War on the water

The navies of the North and South played big parts in the strategies of Union and Confederate commanders. President Lincoln's sailors blocked Southern seaports and fought Confederates on the rivers. President Davis's navy commissioned privateers, vessels that attacked Union merchant ships all over the world and stole their cargoes. Both warring navies used America's lakes, bayous, and streams to transport soldiers to battlefields and forts, and fought to keep their opponents off the nation's...

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Telescope, 40, 50 trains, 26, 54, 63 trench warfare, 44, 45, 56 Truth, Sojourner, 13 Tubman, Harriet, 12,13 Twiggs, Maj. Gen. David, 22 Uncle Tom's Cabin, 7,12 Underground Railroad, 12-13 uniforms, 16, 18, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 37, 46, 49 universal driver, 47 U.S. Colored Troops, 34, 35,60 U.S. Constitution, 6, 60 U.S. Marines, 12, 50 U.S. Navy, 6, 31, 50 Van Lew,'Elizabeth, 52 Velazquez, Loreta Janeta, 21 veterans, 21, 22, 57, 62 Vicksburg, 18, 44-45 volunteers, 16-17, 20-23 voting, 62 Watie,...

John Stanchak

PARIS, MUNICH and JOHANNESBURG Project editor Andrea Curley Art editor Tom Carling, Carling Design, Inc. Executive editor Iris Rosoff Art director Dirk Kaufman Senior production controller Kate Oliver This Eyewitness Guide has been conceived by Dorling Kindersley Publishing, Inc. First published in Great Britain in 2001 by Dorling Kindersley Limited, 9 Henrietta Street, London WC2E 8PS Copyright 2000 Dorling Kindersley Publishing, Inc., New York Text copyright...

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Robert E. 30, 31,42, 52, 56, 57,63 Lincoln, Abraham, 10, 11, 14, 16, 30, 34, 42, 46, 58, 59,60 Logan, Gen. John, 54 March to the Sea, 31, 54-55 McClean, Wilmer, 56 McClellan, Maj. Gen. George Brinton, 19,26, 30,46 McDowell, Brig. Gen. Irvin, 26, 27 Meade, Maj. Gen. George, 42 Mexican War, 14, 30, 48 mines, 50, 51 Mobile Bay, Battle of, 31 money, 48-49 Mosbv, John, 52, 53 music, 38, 48, 63 Native American troops, 18,19, 56

Civil War Crimper

Confederate Soldier Homespun

Near Washington, d.c., is Manassas, Virginia. A stream nearby is named Bull Run. The fields around the stream were the sites of two large Civil War fights. The First Battle of Bull Run took place on July 21,1861. At that time, Confederate General RG.T. Beauregard commanded a 20,000-man army around Manassas that threatened the Union capital. President Lincoln sent Brigadier General Irvin McDowell with more than 30,000 troops to fight this force. Many of these men were ninety-day volunteers who...

Slave life

John Brown Abolitionist

By the year 1860, most white Americans were embarrassed by slavery. After the American Revolution and its promise that all men are created equal, the states north of Maryland abolished slavery But in the South, plantation owners depended on slaves. Growing cotton, sugar, rice, and other crops in the hot weather required the labor of many people, and relatively few whites lived there. The region's richest planters believed that without slaves their economy would be ruined. Because they could not...

A new era begins

Despite several financial scandals within his administration, Grant was always popular with the public. His vision of America's future was farsighted. While touring the South in the 1870s, he spoke to black church members in Memphis, Tennessee. He thanked them for their support and talked of their place in politics. No other president would make similar gestures for many more years. For more than ten years after the Civil War, the South was occupied by...

Outfitting armies

Civil War Spike Bayonet

Vhen nations go to war, they must make sure companies and factories produce clothing and equipment for their soldiers for as long as the fighting lasts. During America's Civil War, factories in the North did just that, producing blue wool uniforms, rifles, pistols, swords, ammunition, and camp equipment, as well as tools to repair all these things. To make the items quickly, they used standardized parts and many workers to mass-produce them. In the Confederate states, there were fewer...

The fates of two leaders

Jefferson Davis Macon Georgia

Within days of lee's surrender, the Union lost its leader. On the evening of April 14,1865, President Abraham Lincoln, First Lady Mary Todd Lincoln, and their friends Clara Harris and Major Henry Rathbone went to Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C., to see the play Our American Cousin. An actor named John Wilkes Booth slipped behind the president's seat and shot him in the back of the head. When Rathbone went after Booth, the assassin slashed him with a knife. Then he leaped to the stage,...

The horsemen

Confederate Cavalry Symbol

The american civil war was the last large conflict in world history in which soldiers on horseback played an important part. Cavalrymen scouted out the positions and movements of enemy armies. They made shock attacks the famous cavalry charges that could break up infantry formations. If an enemy army retreated, cavalry troops were it. Additionally, horse soldiers were used as The .44 caliber Colt revolver was one of the most common Civil War cavalry weapons. It was meant to be carried in a...

Black volunteers

Robert Smalls The Slave

Some prejudiced Northerners believed that black volunteers could do heavy labor and small tasks in the army, but they were not sure these volunteers would fight. When given the chance, though, black fighting men proved their bravery in combat. Many posed for photographs like this one, demonstrating that they had combat training and fighting skills. Black regiments were called U.S. Colored Troops, or U.S.C.T. for short. When they were presented with flags to carry off to war, there was often a...

Arming soldiers

2nd Rhode Island Civil War Imagies

The first civil war volunteers carried a variety of blades and firearms. Their generals urged them to accept standard weapons that any soldier could use. The rifles they preferred were single-shot arms loaded at the muzzle. They fired a cone-shaped lead slug called a mini . The slug or bullet came wrapped in paper. A premeasured amount of gunpowder also came in the paper package. To load this rifle, a soldier pulled one of these cartridges from a box on his belt. He tore open the bottom of the...

The March to the

Sherman March The Sea Regiments

Sherman's campaign to capture Atlanta was the first step in his plan to crush Georgia. His army marched south from Chattanooga, Tennessee, in the summer of 1864, fighting battle after battle with the Confederates' Army of Tennessee. Sherman penned Southern forces in Atlanta, then forced them to abandon it. His troops rested there from September 2 to November 12, then burned much of the city to the ground. From November 15 to December 20, Sherman's men marched west...

The Confederacy surrenders

Union Defeat The Confederacy

Grant's army besieged Lee's forces at Petersburg, Virginia, from June, 1864, until April, 1865. At the same time, Sherman's Union troops took the cities of Atlanta, Savannah, and Charleston, as well as Columbia, South Carolina, and Raleigh, North Carolina. In December, 1864, Confederate General John Bell Hood tried to overcome Union forces at Nashville, Tennessee. His army was crushed. Then, on April 1, 1865, Union troops overran Confederates near Petersburg in a battle called Five Forks. This...

Confederate culture

Varina Davis Portrait

Was one of the few publications read throughout the South. It was modeled on Northern illustrated newspapers such as Harper's Weekly. Once Union forces interrupted Southern mail service, the newspaper's arrival in Confederate homes became irregular. The confederate states of america existed for four years. It came into being when officials of the seceded states met to elect a leader in the spring of 1861. It died when Union troops occupied its capital city, Richmond, Virginia, in the spring of...

Gettysburg

Civil War Paintings Gen Jubal Early

President Lincoln appointed George Meade commander of the Union's Army of the Potomac just two days before the Battle of Gettysburg. Meade was a native of Pennsylvania. He replaced General Joseph Hooker, who led the army when it was defeated in May, 1863, at the Battle of' Chancellorsville, Virginia. Gettysburg is a small town in south-central Pennsylvania, just a few miles north of the Maryland state line. In the summer of 1863, Confederate General Robert E. Lee marched 75,000 men north to...

The secret war

Carried Ghosts War

Spies caught disguised in their enemy's military uniforms were quickly disposed of. Lawrence Orton Williams was a cousin of Mrs. Robert E. Lee. Union troops caught him wearing a U.S. Army uniform. Williams claimed to be a member of the inspector general's staff. He was questioned, then hanged. A SUCCESSFUL SPY This may be the only photograph of William Henry Harrison, a Confederate army officer who worked as a scout and spy. He won his place in history by pinpointing Union army positions during...