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By the appointment of his ExeeEetcy Sir Th o- || f mas Fairfax and the generall count ell of?, j %. the Army. ' J M

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regiments, and an adequate pay-chest. This was the key to its success.

The appearance of the New Model Army was different, as for the first time each regiment in the Army was issued with coats of a uniform colour. The newspaper Perfect Passages for 7 May 1645 records 'the men are redcoats all, the whole army only are distinguished by several facings of their coats', facings being the lining of the coat which showed where it was turned back at the cuffs. Their discipline had not yet reached the high level for which the New Model Army became famous; as Sir Samuel Luke wrote on 10 June 1645 of those he saw: 'I think all these New Modellers knead all their dough with ale, for I never saw so many drunk in my life in so short a time. The men I have formerly wrote to you are extraordinarily personable, well armed and well-paid, but the officers you will hardly distinguish from common soldiers'.

Sir Thomas Fairfax, commander of the cavalry of his father Ferdinando, Lord Fairfax's Northern Army, and later commander of the New Model Army. An intensely fair-minded man, he stood by his soldiers in their mutiny for fair conditions on disbandment, but refused to sign the king's death warrant. (David Carter collection)

Sir Thomas Lunsford

Hi, H2: Pikeman and Musketeer, Sir Thomas Fairfax's

Regiment of Foot Both wear the New Model's red coat with the blue linings and ties which distinguish this regiment from its fellows. The pikeman retains the back and breast plates of his armour, but has discarded the gorget and tassets. The pikemen in some regiments may have wholly abandond their armour by this time, although all retained their helmets. The musketeer carries the latest light-pattern musket and has discarded his musket-rest. One distinctive piece of equipment was the bandoleer specified in contract books for the New Model, which was 'to bee of wood with whole bottoms, to be turned within and not Bored, the Heads to be of Wood, and to be layd in oyle (vizt) Three times over, and to be coloured blew with blew and white strings with strong thred twist with good belts, att Twenty pence a peece'.

H'y. Ensign, Prince Rupert's Regiment of Foot King Charles also made efforts to 'new-model' his Oxford-based army in 1644, but the fixed interests of his officers defeated him and the large number of weak units with their large and expensive officer corps remained. This did not detract from their fighting quality, and the King's infantry performed better than the numerically superior New Model at Naseby; but they were far more expensive to maintain than similar numbers of Parliament foot soldiers. The king's failure was an illustration of his weak overall control of his army, whose increasing indiscipline made them, and by implication his own cause, ever more obnoxious in the provinces.

Prince Rupert's Regiment was one of the best units in King Charles's Oxford Army; first raised by Sir Thomas Lunsford in 1642, it was later commanded by his brother Henry, who fell at the storm of Bristol, and then became Prince Rupert's. Actual command was exercised by Lieutenant-Colonel John Russell. Despite the severe casualties it must have suffered at Marston Moor, the regiment still numbered some 500 men at Naseby, possibly the strongest Royalist regiment in the field—a recruiting effort that is a tribute to the charisma of its Colonel. At least four of the regiment's ensigns were captured at Naseby, and subsequently seen in London and recorded by the contemporary artist Jonathan Turmile. The ensign shown was probably the second captain's.

/: Aftermath: Marston Moor 164.4 This plate shows a scene following the Battle of Marston Moor in which Prince Rupert's Army and the Marquis of Newcastle's Northern (Royalist) Army were destroyed. The last stage in this series of views of the life of the soldier is the surgeon's attention. A pikeman from the Marquis of Newcastle's Regiment sits in his shirtsleeves as a surgeon probes the wound in his chest; a musketeer from the Earl of Manchester's Regiment holds him steady.

//: Pikeman, Marquis of Newcastle's Regiment Newcastle was appointed General of the King's Forces north of the Trent at the outbreak of the war and used his considerable local influence to raise an army for the king's cause. His forces managed to gain the upper hand over the Parliamentarian Fairfaxes in 1643, but the entry of the Earl of Leven's Scottish army the following year upset the balance of power, and the junction of the Scots army, Fairfax's Northern Parliament troops and the Army of the Eastern Association proved too much for him. His infantry were commonly known as 'Whitecoats', a reference to the undyed cloth used to make their coats. One Parliament newsheet suggests that in some cases the coats were decorated with crosses, 'an Ensigne wee conceive of some Popish Regiment'. While Newcastle emigrated after the battle rather than 'endure the laughter of the Court', his regiment was steadfast: 'Having got into a small parcel of ground ditched in, and not of easy access of horse, would take no quarter, and by mere valour for one whole hour kept the troops of horse from entering them at near push of Pike . . . they would have no quarter but fought it out until there was not thirty of them living'.

I2: Musketeer, Earl of Manchester's Regiment Manchester's infantry consisted of 11 regiments in all, four for garrison duty in the Eastern Association counties and seven for field service. He brought six to fight at Marston Moor, one being his own green-coated regiment. Two of the other regiments in the Eastern Association, Thomas Rainsborough's and Edward Montagu's, are known to have worn red coats but those of the other regiments are unknown. It is possible that the bulk of Manchester's infantry wore red coats, but the JVewes sent by Mr. Ogden

British Redcoat Infantry

Charles I: King of England, Scotland and Ireland, he experienced revolutions in all three. A firm believer in the 'Divine Right of Kings', he considered it excused any treachery in maintaining his position. His incompetence as a conspirator alienated all parties, and a major reason for his execution was that his promises for future arrangements could not be trusted. (David Carter collection)

Charles I: King of England, Scotland and Ireland, he experienced revolutions in all three. A firm believer in the 'Divine Right of Kings', he considered it excused any treachery in maintaining his position. His incompetence as a conspirator alienated all parties, and a major reason for his execution was that his promises for future arrangements could not be trusted. (David Carter collection)

following Marston Moor includes the comment 'most of Manchesters base blew coats which fought under the bloody colors are cutt off, which indicates that some infantry other than his personal regiment did not. Note the musket left propped in its rest, the common way of stacking arms at the time.

I3: Surgeon

The medical services of this period can best be described as desperately inadequate. Armies on both sides usually had two or three 'Physicians General' attached to headquarters, and each regiment had a chirurgeon and two mates on its staff. The demands on these few men after a battle

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A strong believer in the English Constitution, Edward Hyde was a firm supporter of Charles I during the Civil War, and of his son thereafter. He became Lord Chancellor on the Restoration. The illustration is from his famous History of the Rebellion.

can be imagined. Note the surgeon's tools laid out in front of his chest.

J: Musketeers' equipment Ji: Musketeers

A front and back view of typical musketeers showing how the equipment was worn. In order to achieve a reasonable rate of fire musketeers were taught to load and fire according to a very precise series of movements or 'Postures', the object being that by practising the sequence over and over the soldier would become steadily more expert, and more of a danger to his enemies than his friends. Different manuals had different numbers of postures for this process, sometimes up to 60; but this was only for training, and in action the orders were reduced to three, 'Make Ready; Present; Give Fire'. The two postures seen here are 'Charge with Powder' and 'Poyse your Musket'.

J2: Hats and Montero caps

According to military theorists musketeers should wear helmets as part of their equipment, and the specifications for the Trained Bands still included a helmet. In practice few musketeers in professional service still did, the Dutch being the only significant exception. Instead musketeers wore a variety of broad-brimmed hats or peaked Montero caps such as those shown here.

Jj and J4: Bandoleers

The bandoleer was a leather belt to which 12 or more wooden containers were strung, each containing enough coarse gunpowder to fire a single round. At its base was a pouch in which musket balls and cleaning equipment were kept; and suspended beneath it was a flask containing fine powder to prime the musket. The small metal container seen on J4 contained oil. The unusual bandoleer shown in J3 is an experimental style with a leather flap to keep the powder containers dry, possibly produced for a Militia enthusiast. The containers surrounding show some of the styles used. The instruments shown are a match-cover, sometimes used to protect one end of the matchcord from the elements; a worm, and a scourer. Both of the last two had a screw thread at the base which fitted into the rear end of the ramrod; the first was used to draw out a charge which had not gone off, and the second to clean out the barrel itself.

Muskets

The majority of muskets used during the Civil War were matchlocks, that is to say they were fired by bringing a length of smouldering matchcord into contact with powder in the priming pan. One major development was the introduction of a new lighter pattern. This had a shorter barrel, and a slimmer, lighter stock. Musketeers using this lighter pattern could dispense with their forked musket-rests, but

Sir John Hotham, whose refusal to deliver Hull and the powerful arsenal stored there was a critical blow to the king's cause at the outbreak of the war. He and his son later had second thoughts and offered to deliver Hull to the king; the plot was discovered, and both father and son were executed as a result. (David Carter collection)

Pikenier SchwertSir John Meldrum

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Sir John Meldrum, a Scots professional soldier and an asset to the Parliamentary cause, serving at Edgehill and commanding at the unsuccessful siege of Newark. He was killed at the siege of Scarborough during a sally by the defenders.

any who had the older style could not. Examples of both styles are shown.

K : Pikemen's equipment

The combination of Pikemen and Musketeers was necessary because without the defence provided by Pikemen, infantry could be ridden into the ground by a cavalry attack.

Ki: Pikemen

A front and back view of typical pikemen. As with musketeers, there was a precise series of 'Postures' for the pike, although there were fewer of them. The importance of the drill becomes obvious when one considers a large body of pikemen carrying 16-foot pikes with only three feet between one man and the next: unless each man went through the same series of movements at the same time chaos followed. The postures shown here are 'Advance Your Pike', and 'Charge to ye Reare' (second motion).

Edward Massey, famous for his truly heroic defence of Gloucester against the King's Army. He was involved in efforts to oppose the New Model Army after the Civil War, and was forced to flee to Holland. He later became a supporter of Charles II.

K2: Helmets and Monmouth caps With the outbreak of the Civil War obsolete equipment which had been stored in the Tower of London or private armouries was brought into service together with more modern patterns. The seizure of Trained Band arsenals must also have contributed some quite ancient models. Those shown in the top row date from the 16th century, while those in the second are patterns know to have been issued in the 17th. Two views of the woollen Monmouth cap commonly worn by pikemen for padding under their helmets are shown in the second row; the first shows the appearance of the cap and the second how it was worn with the brim up.

Kj: Armour and pike-heads

A complete set of pikeman's armour consisted of a

wart gorget back, breast and tassets. This was the specification for the Militia and the Muster Master would have checked that all was present before a Trained Band pikeman 'passed muster'. Professional soldiers tended to lighten the load by abandoning the gorget and, sometimes, the tassets. In the years following the Civil War the New Model Army abandoned the use of armour altogether. The head of the pike was to be 'well steeled, eight inches long, well-riveted, the butt end bound with a ring of iron'.

K4 & Rapiers, backswords and other patterns Most infantrymen, whether musketeers or pikemen, were issued with swords of one pattern or another. The examples shown here are popular styles, including the simple cross-hilt seen in several contemporary illustrations. General Monk thought this a waste of time, advising the issue of'a good stiff Tuck not very long, with a Belt, for if you arm your men with Swords, half the Swords you have in your Army amongst your common men, will be upon the first March you make be broken with cutting of boughs'. No doubt he spoke from bitter experience.

Notes sur les planches en couleur

A: Gcntilhommes d'une association de volontaires se réunissant pour s'entraîner, pour des raisons plus mondaines que militaires. Ai: Ce 'soldat doublement armé' est né de l'idée d'associer l'arme nationale'—l'arc—à la pique; il n'existe pas de témoignage que ce fut jamais employé en bataille. A2: L'équipement complet du piquier, tel que stipulé par la loi pour la milice. Les hommes moins fortunés noircissaient ou enduisaient de brun leur armure pour l'empêcher de rouiller. A3: A nouveau, équipement réglementaire complet, mais d'une richesse peu courante.

Bi: Clerc de la compagnie inscrivant le détail d'une recrue; il porte des vêtements civils, comme tous les officiers de cette époque. B2: Officier du King's Lifeguard of Foot, son rang se voit à sa pertuisane et son allégeance au roi à sa ceinture rouge. La seule autre pièce militaire montrée ici est le gorgerin. B3: Les tambours, au nombre de deux par compagnie, portaient le costume que leurs officiers avaient conçu (et payé) pour eux.

C: Des troupes parlementaires pillant une demeure catholique au début de la guerre; la discipline fut améliorée à compter de 1645. Ci: Chaque recrue était censée recevoir un pourpoint, une chemise, des chaussrues, une casquette et une musette, quoique par 'casquette' l'on entendait tous genres de coiffures. Ce soldat, en pourpoint vert doublé de jaune de son régiment, porte une casquette 'Montero'. C2: Un autre mousquetaire, dans le pourpoint jaune de son régiment et un chapeau en feutre à bords larges. Sa bandoulière est d'un modèle différent et son épée plus moderne que celle de son compagnon. C3: Les bonnets de laine 'Monmouth' étaient populaires chez les piquiers, et leur servaient de bourre sous leur casque. Il porte son armure noircie contre la rouille sur le pourpoint rouge de son régiment.

Di: Seul le ruban rouge de son bonnet le distingue d'un civil. Son vieux mousquet, lourd demande à être appuyé sur une fourche. D2: Il porte les cartouches de son mousquet plus léger dans un sac en cuir huilé. Le pourpoint, les culottes et la casquette 'Montero' proviennent des stocks fournis à cette armée par le marchand Bushell; les ensembles de l'habit étaient ou tout en rouge, ou tout en bleu. D3 Les mousquets à pierre étaient principalement utilisés par les gardes d'artillerie, mais cette compagnie endurcie et fraiche revenue de sa campagne d'Irlande faisait partie des quelques unités d'infanterie indépendantes qui les aient reçus.

El Les fifres n'étaient pas sur la liste officielle des effectifs de l'unité mais étaient payés par les officiers. E2, E3: L'un porte le pourpoint vert du régiment—les tâches de rouille suggèrent qu'il fut piquier et portait normalement son armure au-dessus de son pourpoint. Cette unité a servi dans la garnison de Farnham; les hommes faisaient attention à mieux se comporter dans les tavernes locales que les soldats qui traversaient simplement la ville.

F: Pendant la bataille qui eut lieu à ce manoir assiégé, le manque d'expérience conduisit des rangées successives de cette unité de milice à tirer dans le dos de leurs compagnons en position avancée. Fi: Tenue caractéristique dénotant la qualité d'officier, avec buff-coat à point d'or, ceinture orange montrant son allégeance au Comte d'Essex et 'leading-stafT ou pertuisane comme marque de range. F2 L'enseigne porte le drapeau de la compagnie; centre d'attraction de l'attaque ennemie, il est protégé par quelques pièces d'armure. La bosselure sur la plaque de poitrine, marque manifeste qu'elle a été éprouvée par la fabricant en tirant au pistolet sur elle, était, souvent faite au marteau par les fournisseurs malhonnêtes. *3> 4» 5> 6: Les soldats de milice des Trained Bands devaient fournir leur propre habit, qui n'était pas uniforme, ainsi que leurs équipement et armes qui devaient être conformes à la norme légale; la variété était donc grande, les unités de Londres semblent avoir eu une prédisposition pour de fins buff-coats sans manche. L'on ne portait pratiquement pas de casque, bien que les instructions officielles continuaient à l'exiger.

Farbtafeln

A: Ehrenmänner einer Freiwilligcnvercinigung, die sich zum Exerzieren trafen. Diese Treffen hauen eher einen geselligen als militärischen Charakter.

Ai: Dieser 'zweifach bewaffnete Mann' verdeutlicht die Idee, die nataonale Waffe—den Langbogen—mit dem Langspiess (oder die Pike) als Bewaffnung zu kombinieren. Nichts weist jedoch darauf hin, dass diese Waffenkombination jemals in einer Schlacht benutzt wurde. A2: Die gesamte Austrüstung eines Pikeniers, die in den gesetzlichen Vorschriften der Bürgerwehr festgelegt worden war. Weniger wohlhabende Männer schwärzten oder bräunten ihre Panzerung, so dass sie nicht rostete. A3: Wiederum die volle, gesetzlich vorgeschriebene Austrüstung, die von ungewöhlichem Reichtum zeugte.

Bi: Der Schriftführer der Kompanie trägt Zivilbekleidung—wie es in dieser Zeit bei Offizieren üblich war und nimmt die Personalien eines Rekruten auf. B2: Ein Offizier der King's Lifeguard of Foot. Die Partisane (Stosswaffe) lässt seinen Rang erkennen. Seine Treue zum König wird durch die rote Schärpe symbolisiert. Überdies ist der Kragenspiegel hier dargestellt. B3: Jede Kompanie hatte zwei Trommler, deren Tracht von ihren Offizieren entworfen und bezahlt wurde.

C: Die Soldaten des Parlamentsheeres plündern das Haus einer katholischen Familie zu Kriegsbeginn. Ab 1645 wurde die Disziplin besser gewahrt.

Ci: Angeblich wurde an jeden Rekrut ein Mantel, Hemd. Schuhe, Schirmmütze—dabei konnte es sich um irgend eine Art von Kopibedeckung handeln—ausgegeben. Dieser Soldat trägt einen grünen Regimentsmantel mit gelbem Futter und einer Montero-Mütze. C2: Ein weiterer Musketier mit grauem Rcgimentsmantel und einem breitkrempigen Filzhut. Das Bandolier birgt ein anderes Muster; sein Schwert ist moderner, als das von seinen Kameraden. C3: Die 'Monmouth'-Mützen waren bei den Pikenieren beliebt und wurden unter dem Helm zum auswattieren getragen. Die Panzerung wurde gegen Rostbildung geschwärzt und über die rote Bekleidung angelegt.

Di: Nur das rote Hutband unterscheidet ihn von einem Zivilisten. Seine alte, schwere Muskete muss auf einer Stütze abgelegt werden. D2: Partronen für leichtere Musketen wurden in einer geölten Ledertasche aufbewahrt. Mantel, Breecheshosen und 'Montero'-Mütze stammten aus Armeebeständen, die von 'Bushcll'-Kaufleuten zur Verfugung gestellt wurden. Die Bekleidung war entweder in rot oder blau gehalten. D3: Steinschloss-Musketen wurden hauptsächlich von den Artilleriegarden benutzt, aber diese kampferfahrene Kompanie, die gerade aus Irland zurückgekommen war, war nur eine der wenigen, unabhängigen Infanterie-Einheiten, die man damit ausgestattet hatte.

Ei: Querpfeifer gehörten nicht zu den offiziellen Einheiten, wurden allerdings von Offizieren bezahlt. E2, E3: Eine Person trägt einen grünen Regimentsmantel mit rostfarbenen Schmutzflecken, die darauf zurückschliessen, dass es sich um einen Pikenier handelt. In der Regel trugen sie darüber eine Panzerung. Diese Einheit diente in der Farnham Garnison. Die Männer taten ihr Nötigstes, sich in der Stadtschenke besser zu benehmen als die Soldaten, die nur kurz in der Stadt verweilten.

F: Im Laufe der Kampfhandlungen, am besetzten Herrenhaus, führte die Uncrfahrenheit verschiedener Bürgerwehren dazu, dass diese in die Rücken ihrer Kameraden schössen.

Fi: Die typische Bekleidung eines Qualitätsoffiziers mit goldbesticktem 'Buff-Coat'. Die orangefarbene Schärpe wurde von jenen getragen, die dem (¡ruf von Essex ihre Treue geschworen hatten. Das 'Leading-stafP oder die Partisane dienten als Rangabzeichen. F2: Der Fähnrich trägt die Kompanieflagge. Da er im Mittelpunkt des feindlichen Angriffs stand, trug er eine Panzerung. Die Beule in der Brustplatte—offensichtlich ein Gütezeichen, welches der Kunsthandwer-

Matchlock MusketeerMatchlock Musketeers

Plunder: The Earl of Essex's Army, 1642 1: Musketeer, John Hampden's Regiment 2: Musketeer, Thomas Ballard's Regiment 3: Pikeman, Lord Robartes' Regiment

Monterocaps

Plunder: The Earl of Essex's Army, 1642 1: Musketeer, John Hampden's Regiment 2: Musketeer, Thomas Ballard's Regiment 3: Pikeman, Lord Robartes' Regiment

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