The 4th Michigan Volunteers were organised at Adrian on 16 May 1861, and served throughout the war with a distinguished record, winning particular distinction in the five days of action at Gaines' Mill and Malvern Hill (where the regiment sustained 252 casualties), and at a desperate hand-to-hand fight in 'The Wheat Field' at Gettysburg, where the 4th lost 165 men and Colonel Harrison Jeffords, killed defending the regimental colours. The 4th Michigan were distinguished by the Zouave-style stocking-cap with red tassel, worn with the regulation uniform, though apparently the képi was also extensively worn. The dark blue trousers and tan gaiters were another regimental distinction. Officers probably wore regulation infantry uniform. Company designations were as follows: Company 'A' Smith Guard; 'B' Adiian Volunteers; 'C' Peninsular
24 a) Sergeant, with marker flag, 14th New York Volunteers b) Sergeant, Coy D', 19th Illinois Volunteers (Ellsworth Zouave Cadets).
25 a) Private, 4th Michigan Volunteers.
b) Private, 4th Michigan Volunteers.
c) Officer, 11th Indiana Volunteers.
26 a) Private, 83rd Pennsylvania Volunteers.
b) Drummer, 114th Pennsylvania Volunteers.
c) Private, 114th Pennsylvania Volunteers.
Guard; 'D' Barry Guard; 'E' Hillsdale Volunteers; 'F' Hudson Volunteers; 'G' Tecumseh Volunteers; 'H' Grosvenor Guard; 'I' Trenton Volunteers; 'K' Dexter Union Guard.
Zouave regiments were not popular in the Western states; the frontiersmen realised the foolishness of making themselves such excellent targets by wearing gaudy uniforms. The 11 th Indiana Volunteers were a notable exception, though their uniform was sensibly plain, of 'the tamest gray twilled goods not unlike home-made jeans', 'Greekish in form', with trousers 'baggy but not petticoated'. The grey uniforms, instead of making the regiment an unduly good target, made them in line appear like 'a smoky ribbon long drawn out'. The rank and file wore a similar uniform to that illustrated, with tan or white gaiters and light grey overcoats.
The i ith Indiana was formed from independent companies, enlisting in April 1861 for a three-month term of service, twice re-enlisting for a three-year and later an eighteen-month term of service, ending 26 July 1865. The regiment's distinguished record included service at Shiloh, Antietam, Gettysburg, Chickamauga and the Wilderness. Named 'The Wallace Zouaves' after their Colonel, Lewis Wallace, the regiment's fame is somewhat eclipsed by that of its leader. Lew Wallace rose to Major-General, served on the court-martial board of Lincoln's assassins, was president of the court-martial which convicted Henry Wirz, commander of the infamous Andersonville prison camp, and was appointed U.S. Minister to Turkey (1881-85). He is best remembered as Governor of New Mexico, in which office he was instrumental in the demise of William H. Bonney, the murderer and desperado known as Billy the Kid, and for being the author of Ben Hur.
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