According to Regulations, each Federal regiment carried two colours, the National Flag (as illustrated) and the Regimental Flag. The National Flag, the 'Stars and Stripes', was six feet six inches long by six feet on the pole; the dark blue canton contained thirty-three white stars at the beginning of the war, later thirty-four when Kansas joined the Union (each star representing one state), and thirty-five from 1863 when West Virginia joined. The stars were arranged in a variety of designs, in rows, in a circle, in an oval, grouped around one large star, or arranged in the shape of one large star. Even the colour and design of individual stars varied, with five or occasionally seven points, sometimes of silver or gold. The regimental title was inscribed in the middle one (red) of the thirteen stripes, with battle-
honours sometimes above and below. The fringe (where there was one) was yellow, and the tassels of mixed blue and white. The Regimental Flag was the same size as the National, of the same design as that of the Cavalry (Plate 6). Many corps, however -principally volunteer regiments -ignored the regulations completely, carrying the National Flag and the State Flag, or on occasion some independent pattern of their own invention.
The corporal illustrated (taken from a contemporary photograph) wears the regulation frock-coat without the shoulder-scales, and the black leather colour-belt. The képi bears the brass hunting-horn badge often discarded on active service.
This plate shows the full dress frock-coat, and the variation worn by musicians. The latter wore the standard infantry uniform with the addition of the distinctive lacing common to all of the army, and on occasion a red worsted sash. However, in many cases this lacing was too distinctive, providing an excellent target for enemy sharpshooters, and as a result it was by no means uncommon for musicians to wear the simple, unmarked fatigue-coat like those of the rank and file. It was vital to shield musicians from enemy marksmen, as bugle and drum-calls were the only effective way of transmitting orders amid the noise of battle. Music also provided a great morale-boost: Lee declared that 'I don't believe we can have an army without music', while one drummer stated that when the band 'led the regiment . . . with their get-out-the-
way-old-Dan-Tuckerish style of music, it made the men in the ranks step off as though they were bound for a Donnybrook Fair'. General Porter described how, at Five Forks in May 1865, one of Sheridan's mounted bands held their ground under heavy fire, 'Playing "Nelly Bly" as cheerfully as if it were furnishing music for a country picnic'.
The back view of the private illustrated shows the black leather cartridge-pouch with brass plate bearing the letters 'u.s.', and the black leather bayonet-scabbard with brass fittings.
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