Political parties and organisations

Acción Española: A fundamentalist monarchist group, inspired by Acción Francesa.

Acción Nacional (Popular): A Catholic right organisation, founded after the proclamation of the Republic to defend 'Religion, Family, Order, Labour and Ownership'. It changed its name to Acción Popular in April 1932 and was the forerunner of the CEDA.

Acción Republicana: A left-wing republican group founded by Manuel Azaña in the 1920s, one of the Republic's governing parties during its first two years. In April 1934, it merged with other republican parties to form Izquierda Republicana (IR).

Comunión Tradicionalista: Carlist organisation, monarchist defenders of the Carlist wing, as opposed to the Bourbon supporters, at the time represented by Alfonso XIII.

Confederación Española de Derechas Autónomas (CEDA): A Catholic party set up in February 1933, led by José María Gil Robles. It was the first grass-roots right-wing party in the history of contemporary Spain, and its aim was to defend 'Christian civilisation' and fight republican legislation.

Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT): A syndical organisation with anarchist influences, set up in 1910, which stood for direct action and anti-politicism, and which took firm root in the 1930s, particularly in Catalonia.

Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya: Republican left-wing party in Catalonia, led by Francesc Maciá and then by Lluís Companys, who led the governments of the Generalitat after the granting of the Statute of Autonomy to Catalonia in September 1932.

Falange Española (y JONS; y Tradicionalista): A Fascist organisation founded by José Antonio Primo de Rivera, son of the military dictator, in October 1933. It merged with the JONS at the beginning of 1934 and was the single Francoist party from April 1937, with the name of FET-JONS.

Federación Anarquista Ibérica (FAI): Anarchist organisation set up in 1927 to safeguard the purity of the anarchist ideas of the CNT.

JAP: Youth wing of Acción Popular, radicalised during the Second Republic, which practised the cult of leadership (Gil Robles), mobilising young people with Fascist demonstrations.

Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista (JONS): Fascist organisation founded in October 1931 by Ramiro Ledesma Ramos and Onésimo Redondo, later merging with Falange Española.

Partido Comunista de España (PCE): Founded at the beginning of the 1920s, arising from a split with the PSOE, it was a minor party during the Republic, but began to have considerable influence in the republican zone during the civil war, as a consequence of the Soviet intervention.

Partido Nacionalista Vasco (PNV): A moderate nationalist party which claimed a Statute of Autonomy for the Basque Country, and which remained loyal to the Republic during the civil war.

Partido Obrero de Unificación Marxista (POUM): A Marxist organisation, set up in 1935, which fought Stalinism and was dissolved and persecuted following the events of 1937 in Barcelona. Its leader, Andreu Nin, was assassinated by agents of the Soviet secret services.

Partido Radical Republicano (PRR): The main republican party in Spain, set up at the beginning of the twentieth century by Alejandro Lerroux. It broke with the coalition of left-wing republicans and socialists in December 1931 and governed with the Catholic right in the second biennium of the Republic. It disappeared from the political scene a few months before the coup d'état of July 1936, following corruption scandals.

Partido Socialista Obrero Español (PSOE): Founded by Pablo Iglesias in 1879, it played a major political role during the Republic and the civil war. Its leader was Francisco Largo Caballero.

Partit Socialista Unificat de Catalunya (PSUC): A Communist party set up at the beginning of the civil war, which dominated the home front in Catalonia from May 1937.

Renovación Española (RE): A monarchist group formed by right-wing politicians who left Acción Popular to defend a new, Catholic and corporative State. Its leader was José Calvo Sotelo, assassinated a few days before the military coup of July 1936.

Unión General de Trabajadores (UGT): A syndical organisation, dependent on the PSOE, set up in 1888, and led in the 1930s by Francisco Largo Caballero. Its largest section during the 1930s was the Federación Nacional de Trabajadores de la Tierra (National Federation of Land Workers).

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