American Civil War Timeline

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1775 Philadelphia Quakers organize America's first antislav-ery society.

1776-83 English colonies' War for Independence against Great Britain ends with the formation of the United States.

1788 The U.S. Constitution is ratified, providing legal protection to slaveowners.

1793 Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin, which will dramatically increase Southern cotton production.

1803 President Thomas Jefferson purchases the Louisiana Territory from France.

1775

"Yankee Doodle" is written.

1789

George Washington takes office as the first U.S. president.

1800

The Library of Congress is established.

1816 The American Colonization Society is formed with the idea of settling free blacks back in Africa.

1820 Congress passes the Missouri Compromise, which maintains the balance between slave and free states in the Union.

1828 Congress passes the so-called "Tariff of Abominations" over the objections of Southern states.

1831 Slave Nat Turner leads a violent slave rebellion in Virginia.

1832-33 The "Nullification Crisis" in South Carolina ends after tariffs on foreign goods are lowered.

1833 The Female Anti-Slavery Society and the American Anti-Slavery Society are founded.

1837 Abolitionist Elijah P. Lovejoy is murdered by a proslavery mob in Illinois.

1845 Texas is annexed by the United States over the objections of Mexico, which regards it as part of its country.

1848 The Mexican War ends with the United States acquiring five hundred thousand square miles of additional land in western North America.

1850 The Compromise of 1850, including the controversial Fugitive Slave Act, becomes law.

1852 Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel Uncle Tom's Cabin is published, increasing support for the abolitionist movement in the North.

1854 The Kansas-Nebraska Act is passed, returning decisions about allowing slavery back to individual states.

1818

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York lange s.

F. B. Morse lits the first }h message.

ato chips invented.

1818

1825

1844

1853

1857 The U.S. Supreme Court issues its famous Dred Scott decision, which increases Northern fears about the spread of slavery.

1858 Illinois senate candidates Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas meet in their famous debates over slavery and its future place in America.

1859 Abolitionist John Brown leads a raid on Harpers Ferry, Virginia, in an unsuccessful effort to start a slave revolt across the South.

5/18/1860 The Republican Party nominates Abraham Lincoln as its candidate for president.

11/6/1860 Abraham Lincoln is elected president of the United States.

12/20/1860 South Carolina secedes from the Union.

1/9/1861 Mississippi secedes from the Union.

1/10/1861 Florida secedes from the Union.

1/11/1861 Alabama secedes from the Union.

1/19/1861 Georgia secedes from the Union.

1/26/1861 Louisiana secedes from the Union.

1/29/1861 Kansas is admitted into the Union as the thirty-fourth state.

2/1/1861 Texas secedes from the Union.

2/8/1861 The Confederate Constitution is adopted in Montgomery, Alabama.

2/9/1861 Jefferson Davis is elected provisional president of the Confederacy.

2/18/1861 Jefferson Davis is inaugurated as the president of the Confederacy.

1859

The world's first flying trapeze circus act performs in France.

1860

An internal combustion engine is patented.

1860

The first world heavyweight boxing championship bout takes place in England.

1860

3/4/1861 Abraham Lincoln is inaugurated as the sixteenth president of the United States.

3/6/1861 The Confederacy calls for one hundred thousand volunteers to join its military.

4/12/1861 South Carolina troops open fire on Fort Sumter, marking the beginning of the American Civil War.

4/13/1861 Major Robert Anderson surrenders Fort Sumter to the Confederates.

4/15/1861 President Abraham Lincoln calls for seventy-five thousand volunteers to join the Union army.

4/19/1861 President Abraham Lincoln orders a blockade of Southern ports.

5/6/1861 Arkansas secedes from the Union.

5/7/1861 Tennessee forms an alliance with the Confederacy that makes it a Confederate state for all practical purposes.

5/13/1861 Queen Victoria proclaims British neutrality in the conflict between America's Northern and Southern sections.

5/20/1861 North Carolina secedes from the Union.

5/23/1861 Virginia secedes from the Union.

6/3/1861 Stephen A. Douglas dies in Chicago, Illinois.

6/10/1861 Napoleon III declares French neutrality in the American Civil War.

6/11/1861 Counties in western Virginia resist Virginia's vote to secede and set up their own government, which is loyal to the Union.

7/20/1861 Confederate Congress convenes at the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia.

1861

American inventor Elisha G. Otis patents a steam-powered elevator.

1861

English novelist Charles Dickens's Great Expectations is published.

1861

The United States introduces the passport system.

1861

7/21/1861 Confederate forces win the First Battle of Bull Run, the war's first major battle.

7/25/1861 U.S. Congress passes the Crittenden Resolution, which states that the North's war aim is to preserve the Union, not end slavery.

7/27/1861 General George McClellan assumes command of Federal forces in Washington.

8/30/1861 Union general John Fremont proclaims martial law in Missouri, which is torn by violence between pro-Union and pro-Confederate forces.

11/6/1861 Jefferson Davis is elected to a six-year term as president of the Confederacy.

11/8/1861 Union captain Charles Wilkes seizes two Confederate officials traveling on the Trent, a British vessel. The incident triggers deep outrage in England.

11/20/1861 The Union organizes the Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War in order to review the actions and qualifications of the North's military leadership.

11/27/1861 Confederate officials seized from the Trent are released from custody with apologies.

2/6/1862 Union general Ulysses S. Grant captures Fort Henry on the Tennessee River.

2/16/1862 Ulysses S. Grant captures Fort Donelson on the Cumberland River.

2/22/1862 Jefferson Davis is inaugurated as president of the Confederacy.

2/25/1862 The Confederates abandon Nashville, Tennessee, to oncoming Union forces.

1861

Congress levies the first income tax to fund Union forces.

1861

King Victor Emmanuel II creates kingdom of Italy.

1862

Frenchman Victor Hugo writes Les Misérables.

1861

3/9/1862 The Union ship Monitor battles the Confederate ship Virginia to a draw at Hampton Roads, Virginia.

4/6-7/1862 Union and Confederate forces battle in the inconclusive Battle of Shiloh in Tennessee.

4/16/1862 The Confederate Congress passes a conscription act requiring most able-bodied men between the ages of eighteen and thirty-five to sign up for military service.

4/25/1862 The Union fleet under the command of Admiral David Farragut captures New Orleans.

6/1/1862 General Robert E. Lee assumes command of Confederate forces defending Richmond, Virginia.

6/6/1862 Union forces take control of Memphis, Tennessee.

6/17/1862 Confederate forces led by Stonewall Jackson leave the Shenandoah Valley after a successful military campaign.

6/25/1862 The Seven Days' Battles begin between George McClellan's Army of the Potomac and Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia.

7/2/1862 President Abraham Lincoln calls for three hundred thousand enlistments for three-year periods in order to further strengthen the Union army.

7/29/1862 Confederate commerce raider Alabama leaves England and starts attacking Northern trading vessels.

8/29-30/1862 The Second Battle of Bull Run ends in a disastrous defeat for the Union.

9/5/1862 General Robert E. Lee leads the Army of Northern Virginia into Northern territory for the first time, as his force enters Maryland.

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1862

1862

1862

9/15/1862 Stonewall Jackson's army captures twelve thousand Union troops at Harpers Ferry, Virginia.

9/17/1862 George McClellan's Army of the Potomac and Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia fight at Antietam in the bloodiest single day of the war. Neither side registers a conclusive victory, but the draw convinces Lee to return to Virginia.

9/22/1862 President Abraham Lincoln issues his preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, which will free slaves in Confederate territory.

10/8/1862 Confederate invasion of Kentucky ends after the Battle of Perryville.

11/7/1862 President Abraham Lincoln removes General George McClellan from command of the Army of the Potomac, replacing him with General Ambrose Burn-side.

12/13/1862 General Robert E. Lee's Confederate forces hand the Union a decisive defeat at the Battle of Fredericksburg.

1/1/1863 President Abraham Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation, which frees all slaves in Confederate territory.

1/2/1863 Union victory at the Battle of Stones River stops Confederate plans to invade middle Tennessee.

1/23/1863 General Ambrose Burnside's new offensive against Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia sputters to a halt in bad weather. Burnside's "Mud March" convinces President Abraham Lincoln to replace him with General Joseph Hooker.

1862

French composer

1862

The speed of light is successfully measured.

1863

The world's first subway system opens

1862

French composer

1862

The speed of light is successfully measured.

1863

The world's first subway system opens

Claude Debussy

is born.

1862

1862

1863

3/3/1863 U.S. Congress passes a conscription act requiring most able-bodied Northern men to sign up for military service.

4/2/1863 Bread riots erupt in Richmond, Virginia, as hungry civilians resort to violence to feed their families.

5/2/1863 General Robert E. Lee and the Confederates claim a big victory at Chancellorsville, but Stonewall Jackson is killed during the battle.

5/22/1863 General Ulysses S. Grant begins the siege of Vicks-burg, Mississippi, after attempts to take the Confederate stronghold by force are turned back.

6/20/1863 West Virginia is admitted into the Union as the thirty-fifth state.

7/1-3/1863 The famous Battle of Gettysburg takes place in Pennsylvania. Union general George Meade and the Army of the Potomac successfully turn back General Robert E. Lee's attempted invasion of the North, doing terrible damage to Lee's Army of Northern Virginia in the process.

7/4/1863 Vicksburg surrenders to General Ulysses S. Grant and his Union force after a six-week siege of the city.

7/9/1863 Union troops take control of Port Hudson, Louisiana. The victory gives the North control of the Mississippi River.

7/13/1863 Antidraft mobs begin four days of rioting in New York City.

8/21/1863 Confederate raiders led by William C. Quantrill murder 150 antislavery settlers and burn large sections of Lawrence, Kansas.

9/2/1863 Union troops take control of Knoxville, Tennessee.

1863

Civil war breaks out in Afghanistan.

1863

American carmaker Henry Ford is born.

1863

Roller skating is introduced in the United States.

1863

9/9/1863 Union forces take control of Chattanooga, Tennessee, after the city is abandoned by General Braxton Bragg's army.

9/20/1863 The two-day Battle of Chickamauga ends in a major defeat for the Union.

9/23/1863 General Braxton Bragg begins the Confederate siege of Chattanooga.

10/17/1863 General Ulysses S. Grant is named supreme commander of Union forces in the west.

11/19/1863 President Abraham Lincoln delivers his famous Gettysburg Address at a ceremony dedicating a cemetery for soldiers who died at the Battle of Gettysburg in Pennsylvania.

11/25/1863 The three-day Battle of Chattanooga results in a major victory for the North, as Union troops led by General George Henry Thomas scatter General Brax-ton Bragg's Confederate army.

12/8/1863 President Abraham Lincoln proposes his Ten Percent Plan, which says that seceded states can return to the Union provided that one-tenth of the 1860 voters agree to form a state government that is loyal to the Union.

12/27/1863 General Joseph Johnston takes command of the Confederate Army of Tennessee.

3/12/1864 General Ulysses S. Grant is promoted to leadership of all of the Union armies.

3/18/1864 General William T. Sherman is named to lead Union armies in the west.

1863

President Abraham Lincoln proclaims the first national Thanksgiving Day.

1863

The Capitol dome in Washington, D.C., is capped.

1864

President Abraham Lincoln initiates wartime draft.

1863

4/12/1864 Confederate troops led by Nathan Bedford Forrest capture Fort Pillow, Tennessee, and are accused of murdering black Union soldiers stationed there.

4/17/1864 General Ulysses S. Grant calls a halt to prisoner exchanges between North and South, further increasing the Confederacy's manpower problems.

5/5/1864 General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia and General Ulysses S. Grant's Army of the Potomac battle in the Wilderness campaign.

5/9-12/1864 General Robert E. Lee stops the Union advance on Richmond at the brutal Battle of Spotsylvania.

6/3/1864 The Union's Army of the Potomac suffers heavy losses in a failed assault on Robert E. Lee's army at Cold Harbor, Virginia.

6/18/1864 General Ulysses S. Grant begins the Union siege of Petersburg, which is defended by Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia.

6/23/1864 Confederate forces led by Jubal Early begin a campaign in the Shenandoah Valley.

7/11/1864 Confederate troops commanded by Jubal Early reach outskirts of Washington, D.C., before being forced to return to the Shenandoah Valley.

7/17/1864 General John Bell Hood takes command of the Confederate Army of Tennessee.

8/5/1864 Admiral David Farragut leads the Union Navy to a major victory in the Battle of Mobile Bay, which closes off one of the Confederacy's last remaining ports.

8/29/1864 The Democratic Party nominates General George McClellan as its candidate for president of the United

1864 1864 1864

President Abraham "In God We Trust" first The Red Cross is

Lincoln is nominated for a appears on U.S. coins. established.

1864 1864 1864

President Abraham "In God We Trust" first The Red Cross is

Lincoln is nominated for a appears on U.S. coins. established.

second t

erm.

1864

1864

1864

States and pushes a campaign promising an end to the war.

9/1/1864 General William T. Sherman captures Atlanta, Georgia, after a long campaign.

9/4/1864 General William T. Sherman orders all civilians to leave Atlanta, as a way to hurt Southern morale.

9/19-22/1864 Union troops led by Philip Sheridan defeat Jubal Early's Confederate army in the Shenandoah Valley.

10/6/1864 Philip Sheridan's Union troops begin a campaign of destruction in the Shenandoah Valley in order to wipe out Confederate sympathizers and sources of supplies.

10/19/1864 Philip Sheridan's army drives Jubal Early's Confederate force out of the Shenandoah Valley.

10/31/1864 Nevada is admitted into the Union as the thirty-sixth state.

11/8/1864 Abraham Lincoln is reelected to the presidency of the United States by a comfortable margin.

11/15/1864 General William T. Sherman begins his famous March to the Sea, in which his Union army destroys a large area of Georgia on its way to the port city of Savannah.

12/16/1864 Union forces under the command of General George Henry Thomas crush John Bell Hood's Army of Tennessee at the Battle of Nashville.

12/21/1864 William T. Sherman's Union army completes its March to the Sea by taking control of Savannah, Georgia.

1864

A cyclone destroys most of Calcutta, India.

1864

A cyclone destroys most of Calcutta, India.

1864 1864

American novelist Pasteurization is

Nathaniel invented. Hawthorne dies.

1864

1864

American novelist Pasteurization is

Nathaniel invented. Hawthorne dies.

1/31/1865 The U.S. Congress submits the Thirteenth Amendment, which abolishes slavery, to the individual states for passage.

2/17/1865 General William T. Sherman's army occupies the South Carolina capital of Columbia.

2/18/1865 Union forces seize control of Charleston, South Carolina.

2/22/1865 Confederate president Jefferson Davis returns command of the Army of Tennessee to General Joseph Johnston in a desperate attempt to stop William T. Sherman's advance into North Carolina.

3/2/1865 Remaining Confederate troops in Shenandoah Valley go down to defeat at the hands of Philip Sheridan.

3/4/1865 President Abraham Lincoln is inaugurated for a second term of office.

3/13/1865 The Confederate Congress authorizes the use of slaves as Confederate combat soldiers.

4/1-2/1865 Ulysses S. Grant's Army of the Potomac successfully breaks through Confederate defenses at Petersburg, forcing Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia to evacuate the city and give up their defense of Richmond, Virginia.

4Union troops take control of Richmond, Virginia, and prepare for a visit from President Abraham Lincoln a day later.

4/9/1865 Trapped by pursuing Federal troops, General Robert E. Lee surrenders to General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox in Virginia.

1865

Lewis Carroll writes Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.

1865

Civil War balloonist Thaddeus Lowe invents the ice machine.

1865

Ku Klux Klan is founded in Tennessee.

1865

Lewis Carroll writes Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.

1865

Civil War balloonist Thaddeus Lowe invents the ice machine.

1865

Ku Klux Klan is founded in Tennessee.

1865

1865

1865

4/14/1865 President Abraham Lincoln is shot by John Wilkes Booth while attending a play at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C.

4/15/1865 Vice president Andrew Johnson becomes president after Abraham Lincoln dies.

4/18/1865 Confederate General Joseph Johnston surrenders his Army of Tennessee to William T. Sherman near Raleigh, North Carolina.

4/26/1865 John Wilkes Booth is killed by Federal soldiers in a barn near Bowling Green, Virginia.

5/10/1865 Confederate president Jefferson Davis is taken prisoner by Federal troops at Irwinsville, Georgia.

5/26/1865 The very last Confederate troops put down their weapons, as a rebel army west of the Mississippi River led by Kirby Smith surrenders to Union officials.

1866 The Republican Congress passes a Civil Rights Act over President Andrew Johnson's veto. The Act gives citizenship and other rights to black people.

1866 Race riots between blacks and whites erupt during the summer in Memphis, Tennessee, and New Orleans, Louisiana.

1866 Tennessee is readmitted into the Union by Congress.

1867 Congress passes the Military Reconstruction Act over President Andrew Johnson's veto.

1867 The Ku Klux Klan adopts a formal constitution and selects former Confederate general Nathan Bedford Forrest as its first leader.

1867 Former Confederate president Jefferson Davis is released from a Virginia jail after two years of imprisonment.

1865

The Thirteenth Amendment, prohibiting slavery, is ratified.

1865

The Thirteenth Amendment, prohibiting slavery, is ratified.

1866

The first U.S. oil pipeline is completed.

1867

Arm & Hammer Baking Soda is invented.

186S

1866

The first U.S. oil pipeline is completed.

1867

Arm & Hammer Baking Soda is invented.

1868 Political disagreements between Congress and President Andrew Johnson become so great that the president is impeached. He avoids being removed from office by one vote in his Senate impeachment trial.

1868 Congress passes the Fifteenth Amendment, which extends voting rights to blacks, and sends the bill along to individual states for ratification.

1868 Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Louisiana, North Carolina, and South Carolina are readmitted into the Union by Congress.

1868 Republican Ulysses S. Grant is elected the eighteenth president of the United States.

1870 The Fifteenth Amendment, guaranteeing voting rights for blacks, is ratified by the states and becomes law.

1870 Congress passes the Enforcement Act of 1870 in an effort to protect the voting rights of all citizens—especially blacks—in the South.

1870 Georgia, Mississippi, Virginia, and Texas are readmitted into the Union by Congress.

1871 Congress passes the Ku Klux Klan Act, which outlaws conspiracies, use of disguises, and other practices of the white supremacist group.

1872 Ulysses S. Grant is reelected president of the United States.

1875 Congress passes a Civil Rights Act barring discrimination in hotels, theaters, railroads, and other public places.

1876 Republican Rutherford B. Hayes and Democrat Samuel J. Tilden run a very close race for the presiden-

1873

San Francisco's cable streetcar begins service.

1873

San Francisco's cable streetcar begins service.

1869

The first intercollegiate football game is played.

1870

The first black U.S. legislators take their seats.

1872

The Jesse James gang robs its first passenger train.

1869

1870

1872

The first intercollegiate football game is played.

1870

The first black U.S. legislators take their seats.

1872

The Jesse James gang robs its first passenger train.

cy of the United States. Tilden wins the popular vote, but neither candidate receives enough electoral votes for election. The two political parties eventually agree to a compromise in which Hayes becomes president in exchange for a guarantee that he remove federal troops from South Carolina, Florida, and Louisiana.

1877 President Rutherford B. Hayes removes Federal troops from the South. This withdrawal increases the vulnerability of blacks to Southern racism and marks the end of the Reconstruction period in American history.

1876

Baseball's National League is founded.

1876

Baseball's National League is founded.

1877

First Bell telephone is sold.

1876

First Bell telephone is sold.

Wisconsin

Pennsylvania

Harrisburg

Wisconsin

Map Seven Days Battles Civil War

New York

Battle of Chancellorsville (1863) . Appomattox (1865)^H ^ Battle of

Seven Days' Battles (1862) Petersburg \ N Richmond (1864-65^ (Confederate capital)

Battle of Richmond. (1865)

Harrisburg

North Carolina

New York

Albany^

Boston Mass.

Providence* Hartford* r^

Providence* Hartford* r^

* •Philadelphia

Battle of Antietam Batt|e of Gettysburg, (Sharpsburg) (1862^* Gettysburg Address (1863) Harpers ferryMd. ^ * Dover Washington, D.C. (Union capital)^

Battle of the Wilderness (1864)..*

-First & Second Battles

Battle of Chancellorsville (1863) . Appomattox (1865)^H ^ Battle of

Arkansas

Battle of Shiloh

Battle of Nashville (1864)

Battle of Stones River (Murfreesboro) (1862-63)

Arkansas

Battle of Shiloh

Timeline Civil War Shiloh

Battle of Chattanooga (1863)

* Battle of 7 South Carolina

\ Chickamauga (1863) Siege of Atlanta (1864)^ \ * Columbia

Battle of Nashville (1864)

Battle of Stones River (Murfreesboro) (1862-63)

(1861, 1862) Battle of Cold Harbor (1862, 1864)

Seven Days' Battles (1862) Petersburg \ N Richmond (1864-65^ (Confederate capital)

Battle of Richmond. (1865)

North Carolina

Battle of Chattanooga (1863)

* Battle of 7 South Carolina

\ Chickamauga (1863) Siege of Atlanta (1864)^ \ * Columbia

Alabama

Montgomery

Battle of New Orleans (1862)

New* Orleans

100 200 km

Alabama

Montgomery

Battle of New Orleans (1862)

New* Orleans

Gulf of Mexico

Siege Savannah

Siege of Savannah (1864)

Charleston

Battle of Fort Sumter (1861)

Charleston

Battle of Fort Sumter (1861)

Siege of Savannah (1864)

ATLANTIC OCEAN

Gulf of Mexico

City Battle

National capital

State capital

Confederate states, 1861-65

State boundaries

A map of the United States east of the Mississippi River shows the key battles and events of the Civil War. (Illustration by XNR Productions. Reproduced by permission of The Gale Group.)

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Responses

  • Albertino Pinto
    Where was the battle of chancellorsville?
    8 years ago
  • Ausonia
    Where is seven days battle located on a map?
    8 years ago

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