Pennsylvania

Garde Lafayette

Allen Infantry: Formed ¡11 A He mow 11, this unit was one of the tirst 10 volunteer for three months' service on the outbreak of war, gaining the nickname of the 'First Defenders1. It became Co.G. 25th Pennsylvania Infantry, 1 heir uniform, adopted in i8(h>, was described as being "of gra\ cloth, with black and gold bullion trimmings". The frock coats had standing collars, trimmed around the edges with gold, which was also used to form a loop at the upper front edge of each collar front. Gold fringed epaulettes with black crescents were also worn. One member of the unit, who deserted before reaching Washington in April 18b 1, was described as wearing a 'green alpaca uniform, trimmed with fringe of the same color' in the Daily Dispatch of Richmond, Virginia on 20 April 1861. Duquesne Grays: Formed in Pittsburgh in 1831, the unit saw three months' active duty in iHbt as Co.B, 12th Pennsylvania Infantry. Toda> the Grays survive as a Pennsylvania National Guard anti-aircraft unit. The uniform included jii M1851 style shako, cadet grey coatees trimmed with gold and black, and matching grey trousers (white in summer with a black stripe.

Philadelphia's most socially prominent volunteer militia company was the First Troop. City Cavalry which was formed there in '771- During the Civil War the unit saw active service in the summers of iStii and 1863 and 73 Troop members served as officers in active Union army units, eight of them dying during the War. Today the unit is Troop A, 104th Cavalry Regt.. Pennsylvania National Guard. This 1860-era private wears the unit's blue dress uniform with rrd collar and cuffs and silver trim; the sash is red and silver; and his 'Tarlrton' helmet sits on the lahle next to him. For undress, medium hlue trousers were worn with two rrd stripes down each leg, along with hlue peakless forage caps with a red hand, and hlue stable jackets with red collars and a single row of silver buttons down the front. (Author's collection)

I: Mnssnchusetts: Captain, Nut tunal Lancers 2: Connecticut: Corporal, Governor's Font Guard 3: Connecticut: Private, Putnam Phalanx

Confederate Forage Caps

]: New York: Lieutenant, 3rd Ki-^t. iHuhsursi, NYSM 2: New York: Private, 7th Regt.. NYSM 3: New York; Sergeant, NY City Guard

City Guard

]: New York: Lieutenant, 3rd Ki-^t. iHuhsursi, NYSM 2: New York: Private, 7th Regt.. NYSM 3: New York; Sergeant, NY City Guard

1: New York: 1 Vívate. Washington Grays 2: New York: Sergeanl, The American Guard 3: New York: Sergeanl, 7»th liegt., NYSM

American Guard

I: Pennsylvania: Private, Cadwalader Grays 2: DC: Private, National Rifles 3: Pennsylvania: Corporal, First City Zouaves

Corporal Trouser Stripe

I: Pennsylvania: Private, Cadwalader Grays 2: DC: Private, National Rifles 3: Pennsylvania: Corporal, First City Zouaves

1: Virginia: Captain, Lynchburg Home Guard 2: Virginia: Private. Richmond Grays 3: Virginia: Corporal, Cily Guard

VOLSTAI?

Charleston Zouave Cadets BadgeCollar Mine Virginia City1851 Shako

First and Second Troops of Montgomery County Cavalry: The first Troop was founded shortly after the War of 1812, while the Second Troop was added shordy before the Civil War. Troop numbers declined drastically as many of their members joined local units such as the 31st Volunteer Pennsylvania Infantry Regt. and ixnh Troops were disbanded during the war. T he uniform included a beaver cap with a horsehair plume, bull cord and tassels, and a brass eagle eap badge; a dark blue coat with bulf standing collar, cuffs, and skirl facings; sk\ blue trousers with a 13 in. buff stripe; tall boots; and a while sword I >c It. Garde Lafayette: Formed in Philadelphia in i860, this unit was assigned to the 1st Militia Regimen I. As such it made up part of the 18th Pennsylvania Infantry which served (or three months from April to August 1861. Since most of its members joined active Union arm\ units after being mustered out of the ¡8th, the unit passed out of existence in 1861. Their dress consisted of blue kepis with red bands; single-breasted dark blue frock coals with red cull's, standing collars, and shoulder knots: and scarlet trousers All ranks carried swords.

PhtlAilFlphU't National Guards, shown in the 31 August 1861 Harper 1 Weekly, wrrr formed in 184a. The unit «1 mustered into three months' active service tn April 1861 as the 19th Pennsylvania Infantry'. After being discharged, many National Guards members returned to active service in the 90th Pennsylvania Infantry, which served for three years, while the unit itself was designated the ise Blue Reserve* of the Reserve Brigade Militia. Other Guard members joined the 52nd, 72nd. 196th. and 213th Pennsylvania Infantry Regiments. Here the unit is shown in its fatigue dress of dark blue forage caps.

Landis' Battery: f ormed in Philadelphia in April 1861 In the city's leading citizens, tin baitcry saw active service tor i *, days in i86j and for a month during ihe Gettysburg campaign of 1863. Its uniform included light drab broad-brimmed hats with brass crossed cannon under the letter *A lor a badge; a dark blue fatigue coat with five buttons down die front; and dark blue trousers. See photograph p. ji in MAA 190, American Cuil Urn Armit i (4): State Troops.

Minute Men 0^76: Formed in Philadelphia just before tin war. ihe unit served for three months in l86t as part of the 18th Pennsylvania tnlamry. Mam members joined active Union army units al'iei the 18th was mustered out, and the Minute Men passed QUI of existence during the w ar. Their dress included black tricom hats; dark blue copies of War of Independence regimental coats with bull collars, cuffs, lapels, and turnbacks; and hull' waistcoats and breeches.

Philadelphia Zouave Corps Formed 111 18bo. this unit was assigned to ihe ist Militia Regt., and formed part of the Union army's iHih Peunsvlvania Inlantry. So many unit members joined active volunteer units thai die Zouaves passed out of waist.length jackets, and trousers. The dress uniform headdress was a black shako with a white pompon and a standard militia 'sun-burst' cap badge bearing the number '2' in its centre. The grey coatee wras cut with three gold lace buttonhole patches, edged with black, on each cufTand one on each side of the standing collar. There were two rows of nine buttons each down the coatee front. Trousers were matching grey. The ist Blue Reserves wore dark blue kepis, chasseur-style dark blue coats, full sky blue trousers, and leather gaiters. (Author's collection)

Palmetto Sharpshooters Kepi

Infantry officer and pikrntiin, r,it>&{. The officer has his regimentals laced at the front, at the seam* and at the pockets; a bunch of ribbons is attached at his right shoulder. His cravat has em broidery * although his bo vs and possibly the heels of his shoes would be red. His «word hang« from a laced waist belt which became fashionable from c.iftftu. and he holds a spontoon. The pikeman is typicaJ of theite soldiers in the 1680s and '90s» w hen only I he Swiss regiments retained the hats and helmets. Except for the cuirass and long pike, the dress is similar to that of musketeers. From Mallet's i68,| edition of t^es Travaux dt Afars. I Anne S. K. Broun Military Collection, Brown L'niversify, USA)

Spontoon Partisan

grenadiers, by a royal order ofa6 December 1679 two elite cavalrymen were in be selected per company, called Vara bin icrs' and given rilled carbines. In October 1690 thc\ were formed into ilieir own company. On i November 16(13 these companies were grouped into a new unit called Royal-Garabiniers. 100 companies strong a sort of elite reserve cavalry division. Apart from the t illed carbine, they had the same weapons as other cavalrymen.

Cavalry of the 1660s wore buff leather coats and breeches, rcinforced boots, buff leather gauntlet gloves, felt hats and cloaks, fhe white sash identified them as French, since diis basic dress was common to cavalrymen over much of Europe. In November 1671, a royal order instructed that the cavalry were to have buffleather coats, cloaks and good Im khs, and be "dressed in good grey cloth lined tti the same colour", except for the royal units. These were to 'be dressed in dark blue . , . that all cavalrymen have black hats . . . and that the trumpets of the companies wear the liveries' of their mestTf-dc-ramp. This order set the standard well into the 18th century. The bull coat became a waistcoat in time, and the white sash was given up by the 1690s. Atguillettes were worn at the right shoulder.

The great majority of the 'grey regiments' adopted red as the facing colour, shown on the turned-back cuff. Although the order specifies grey for the lining, 'red lining' is often mentioned as well. Regimental distinctions were provided by the colour of the housings, which were of the livery of the colonels; these arc now almost unknown, but a few arc mentioned at a tb<>8 review. I,a Feronaye's

Fracfa coal now preserved in the Swedish army museum, said to have been sent by Louis XIV (o Charles XI of Sweden, which served as (he inspiration of the mode) 1687 Swedish uniform. It is dark hiur lined with red with a red detachable cuff, (giving the impression that the foresleeve was from a waistcoat. All seams, edges and buttonholes are yellow, with yellow metal buttons. Photo taken in 1 at the Franco-Swedish t.xliilniinn in Paris.

Lafayette Artillery

South Carolina's artillery ufficers in 1861 wore very similar uniforms, a» seen by this group at Sullivan's Island in Charleston Harbour. All wear dark blue uniforms and most have gilt crossed cannon cap badges- Left it flapi. Allen J. Green, Columbia Flying Artillery; fourth from the left is 4th Lt. W. K. Bach man. German Volunteers. [ Library' of (Congress f

South Carolina's artillery ufficers in 1861 wore very similar uniforms, a» seen by this group at Sullivan's Island in Charleston Harbour. All wear dark blue uniforms and most have gilt crossed cannon cap badges- Left it flapi. Allen J. Green, Columbia Flying Artillery; fourth from the left is 4th Lt. W. K. Bach man. German Volunteers. [ Library' of (Congress f white jackets and trousers as Fatigue uniform. Columbia Flying Artillery. Formed in Columbia. the stale capital in 18^4. the unit served in the Civil War as lily. H. Palmetto Bri. of Light Artillery. 1 he unit uniform included M1851 shakos with scarlet bands and pompons, and a rap badge that included a gilt palmetto tree over crossed cannon. The enlisted men's frock coats were the same as those worn by the Washington Artillery of Louisiana, save that the cutTs were cut 'jam-pot' style rather than pointed. The trousers were also identical to those of the Washington Artillery Edisto Rifles: Formed in Orangeburg around 1851, their wartime designation was Co.A, tsi South Carolina Infantry. The uniform included a liia» k 1831-style shako will) an 1855 dress hat eagle t ap badge and a green band around the crown; a grey frock coat with three rows of brass buttons down the front, green stripes runmng across the chest connecting the buttons, a green trimmed standing collar, and lour buttons and slashes on each cuff; and white trousers. German Artillery: Formed in 184J in Charleston with two companies, they formed a separate battalion during the war. Headgear was a Germantype black helmet with a brass spike on top; a dark blue short coat with a red standing collar with two false yellow buttonholes on it. and four false y ellow buttonholes on each cull'. Trousers were light blue in winter and white 111 summer. In November 1860 they adopted a fatigue uniform of .1 kepi with a black oilcloth cover; a grey satinet jacket trimmed yellow; and dark grey trousers. Lafayette Artillery: Formed before lii;j6 in Charleston, the unit's Confederate service was as Pope's, later Kanapaux's, Batten. Its uniform consisted of dark blue frock coals and scarlet trousers, cut in French Army style, Montgomery Guard: Formed c. i860 ¡11 Charleston, they served in the war as Conner's Company of South Carolina Volunteers, The uniform included a shako with a white cock feather plume and the state insignia in front; a dark green coatee with three rows of buttons down the front and a standing collar with two while braid buttonholes on each side; light blue trousers with a white stripe; and while cross-and waist-belts.

Moultrie Guards Organised belore 1845 in Charleston, they were attached to the tst South Carolina Rtlies during the war. In December i860 they acquired blue kepis, 'North Carolina Gray cassimerc" jackeLs, and black trousers. Palmetto Guards; Seeing service as Co.A, 18th B11. South Carolina Siege Artillery, the unit wore tlark forage caps, cither blue or red, wiili a brass palmetto insignia over a crossed cannon and the letter 'P* on the left and "G1 on the right on the cap top. The single-breasted frock coats were light-grey and had five buttons down ihe front; red or black braid formed pointed cuffs and trimmed the standing collar edge. I here was also a single braid forming a false buttonhole on the front of each collar side. Trousers matched ihe coat in colour. Palmetto Riflemen Organised in 1858 from Charleston's German-speaking population, their wartime service was as Cu.C, Palmetto Sharpshooters. Fliey wore black leather helmets with a white plume stuck into a silver socket on its top. Trim around the edge was silver, as was the skull-and-cross bones badge. The frock coat was dark blue, as were the trousers, with white trim for enlisted men and silver for officers. The company carried a black guidon with a white skull-and-cross bones insignia.

Rut ledge Mounted Riflemen: A unit organised in Charleston in i860, the men ser\ed as Cos. B and G. 71b South Carolina Cavalry during the w ar. The uniform included a kepi with the brass initials *RMR' and a grey jacket and trousers.

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