BGunner Service Dress

Confederate Artillery uniforms supposedly conformed to the regulation style worn by other branches of the army, with the red distinguishing colour worn on the kepi, facings and trimming. In practice, however, it is possible that few enlisted men ever wore the prescribed frock-coat, a variety of non-regulation styles being worn on active service.

The officer in this plate wears the regulation uniform; on campaign, brimmed felt hats and short jackets were more commonly used. The gunner is shown in a red-piped shell-jacket, which uniform (taken from contemporary information) was just one of a myriad of styles used even within the same company. One gunner of each team also carried a large leather haversack used to convey cartridges from limber or ammuni-tion-waggon to cannon, providing that there was time and opportunity to obey the conventional drill. Another member of the team carried a combined sponge and rammer, which fulfilled the dual role of ramming down the charge and swabbing out the cannon-barrel to clear the bore of any fouled, burnt powder.

61. C.S.A.: a) 2nd Lieutenant, Washington Artillery, b) Officer, 'A' Battery, i st Tennessee Light Artillery (Rutledge's Battery). Organised in 1838 as the 'Native American' Battery (Company 'A' of Persifal Smith's Regiment) and serving in the U.S.-Mexican War, the Washington Artillery of New Orleans was reorganised in 1852. Composed entirely of wealthy citizens of New Orleans, it was said of the militia company that 'At the outbreak of the Civil War there was not a finer organization of citizen soldiery in America'. The corps received much of its equipment from the seizure of Baton Rouge Arsenal on 11 April 1861, including six 6-pounder cannon. Its four companies offered their services to the Confederate government on 26 May 1861, a fifth company being added next day. Four companies served at First Bull Run, the fifth distinguishing itself at Shiloh as part of J. P. Anderson's Brigade. The battalion fought in every action of the Army of Northern Virginia, and after the war gained permission to form the Washington Artillery Veterans Charitable and Benevolent Association; in the regular service, the Washington Artillery sent a battery to the Cuban war and won further honours in both World Wars.

The corps wore dark blue uniforms, officers having frock-coats and other ranks shell-jackets; the red artillery distinguishing colour was borne on kepi and on the trimming of the uniform. The rank and file wore pipe-clayed leather belts, their headdress bearing crossed cannon-barrel badges with the letters 'w.a.', all in brass. Other Confederate artillery units also bearing the name 'Washington Artillery' were Captain G. H. Walter's company of South Carolina Artillery, Company 'A' of the Hampton Legion, Captain P. W. Bibb's company of Tennessee Artillery, the Washington or Hampton Artillery (originally Company 'K' of the 32nd Virginia Infantry, later 'A' of the 1st Virginia Artillery), and the Washington Mounted Artillery ('A', 7th-Battalion South Carolina Infantry).

Rutledge's Battery was raised in Nashville, Tennessee; after its muster in May 1861 it became 'A' Battery of the 1st Tennessee Light Artillery, its commander, Captain A. M. Rut-ledge, later being assigned to General Polk's staff. The battery supplied its own guns - four 6-pounder smoothbore cannon and two 12-pounder howitzers, cast in a Nashville foundry. In action at Mill Springs and Shiloh, the battery's losses at the latter engagement were so heavy that it was found necessary to amalgamate it with McClure's Battery. The uniform, basically conforming to regulations with red facings; the battery distinguishing letter, 'A', was borne on the collar, and the crossed cannon-barrels device on the hat and

Artillery Shiloh

61 a) 2nd Lieutenant, Washington Artillery b) Officer, 'A' Battery, 1st Tennessee Light Artillery (Rutledge's Battery).

Private Infantry

62 a) Private, Rifle Volunteers.

b) Private, Palmetto Guards.

c) Private, Infantry Volunteers.

shoulder-straps. The unit should not be confused with the Rutledge Horse Artillery (Company 'G', 7th South Carolina Cavalry).

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