine 1918 2 Rotmistra Captain , 2nd Ulan Regt, Poland, 1919-20 3 Vistoon Corporal , West Ukrainian Army, 1918-19 AFSR TROOPS. THE BATTLE FOR KIEV. AUGUST 1919 1 Private, Signals Team, 1st Composite Infantry Regt 2...

Peasant Risings

Antonovtsi

By 1917 well-to-do peasants known as Kulaks numbered nearly 17 percent of Russia's rural population. The name kulak fist was coined bv the Bolsheviks, who believed that these peasants had become rich not by hard work but by hoarding food in their 'greedy mitts'. When Red food detachments began to confiscate surplus food, the Kulaks naturally began to fight back, usually f ormed in small groups from nearby villages, using whatever weapons were available. Widespread discontentment among the...

The Army of Turkestan

Turkmenistan Army

Created on 22 January 1919, the Army of Turkestan was under the command of I t. en. V. Savitsky. By I May 1919 it numbered 7,000 infantry, 2,000 cavalry and three armoured trains, organised as follows Zakaspiyskaya Trans-Caspian Composite Inf. Div. Maj.Gen. Lazarev Turkestanskava Rifle Div. Maj.Gen. Litvinov Cavalry Division Maj.Gen. Oraz-Khan Scrdar and an artillery brigade. The army was to all intents destroyed by the Reds by December 1919, and officially ceased to exist in February 1920....

Admiral Kolchaks Army of Siberia

Kolchak Gold

The Army of Siberia was formed in the city of Novonikolayevsk modern Novosibirsk by June 1918 under the orders of the Provisional Government of Siberia. At first ii was known as the West Siberian Armv but from Julv this was simplified to Siberian Army. It started as a fore 7,600 men and 19 guns strong and consisted of the Novonikolayevsk Infantry Regiment, several volunteer detachments, one infantri company, the Uchinsk Partisan Cavalry Detachment and one military escort company. By October...

RiNiiotivatcd soldiers Alexcyev was able to exert a strong influence

Russian Civil War Shkuro Wolves

1 ni C'.ossack ouncil. ft after escaping detention, the charismatic General Kornilov it Don Cossack territory the White cause received a further gt n 15 November 1917 Kornilov and Alexcyev jointly d the creation of the Volunteer Armv Dobrovolcheskaya ilthough officially this name was not adopted until 7 18. Alexeycv became its first commander-in-chief, lary 1918 the Volunteer Armv. already 2,000 strong, was r 1 to Rostov, since Kornilov could not persuade the Don Ataman Kaledin to take joint...

The North Western Army

Nestor Makhno

Rod ianko Jul to October I919 i h n.-of-Infantrv Yudenich October to November 1919 Maj.Gen. Glazenappe November 1919 to January 1920 i i 19 June 1919,on the basis of the Northern Corps, it was offi-h lt d the 'North-Western Army' on 7 July 1919 and consisted Fyodor Shuss, chief cavalry commander of the Ukrainian Peasants' Insurgent Army and the right-hand man of the army's commander, Nestor Makhno, 1919. As a former sailor he still wears his old beskozirka...

Central Asia

1918 Russian Far East

Throughout tin- livil War vears and the 1920s the Reds were opposed in Central Asia by Turkic guerrillas known as Basmachi derived from the l.'zbeki word basmak- to attack . The Reds generally referred to them as 'armed hands', even though some detachments were well organised, with a semblance of uniform and their own insignia. The major hotbeds of Basmachi fighting were the Ferghana, Alav and Arpin valleys, the Bukhara, Samarkand and Khiva or Khorezm regions, and around the town of Ki...

Lithuania

In I918 Lithuanian troops continued to wear Russian uniforms the only national sign was a triangular badge in the Lithuanian colours worn on the right sleeve. It measured 71mm bv 63mm and had a yellow top, a green central stripe and a red bottom stripe. Smaller badges of this type were sometimes worn on collars and hats. The year 1919 saw the introduction of British uniforms and Lithuanian peaked caps. New facing colours were also introduced orange for infantry white for cavalry red for...

Volunteers conscripts and turncoats

Russian Cavalry Shoulder Boards

Many earlv Russian White formations were created from the remnants of the disintegrating Russian Imperial Army. But it was an uphill struggle. Most soldiers were sick of the war they refused to obey orders, and some even threatened their own officers with firing squads. The Whites' biggest hope was to be found in new units of committed volunteers. I he heart of the volunteer White armies was at first represented bv a handful of generals, officers, cadets and students. Few of them had...