Although the 'Hardee' hat was the prescribed wear, many officers adopted the kepi on active service. In the early stages of the war, the white linen cap-cover and neckcloth, named a 'Havelock' after the British general of the Indian Mutiny, was issued to many regiments, often two per man (one Connecticut unit received six per man!). Intended to be a protection against the heat of the sun, the 'Havelocks' were universally unpopular and were worn for only a short time: 'As it is made sufficiently large to cover the neck and shoulders, the effect, when properly adjusted, was to deprive the wearer of any air he might otherwise enjoy . . . prompted their immediate transfer to
14 a) Private, 22nd New York Militia.
b) Private, Infantry, in greatcoat.
c) Officer, Infantry, Service Dress.
15 a) Drum Major, Infantry, Full Dress.
b) Private, 42nd Pennsylvania Volunteers (Bucktails).
c) 1st Sergeant, Infantry, Campaign Dress.
the plebeian uses of a dish-cloth or coffee-strainir...'.
Officers of company rank (Lieutenants and Captains) wore single-breasted frock-coats (the double-breasted version being reserved for field officers); the frock was the common wear on active service, though more unusual varieties such as shell-jackets or fatigue-coats like those of the other ranks, with the addition of rank bars. The crimson sash was seldom worn on campaign; pistols were universal, many officers being armed with swords as well. The trousers had half-inch wide stripes.
The greatcoat worn by the rank and file was sky blue in colour, single-breasted with a cape reaching to the elbow with a 'stand-and-fall' collar. Equipment was worn over the greatcoat but under the cape. Officers' overcoats were dark blue (see Plate 32) with four or more black silk loops across the breast. The coat had half-inch black silk edging and a knot on the sleeve denoting rank by its thickness : General - five braids, in double knot; Colonel - five, single knot; Lieutenant-Colonel - four; Major -three; Captain - two; 1st Lieutenant - one.
The first figure on this plate (taken from a contemporary photograph) shows the service uniform of the 22nd New York Militia (about 1862-63); of particular note is the 1855 pattern rifle with its long sword-bayonet.
15. U.S.A.: a) Drum Major, Infantry, Full Dress, b) Private, 42nd
Pennsylvania Volunteers (Bucktails). c) 1 st Sergeant, Infantry, Campaign Dress. The uniforms of regimental bands were left to the discretion of the commanding officer of the regiment: he was allowed to 'make such additions in ornaments as he may judge proper.' Consequently, a bewildering variety of band uniforms were worn, some (like that illustrated) based upon the regulation uniform, but with the addition of plumed shakos or (in the case of drum-majors) huge bearskin caps. Other band uniforms were of gaudy colours (red or 'cadet grey' for example), with large amounts of coloured braid or metallic lace, sashes, gauntlets and every type of epaulette.
The other figures on this plate illustrate the typical uniform worn on campaign, based upon the regulation fatigue dress. The cloth képi ('shapeless as a feed bag') and often roomy enough to carry bits of clothing or other equipment on top of the head, officially bore the brass hunting horn badge and company distinguishing letter, but was more often than not discarded. The fatigue or 'sack' coat bore ordinary N.C.O. chevrons, and sergeants' rank was also indicated by the 1 ¿-inch wide stripe on the trousers. Sergeant-Majors to 1st Sergeants were provided with red worsted sashes, but these were frequently omitted in campaign dress. The equipment shown is typical of that which might be worn before going into action, the knapsack with
¡ts restrictive straps being taken off. j«j.C.O.s were issued with a light-bladed sword which was rarely carried on campaign; it was suspended from a black leather shoulder-belt. To avoid the necessity of two shoulder-belts, sergeants carried the cartridge-pouch on the waist-belt. The black haversack and cloth-covered canteen (often with tin mug hanging from it) were like those carried by other ranks.
The Private of the 42nd Pennsylvania Volunteers shows the much more unorthodox version of cam-paign-equipment which became almost universal in both armies, with the cumbersome knapsack replaced by a rolled blanket containing the personal belongings and equipment. A unique distinction was the white 'bucktail' worn in the cap or hat, this custom supposedly arising from the fashion set by one James Landregan of Company 'I* who thought it would be an improvement to the drab képi with which he had been issued; the style so impressed Colonel Thomas Kane that he ordered all the regiment to follow suit, and announcing that his regiment would be known henceforth as 'The Bucktails'.
The regiments of Pennsylvania Volunteers numbered from 30th to 42nd inclusively were more commonly known as the 1st to 13th Pennsylvania Reserves. When the Government issued a call for volunteers, the state found a large excess of recruits to the authorised number, which Governor Andrew G. Curtin organised into the thirteen Reserve regiments, equipped and trained at state (rather than at Federal Govern ment) expense. Organised in three brigades as the Pennsylvania Reserve Division, the corps served in the Peninsular Campaign, at Second Bull Run, Antietam and Fredericksburg, units then transferring from I Corps to the Army of the Potomac from Gettysburg to Spotsylvania. Mustering out in June 1864, a large number of men re-enlisted into the 190th and 191st Pennsylvania regiments, comprising the Veteran Reserve Brigade.
The 'Bucktails' (13th Reserves) was also known as the 1st Pennsylvania Rifles or the Kane Rifle Regiment, recruited principally from lumbermen who originally supplied their own rifles and who were generally excellent marksmen. The regiment was later armed with Sharps Rifles, and later still Spencers. Serving in the Peninsula, the Shenandoah Valley, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, the Wilderness and Spotsylvania, the regiment was also present in the last action fought by the Pennsylvania Reserves, Bethesda Church (1 June 1864), being mustered out ten days later, with a record of great distinction.
The various companies comprising the regiment were named as follows: 'A' Anderson Life Guards, 'B' Morgan Rifles, 'C' Cameron County Riflemen, 'D' Raftsmen's Guards tor Warren Rifles, 'E' Tioga Rifles, 'F' Irish Infantry, 'G' Elk County Rifles, 'H' Wayne Independent Rifles, T McKean County Rifles, 'K' Cur-wensville Rangers or Raftsmen's Rangers.
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