Civil

20 July The republican José Giral forms a government;

the government appeals to France; Franco sends emissaries to Italy and Germany. 27 July Seville under control of the rebels; reinforcements flown in from Morocco. 28-30 July Italian and German aircraft arrive in Morocco and

Seville; outdated French aircraft go to Madrid.

8 August Closing of the French border; unilateral declaration of non-intervention. 24 August Italy, Germany and Portugal accept non intervention 'in principle'. 4 September The socialist Largo Caballero leads a government with republicans, socialists and Communists.

7 September Aguirre forms the Basque government, supporting the Republic.

9 September First meeting of the Non-intervention Committee in London.

27 September Government of the Generalität of Catalonia, with

Esquerra, the PSUC and the POUM; anarchist participation.

28 September The rebels seize Toledo.

1 October The republican Cortes passes the Basque Statute; in the other camp, Franco is designated Generalísimo and supreme head of the military rebels. 6 October The Soviets declare that they will feel no more bound by non-intervention than Germany, Italy and Portugal do. 24 October First Russian tanks in action; Russian officers arrive in Madrid; German and Italian aircraft bomb the capital. 4 November The anarchists, in a historic move, join Largo

Caballero's government. 6 November Worried that the Nationalists will take Madrid, the republican government transfers to Valencia.

8 November General attack against Madrid; arrival of the

International Brigades.

18 November

20 November

Attack on Madrid suspended; Germany and Italy recognise Franco's government in Burgos. José Antonio Primo de Rivera, leader of the Fascist FE JONS, is executed in Alicante.

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