Five

Rules summary

This chapter is designed to sum up what has gone before and provide a ready reference for playing wargames. It is not a complete summary of the rules ar.d should be used in conjunction with the detail in chapter four.

Scale

1 model soldier = 25 real men. 1 model gun = 1 battery. 1 mm = 1 yard horizontal scale. 4 mm = 1 foot vertical scale. 1 game move = 2 Vi minutes real time.

Classification of units Veterans All Union sharpshooters and Regular regiments, all artillery, and any regiments with a long record of 'active service.' Experienced troops Any troops with previous battle experience. Recruits Untried troops.

In the first half of the war 50 per cent of the troops should be experienced and on average 25 per cent recruits, 25 per cent veterans. However, it is best to give the smaller CSA army more veterans and fewer recruits. In the second half of the war the percentage of recruits should remain about the same, but veterans would increase at the expense of the experienced class.

Orders

Before a game commences the Army commanders should write orders outlining areas of operation and objectives for each of their divisions or brigades. Each division or brigade commander should write basic orders for all regiments under command. Once a game begins these orders may only be changed by the general commanding or an ADC carrying written orders. Regimental orders, written each game move on a separate sheet, should concern themselves only with local matters, ie whether to advance, fire, charge etc.

Setting upthetable

Terrain, nature of obstacles, numbers of units involved and their classification, and number of general officers, should all be determined before play commences.

Sequence of play

(With simultaneous moves by both armies.) 1. Write orders." 2. Declare charges. 3 Carry out moves. 4. Artillery firing. 5. Infantry and cavalry firing. 6. Mêlées. 7. Morale and prisoner decisions.

Weather

Dice, score of 6 = heavy rain, and roll of shot is halved. Dice again, 1,2,3 = no wind, 4, 5, 6 = wind.

If there is wind or heavy rain this dispels smoke, otherwise each time a unit fires place a piece of card or cotton wool, equal to the frontage of the unit, 100 mm in front of the unit firing. If firing the next move, place the smoke 70 mm from the unit: if firing a third consecutive time place the smoke 35 mm from the unit. The position of the smoke indicates how far the unit can see. If a unit misses a move of firing, advance the marker one stage. The system is rather complex and sometimes annoying in a fast game, but your regimental orders keep track of firing and the system does discourage indiscriminate firing at poor targets.

Markers

Where units are not visible to the enemy, ie in woods, buildings or behind high ground, markers of the same size

"In solo games alternate moves are employed: attacker moves first, defender moves, joint firing and mêlée for simultaneous casualties.

as the ground occupied by the unit may be placed on the board. Spurious markers, to a ratio of one false to every three real, may be used to confuse the situation more.

Visibility

Restricted to 100 mm in woods. Therefore units in woods need not be placed on the table until identified by an enemy within 100 mm, and even then only the front rank need to be placed in position, the marker remaining until all the troops it represents have been placed on the table.

Troops on hills of more than one contour may see over woods and buildings but the first 75 mm from the far edge of the wood or buildings are dead ground.

Movement

Cavalry in line 300 mm; in column 375 mm; charge move 475 mm.

Infantry in line 150 mm; in column and charge move 275 mm.

Skirmishers in extended order 225 mm; retreating from attack 275 mm.

'Smoke'in use during the opening phase of the war game illustrated in the previous chapter. Here is seen a CSA feint on their left, prior to falling back to a strong defensive position at the farm while the main assault was launched on the opposite flank.

Light batteries 375 mm; Field artillery 300 mm; Heavy batteries 250 mm; Wagons and siege artillery 150 mm. Staff officers 480 mm. Gunners on foot and infantry within fortifications move at 275 mm at all times.

Movement penalties

Deduct '/ird move to: cross a stream; cross a contour (all units); cross a hedge, fence, ditch or wall (cavalry and infantry only); to lie down or stand up (infantry and dismounted cavalry only); to unlimber a gun and come into action or to limber up. Deduct 'A a move in woods.

US forces under pressure at the end of a game. Above The Federals' advance position across the river is about to be forced back (Move 14) Below CSA forces cross the river beyond the bridge (Move 16). Above right The final assault. (Note the batteries are advanced at each phase of the battle's climax.)

All troops except skirmishers are unformed on leaving streams, buildings and woods and take V4 move to reform.

Where contours are less than 50 mm apart cavalry and artillery may not ascend or descend. Where they are less than 25 mm apart only skirmishers may ascend or descend.

Cavalry reining in after a charge and turning about deduct 75 mm. Charging through smoke: advance the charging unit to the smoke, place

deviation card by smoke at centre of charging unit. Dice and carry out remainder of move in direction indicated by the card. If missing target completely, carry on to end of move unless hitting another unit.

Cavalry charging over broken ground: classed as unformed and lose ten per cent every move, the ten per cent being dismounted and requiring a full move to remount. Evasion: staff officers and skirmishers may move up to their maximum distance to avoid contact with the enemy. This is automatic and requires no written order.

Cavalry fighting on foot: deduct one third move to dismount or remount. One figure in four remains with horses, except in the case of Indians. Changing direction: units change direction as ordered, the only restriction being no figure may move more than the maximum distance permitted for the formation of which it is a part. Changing formation: units changing formation do so at their top speed. As the formations are company front and line, it is relatively simple for column to wheel into line and line to wheel into column. Changing formation therefore takes only half a move.

Formation definitions

All columns are in close order—two abreast and ranks close together. Troops in line are considered to be in open order, one or two ranks deep. Skirmishers are in extended order with a minimum of 25 mm between figures. Indians should always move as skirmishers.

Artillery movement

To discourage too much manoeuvring of artillery, any gun having part of its move left on reaching a new position loses that part of the move and may not fire until the next move. Gunners may move away from their guns but may not return to them and fire in the same move.

Staff

If a message is delivered, its contents may not affect movement, etc, until the following move.

Unformed

Troops are unformed if they are routed or rallying, or thrown into disorder by a manoeuvre, such as charging over broken ground or leaving woods, etc.

Firing

Infantry and dismounted cavalry may only fire at targets within an angle of 45 degrees to their front, and guns at targets within the angle of their base plates. If wishing to fire at targets beyond these angles it is necessary to change front and lose a proportion of the firing. In the case of guns, no change of front and firing is allowed in the same move.

Firing restrictions

No firing within 25 mm of friendly troops.

No firing through your own skirmishers.

Guns may not fire canister over the heads of friendly troops.

Cavalry may not fire carbines or rifles when mounted; Indians armed with bows may fire from horseback.

Troops lying down and armed with muzzle-loaders may only fire every other move.

Crossing targets

A unit crossing the front of another will receive 50 per cent of that unit's firing at the shortest range, 50 per cent at the longest range.

Method of infantry and cavalry firing

Once per move, unless otherwise stated, removing casualties as shown by the firing tables.

US muzzle-loading smooth-bore

Range

Veterans

Experienced

Recruits

in mm

Firing

Dead

%

Firing Dead

%

Firing Dead %

75

2

1

50

5 2

40

3 1 33'/J

100

5

2

40

3 1

33 V,

4 1 25

150

3

1

33'/)

4 1

25

5 1 20

200

4

1

25

5 1

20

7 1 15

250

5

1

20

7 1

15

10 1 10

300

7

1

15

10 1

10

Range

Veterans

Experienced

Recruits

in mm

Firing

Dead

% Firing Dead

% Firing

Dead %

100

5

2

40 3 1

33 Vi 4

1 25

150

3

1

33'/J 4 1

25 5

1 20

250

4

1

25 5 1

20 7

1 15

350

5

1

20 7 1

15 10

1 10

500

7

1

15 10 1

10 15

1 7'/»

750

10

1

10 15 1

IVt 20

1 5

1000

15

1

7 V, 20 1

5 -

Range

Veterans

Experienced

Recruits

in mm

Firing

Dead

% Firing Dead

% Firing

Dead

%

100

2

1

50 5 2

40 3

1

33'/i

150

5

2

40 3 1

33'/3 4

1

25

250

3

1

33'/i 4 1

25 5

1

20

350

4

1

25 5 1

20 7

1

15

500

5

1

20 7 1

15 10

1

10

750

7

1

15 10 1

10 15

1

7'A

1000

10

1

10 15 1

7'A 20

1

5

1200

15

1

7% 20 1

5 -

Range

Veterans

Experienced Recruits

in mm

Firing

Dead

%

Firing

Dead

%

100

5

3

60

2

1

50

150

2

1

50

5

2

40

350

5

2

40

3

1

33'A Not issued to

500

3

1

33 Vj

4

1

25 recruits

750

4

1

25

5

1

20

1000

5

1

20

7

1

15

1500

7

1

15

10

1

10

Because the Spencer had such a higher rate of fire, the percentage of casualties is increased to represent part of that higher rate of fire; for the rest, units armed with Spencers may fire twice per game move.

Sharps rifle

Range

Firing

Dead

%

150

5

3

60

250

2

1

50

350

5

2

40

500

3

1

33'/i

750

4

1

25

1000

5

1

20

1500

7

1

15

1800

10

1

Range

Firing

Dead %

50

2

1 50

75

5

2 40

100

3

1 33'/i

150

4

1 25

200

5

1 20

250

7

1 15

US Sharpshooters only: may fire twice per move to represent greater rate of fire.

Enfield carbine

Range Veterans Experienced Recruits

in mm

Firing

Dead

%

Firing Dead

%

Firing Dead

%

100

5

2

40

3 1

33'/a

4 1

25

200

3

1

33 Vs

4 1

25

5 1

20

300

4

1

25

5 1

20

7 1

15

400

5

1

20

7 1

15

10 1

10

500

7

1

15

10 1

10

15 1

Range Veterans Experienced Recruits

Spencer carbine

Range Veterans Experienced Recruits

in mm

Firing

Dead

% Firing

Dead

%

100

5

3

60 2

1

50

200

2

1

50 5

2

40 Not issued to

300

5

2

40 3

1

33'/) recruits

400

3

1

33'/a 4

1

25

450

4

1

25 5

1

20

As with the Spencer rifle, the faster rate of fire is represented partly by the higher rate of casualties, partly by being able to fire twice per game move.

Artillery firing

Artillery piece Maximum effective ranges in mm

Shot

Roll

Spherical case/shell

Canister

6pdr Napoleon

950

50

250 - 800

250*

12pdr Napoleon

1,200

75

250 - 900

300

12pdrWhitworth

2,500

100

— —

300

3-inch Rodman

1,800

125

250-1,400

300

20pdr Parrott

1,900

125

250-1,400

300

30pdr Parrott

2,200

150

250-1,600

300

12pdr howitzer

1,100

-t

150-750

250*

24pdr howitzer

1,300

-f

300 - 800

300

32pdr howitzer

1,500

— t

500 - 900

300

"Do not include last 50 mm of canister device when taking casualties.

*The plunging fire with the howitzer firing ball would be used primarily against fortifications.

"Do not include last 50 mm of canister device when taking casualties.

*The plunging fire with the howitzer firing ball would be used primarily against fortifications.

The percentage column in these tables has been added for information only and if you decide to transfer the tables to postcards for easy reference the percentages can be left off.

Troops may wish to fire and move, in which case the number of casualties will be reduced. For example, five veterans firing at 150 yards with Remingtons kill two men. If taking half a move and firing, they would kill only one man. Troops armed with weapons which may be fired twice per move, may move and fire once.

Cover and casualties

Stone buildings, stone walls, entrench ments and revetted earthworks are classed as hard cover. If troops behind hard cover are firing, they suffer casualties at one third rate. If they are not firing they do not suffer casualties.

Hedges, woods, fencing and wooden buildings are classed as soft cover and troops sheltering behind these, whether firing or not, suffer casualties at half rate.

Troops lying down or in extended order suffer casualties at third rate. Troops in open order suffer casualties at half rate.

Gunners and engineers at work are considered in open order, in close order when on the move.

CSA infantry and artillery line a stone wall to gain maximum protection from Federal fire.

Union infantry sheltering in a wood and behind fences (soft cover) but with guns in a revetted earth-work, classed as hard cover.

Destruction of cover

All forms of cover may be destroyed by artillery fire and are therefore given values: hedge, fence, wooden bridges and wooden buildings, 2 points per 25 mm (length of bridge, longest wall of house); stone walls, bridges and houses and earthworks are given 6 points per 25 mm. 12pdr smoothbores score one point per hit. Rifles firing shell take 3 points per hit, 2 points per hit with ball.

Wooden buildings and bridges may also be set on fire by shell: if a hit is scored roll a dice and a score of 5 or 6 sets the building alight. Any building or bridge set on fire must be evacuated on the next move and may not be used again. Buildings having half their value taken by hits are considered demolished and do not suffer further damage. Only a quarter of the original number of occupants may remain within the rubble.

Individual figure combats, dice for each pair engaged. Add 1 for veterans and Indians, deduct 1 for recruits. Highest score wins. In the event of a draw nothing happens. If attacking from flank or rear the attacker doubles his dice score for the first move.

Mêlées may be discontinued by either side at any time but if one player wishes to continue when his opponent withdraws, he simply moves forward and the mêlée continues.

All units need a full move to rally and reform after a mêlée.

Morale

See chapter four and morale table. Pursuit

Infantry or cavalry pursuing unformed infantry remove one figure for every pursuing figure able to make contact. When cavalry pursues cavalry, a running mêlée takes place with the pursuer adding one to his dice scores.

Prisoners

Apart from the men taken in cavalry mêlées, prisoners may also be taken in infantry mêlées or may surrender if routed and being pursued.

Pursued units may just declare their

Union infantry about to mêlée with Confederates. The Confederates have been firing earlier and therefore the charge deviation device is used to align the Federals for the mêlée.

Wargames buildings detachable from their bases so that figures may be placed under them without losing their position on the table. The roof of the saloon is also detachable to allow figures to be placed in the upper floor.

A wagon train wagon under conversion for an observation balloon team. The balloon may be made from a real balloon with a thimble as the basket, supported by wire instead of a 'rope' from the 'windlass.'

surrender and must then be escorted to the rear by their pursuers. Infantry in mêlées may surrender whenever they wish, but must surrender if surrounded and their morale breaks, unless throwing a six when they may fight to the last man with no quarter given or taken. Units whose morale breaks in mêlée but are not surrounded must yield one third of their remaining strength as prisoners.

Prisoners must be escorted to the rear by one man to every five prisoners and held at the rear by one man to every ten prisoners.

Buildings

The number of men allowed in a building should be decided before play begins. Normally it is as many figures as will go into the ground space occupied —usually no more than a regiment. The figures can be represented by a marker.

Figures within buildings have their rate of casualties from firing reduced (see above) and in mêlées for possession of the building their casualties are halved. As casualties are deducted from the marker, and it is not mandatory to place the full quota of figures within a building, your opponent will often have no idea what effect his firing is having, or indeed if there is anyone left alive inside.

Engineers

Engineers move at 225 mm at all times. They may defend themselves by rifle fire or in mêlée but may not in any one move work as engineers and fight. If caught whilst working they must surrender.

They may be reinforced by infantry labourers at a rate of three infantry to one engineer. A unit of four may erect planking to repair a bridge in four moves; a river pontoon bridge for single line infantry in eight moves; a river pontoon bridge for single line cavalry or artillery in 16 moves; earthworks at the rate of 50 mm in four moves. The same unit may destroy by explosives a house, bridge or entrenchment after two full moves in contact with their objective: a dice throw is taken and if 1 scored there is a misfire and the unit must begin again. The same size unit may destroy 75 mm of hedge or 30 mm of entrenchments per move. All these actions require the engineers' wagon to be in attendance, ie within 50 mm of the work in progress.

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