CPrivate 8th Wisconsin Service Dress

The figures of the 21st Michigan and 8th Wisconsin (both taken from contemporary photographs) show typical variations of the campaign uniform. The 21 st Michigan almost entirely wore battered black 'slouch' hats with or without leather bands ; the fatigue-blouse in this case worn with the top button unfastened and the lapels turned back, though a number of full dress frock-coats were also worn.

The 8th Wisconsin apparently largely retained the frock-coat with the ubiquitous battered hat. The regiment was known as 'The Eagle Regiment' from their custom of taking the regimental mascot - an eagle - into battle with them, sitting on a specially-constructed perch. The eagle, named 'Old Abe' after President Lincoln, achieved fame by becoming the subject of a popular song ('Old Abe the Battle Eagle') by J. Bates and T. Martin Towne. After the war, the eagle passed into honourable retirement, maintained at state expense in Milwaukee. The companies of the 8th retained the titles of the small companies from which the regiment had been formed : Company 'A' Wanapaca Union Rifles, 'B' Sheboygan County Independents, 'C' Eau Claire Eagles, 'D' Fox Lake Volunteer Rifles, 'E' Rough and Ready Guards, *F' Crawford County Volunteers, 'G'

Maryland 8th Reg Uniform

17 a) Private, 21 st Michigan, Service Dress.

b) Private, Irish Brigade.

c) Private, 8th Wisconsin, Service Dress.

Irish Brigade Uniforms

18 a) Officer, 5th New York Zouaves, Full Dress.

b) Zouave, Campaign Dress.

c) Private, 5th New York Zouaves, Full Dress

Janesville Fire Zouaves, 'H' Sugar River Rifles, 'I' La Crosse County Rifles, 'K' Racine County Volunteers.

The Irish Brigade (ist Division, II Corps, Army of the Potomac) was originally composed of the 63rd, 69th and 88th New York, being the 3rd, 1 st and 4th/5th Regiments of Thomas Francis Meagher's Irish Brigade respectively, being raised from Irish immigrants in New York by Meagher, who had been transported from Ireland to Tasmania in 1852 for treason and sedition. In autumn 1862 the 28th Massachusetts (2nd Irish Regiment) and the 166th Pennsylvania were added, the latter being transferred out in July 1864. The 29th Massachusetts (2nd Regiment, Meagher's Brigade) served from June to November 1862, the 7th New York Heavy Artillery being added in September 1864. The Brigade especially distinguished itself at Fredericksburg and Antietam.

The Irish Brigade wore a distinctive uniform, consisting of the regulation fatigue coat with the addition of green collars and cuffs, and grey trousers; the badge worn on top of the kepi was a red clover-leaf. To emphasise their Irish origin, each regiment carried a green flag in addition to their regulation colours.

The 28th Massachusetts was also known as the Faugh-a-Ballagh Regiment, this name being a Gaelic war-cry meaning 'clear the way'.

18. U.S.A.: a) Officer, 5th New York Zouaves, Full Dress, b) Zouave, Campaign

Dress, c) Private, 5th New York Zouaves, Full Dress.

Mustered into service on 9 May 1861 for a two-year enlistment, the 5th New York (Duryée Zouaves) was one of the best units to serve in the Union army. Justly famous under its first commander, Abram Duryée (a New York merchant long active in the State Militia) for its precise parade-ground drill, the 5th won the admiration of the regular regiment of Sykes' Division in V Corps in which it spent all its service, when at Gaines' Mill, under a heavy fire, the regiment coolly paused to 'count off' and realign its ranks after having sustained heavy casualties. Under Duryée and the Colonels who succeeded him (Gouverneur Kemble Warren and Hiram Duryea) the 5th maintained a magnificent record in action; when the regiment's enlistment expired on 14 May 1863, a large number of three-year enlistees transferred to the 146th New York. Another regiment bearing the same number was raised by Colonel Cleveland Winslow which rejoined V Corps to serve out the war. The 5 th New York also bore the name 'National Zouaves'; it should not be confused with the 2nd Duryée Zouaves ( 165th New York).

The Zouaves fashion sprang into favour before the outbreak of the war, when drill-teams dressed to resemble the élite French light infantry gave public displays throughout the country. Volunteer and militia companies copied the style extensively. The 5th New York wore a typical Zouave costume: fez with white turban wound round for parade, the blue-tasselled cap being worn alone on service. The rank and file wore the conventional Zouave jacket and shirt, with 'baggy' trousers tucked into high gaiters. In common with most Zouave units, officers wore a modified version of the regulation uniform, basically, the frock-coat with Confederate-style cuff-braid, red kepi and trousers.

Despite their reputation, British war correspondent William Howard Russell (who had seen the genuine French Zouaves) was unimpressed by the 5th New York; some men wore the turban without the fez underneath, so that their hair stuck through the 'discoloured napkins', while Russell considered the trousers -'loose bags of red calico' - to be quite 'ridiculous'; the net effect being 'a line of military scarcrows'. A less critical eye, however, would have been most impressed with the regiment's colour-guard, many of whom were approaching seven feet in height.

The Zoauve officer in campaign dress (taken from a contemporary photograph) shows how the uniform was modified on campaign; only the stocking-Cap identifies the man as a member of a Zouave unit.

19. U.S.A.: a) Private, 9th New York Volunteers, b) Officer, 9th New York Volunteers.

Serving in the U.S.-Mexican war whilst still a teenager, Rush Christopher Hawkins was originally president of a military club formed in i860 from which the 9th New York

Volunteers (Hawkins' Zouaves) was recruited. Enlistees included men from Albany, Brooklyn, Hyde Park, Mt Vernon, Staten Island, Connecticut, New Jersey and Canada. It was engaged in the Maryland Campaign, South Mountain, Antietam and in Eastern Virginia. The 9th was mustered out on 20 May 1863, having lost 358 officers and men on active service.

Uniform for the rank and file was of the typical Zouave style, of blue with magenta or purple trimming; sashes were light blue or purple, and greatcoats were light blue. Rank chevrons were of the regimental facing colour. In full dress officers also wore a Zouave-style uniform with shako, but it is likely that on campaign a more regulation style would be adopted.

Rush Hawkins was discharged as Brevet-Brigadier-General on the same day as the 9th were mustered out; having made a fortune from real estate and investments, he became famous for the collection of fifteenth-century books and printed material formed by his wife and himself, a collection rivalled only by that of the British Museum.

Volunteers, 1861.

a) Private, Full Dress.

b) Private, Service Dress.

c) Sergeant, Full Dress.

Formed at the suggestion of Captain Roderick of the British Consulate on 9 October 1859, this regiment of New

39th New York Regiment

19 a) Private, 9th New York Volunteers, b) Officer, 9th New York Volunteers.

79th New York Volunteer Infantry Uniform

20 79th New York Volunteers, 1861.

a) Private, Full Dress.

b) Private, Service Dress.

c) Sergeant, Full Dress.

Zouaves Uniforms

21 a) Private, 39th New York Volunteers (Garibaldi Guard).

b) Private, 1st Massachusetts Militia.

c) Corporal, Vermont Brigade.

York State Militia took its name and number from the 79th (Cameron) Highlanders of the British army, its four companies being composed of Scottish immigrants. Called into Federal service on 18 May 1861, the regiment's strength was increased to 1,000 by the recruitment of Scottish, Irish and English New Yorkers, with a few of other nationalities. The Pipe and Drum band being seconded for duty at the White House, the regiment fought at First Bull Run where the commander, Colonel James Cameron, was killed. The 79th had always elected its own officers, but when Isaac Ingalls Stevens was appointed in Cameron's stead without the regiment's approval, there occurred a minor 'mutiny' as a protest. Stevens was reluctantly accepted when the regimental colours were confiscated as a punishment for the 'mutiny', but were returned after Second Bull Run as a reward for the 7gth's valiant conduct. Stevens, who became extremely popular with the regiment, was killed at Chantilly with the colours in his hands, having taken them from the sixth colour-bearer to have fallen. After serving with distinction in fifty-nine engagements, the 79th was mustered out on 13 May 1863, the men with unexpired terms forming two companies of the New Cameron Highlanders. The regiment was disbanded as a regiment of New York State Militia in January 1876.

As befitted a regiment of Scottish origins, the 79th wore a most distinctive costume. In full dress a Scottish doublet was worn, with red shoulder-straps bearing the numerals '79' in brass, red cuff-patches piped light blue, with collar of either red edged light blue, or light blue with red and white patch. The rear tails of the doublet bore embroidered yellow grenades. With this uniform was worn a Glengarry cap in full dress, with diced border and brass badge ; there was a regimental badge prior to the war but this was later replaced by a replica of the State seal. Kilts and truibhs (trews) were worn in full dress, of Cameron of Erracht tartan like those of their counterparts in the British army. With the kilt was worn a white hair sporran with black 'tails' and a white metal thistle badge, diced hose, red garters and black shoes with silver buckles. N.C.O.s wore red sashes and yellow epaulettes; chevrons were light blue and their swords were of a typically-Scottish pattern.

The regulation képi was also worn, having a brass badge in the form of a hunting horn with '79' in the centre; the equipment was of the standard U.S. issue. The Scottish costume soon disappeared when active campaigning began, like the more exotic costume of other volunteer regiments; even before First Bull Run many had abandoned the kilt and truibhs for the regulation light blue trousers as illustrated. However, some of the former were worn at the battle, as confirmed by photographs of prisoners wearing kilts and truibhs; and one unnamed Captain is recorded as having been loudly cheered for chasing a chicken over a fence whilst wearing a kilt! Those kilts worn on active service were probably protected by buff aprons bearing '79' in large white numerals on the front.

By the end of the war, however, all traces of Scotitsh costume had disappeared ; the Ladies of the Scottish Society of New York sent new glengarries to the regiment to wear on their re-entry into the city after mustering out on 14 June 1865.

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