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Chief - and that which followed, or pretended to follow, a juridical procedure which was ushered in after Franco, on being made supreme and absolute chief of the Movement, included in his remit the authorization and signing of death sentences. Cierva ends by saying that 'the number of victims, about whose total magnitude we cannot even try to guess, is approximately of the same order of magnitude in each zone.'12 In another publication of that year he also wrote, 'Cruelty has by no means been the patrimony of one side only in the civil wars of Spain.'13 But if the official propaganda of the regime - for Cierva was in the service of Fraga's team of would-be make-up artists - was by then unable to sustain the Manichaean historiography of the war as a struggle between Red Hordes and Angelic Crusaders, the monographic studies referred to above were already providing increasing quantities of evidence that, when the whole of Spain is taken into account, the White repression had been carried...
The North Russian Tank Detachment arrived in the White Sea port of Archangel in August 1919. Two Medium Mark B tanks landed, including No. 1613. Medium Bs sent to Russia had four white numerals on the side, slightly to the rear of center. The British left two tanks behind for the local White forces when they evacuated in October 1919, a Mark V and No. 1613. General Miller's Whites sank the tanks in the North Dvina River in February 1920 in order to avoid their capture nevertheless, the Reds recovered No. 1613 and sent it to Moscow. No. 1613 entered the Red Army painted in camouflage and with hammer and plough symbols superimposed on a red star on the cab.
White Armies were identified, rounded up, then shot or sent to labour camps such as the notorious Cheka establishment at the Solovetsky Monastery complex at Archangel. Socialist Revolutionaries, Anarchists and Mensheviks who had failed to see a deep enough red in the light of revolution were identified and 'processed' in the same way by the end of 1922, So too were the various groups of partisans who were unable to adapt to the new political way of life or accept the loss of the freedoms they had known during the civil war. Battles with outlying partisans groups, labelled according to formula as 'bandits', lasted through the 1920s in Siberia.
All of the reasons supporting Allied intervention in general were valid for the landings in northern Russia at Murmansk and Archangel. In addition, the Allies were concerned that the Germans might seize the ports of Murmansk and nearby Petchenga and use them as bases for the U-boats that were wreaking havoc on Allied shipping in 1918. Moreover, the ports of Murmansk and Archangel were possible points of evacuation for the embattled Czech Legion. These concerns were not unfounded, thanks to recent events in Finland. Finland's disposition affected the Allied contingents allotted to Murmansk and Archangel because a hostile force could drive east through Russian Karelia, cutting the Murmansk-Petrograd Railway. This would prevent any Allied move south and bottle the Allies up at Murmansk. Further, an enemy positioned on the railway at Kem or Kandalaksha (240 kilometres) would sever the one overland road - in reality more of a reindeer track - that haphazardly connected Murmansk to...
Franco, who since 1 October 1936 had taken over all the powers of the Junta and supplanted the other generals, was astute enough to realize that for the purpose of overcoming the reluctance and gaining the support of the Vatican, a pious prelate would serve him better than a haughty admiral. The transition from the Junta de Defensa, presided over by General Caba-nellas, to an absolute power centralized in the person of the Caudillo entailed a change in ecclesiastical policy. Magaz, sent to Rome by the Junta, acted as he had done ten years before, when sent as envoy by Alfonso XIII and Primo de Rivera, that is to say in line with the regal tradition and of the Sack of Rome in 1543 by the army of Charles V (an unhappy event which some Falangists expressly evoked when proposing a harder line when dealing with the Vatican). But the world had changed so much in the past decade that such a policy, once defensible, was now rejected not only by Pius XI but even by Franco himself. The policy...
2 August Anti-Bolshevik forces take control of Archangel 3 August Allies land in Archangel 4 September Americans arrive at Archangel 27 September Allies evacuate Archangel 30 September Allies evacuate Archangel 7 February Odessa falls to the Reds 19 February White Northern Government falls, Archangel
Armored trains sported a wide variety of guns and machine guns. Most weapons were Russian. I lowever, the Allies contributed a substantial number of pieces to the White inventory. The British supplied artillery to Denikin's Whites of the south, to Kolchak s Siberians, to the northern Whites at Archangel and Murmansk, and to a lesser extent to the Northwestern Army. The French sent military aid to Kolchak, but gave special preference to the Czechs. The White warlords of the Russian Far East often used Japanese arms.
The revolt of the Czech Legion in May jolted any feelings of complacency. The collapse of Bolshevik administrations throughout Siberia was a shock further compounded by the loss of influence along the Volga when KOMUCH began armed opposition in June. The loss of Kazan on 6 August was the final challenge that set Commissar for War Trotsky in motion. Kappel's Whites ami the Czechs had captured the immense Romanov Bridge that spanned the Volga and had interposed themselves between the Red 1st and 2nd Armies. From this point, the Whites could advance on Moscow or possibly link with the Allies who had begun landings in the north at Archangel.
Armored cars had suffered natural attrition during the war. In addition to combat losses, some had been utilized in mechanical experiments, a number were in reserve depots lacking parts or awaiting assembly and still others were older models considered unsuitable for operations. Several were still in their original packing crates as part of the former Allied aid effort to Russia and were stored in the ports of Archangel, Murmansk and Vladivostok. Moreover, from November 1917 through March 1918. the Germans had captured 15 detachments of approximately 45 armored cars from the Russians, while the various factions in the Ukraine had taken a similar number, 14 detachments, totaling perhaps 42.
Only two railways existed on the Northern Front Murmansk to Petrograd and Archangel to Vologda. Offensive operations south from Archangel necessarily involved rail movement because ol the dense forest and marsh in the region. The 425-mile (680km) rail section to Vologda passed over 262 wooden bridges, severely impeding am advance. The Reds could merely blow one bridge, retreat out of range, and repeat the process. The British had two armored trains at Archangel by September 1918 and the French at least one. The future Lord Kennett commanded the Mi Irs during the attack on Ghiama Bridge on 31 August. This train had two 12-pounders, a howitzer at the fore (probably a British 4.5-in.) and several machine guns (probablv Vickers and Lewis). French light unarmored train with camouflaged 75mm field gun in North Russia, 1918-19. The flag belongs to one of the small French contingents at Archangel. The artillery wagon has only the most rudimentary defense of split logs and sandbags. (Imperial...
Indeed, each of the Allies believed that the Great War would carry on throughout 1919. They considered it imperative that the Central Powers should not have full access to the munitions stocks and the agricultural and industrial assets still remaining inside the former Russian Empire. Moreover, during the war, the Allies shipped considerable supplies to Russia, some 600,000 tons to the ports of Murmansk and Archangel and considerably more to Vladivostok. These concerns only increased in importance after
General Acabee Zardetto proved to be Baron Sandoval's guardian angel. Having subordinated a single combat command to the baron in Wave One, General Zardetto remained on the Combine frontier for most of the Civil War, convinced that he and his Third Crucis Lancers might be needed for something more than fighting his own countrymen. He had followed Baron Sandoval's movements very closely, however, and when he learned that the Archon was specifically looking to kill the baron and destroy his task force, he felt he had to finally take action. Leading the bulk of his Lancers off of Cassias, he made the long journey to Tsamma. made exceedingly difficult by the scarcity of JumpShips on normal commercial routes.
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