Color Plate Commentary

At: GARFORD-PUTiLOV GUN CAR, GUNNER, SIBERIA, 1919

Note the shields covering rear 76.2mm gun and shell damage in rear. Gunner is in weathered Army Green with white tetters. Top right inset is Urnlets, a Garford-Putlilov that fought on the Polish front in 1920 before being captured. The red tetters were on weathered Army Green. Falcon II (top left inset) is in naval grey with red letters, the name positioned on the side plate below the gun turret. Falcon II saw action on the Petrograd front, 1918-19, before engaging the Poles in 1920 as part of the 1 st Armored Car Detachment. A2: AUSTIN-KEGRESSE ARMORED HALF-TRACK, 43RD ARMORED CAR DETACHMENT, MOSCOW DISTRICT, 1922 Painted in a yellow-ochre khaki and olive camouflage pattern, there were no apparent distinguishing markings or insignia for this detachment. The top right inset reads "All Power to the Soviets," on the plate below the front turret, while the name of the armored half-track Ukrainets (to the right of the slogan) appears below the rear turret, both painted in red over the naval grey. Ukrainets fought against the Poles as part of the 6th Armored Car Detachment and was captured near Zhitomir.

B1: RUSSIAN-BUILT ISOTTA-FRASCHIN! ARMORED CAR NO. 1567, SKULL, AT SARATOV, VOLGA FRONT, SPRING 1919

The car is seen in heavily weathered khaki paint with white letters, numbers and death's head insignia. Note the headlight and commander's cupola atop the large, rotating turret with two Maxim machine-guns. Also note the observation slit in the entryway. Only a few of these were built, primarily for research and development. The car had a crew of four and was capable of 40km/h.

B2: RUSSO-BALT "TYPE D" ARMORED CAR OLEG, PULKOVO HEIGHTS NEAR PETROGRAD, NORTHWESTERN FRONT, SUMMER 1919

This is one of four Russo-Balts constructed in 1915 that defended the Smolny Institute during the Revolution of November 1917. Each of the cars, with a crew of four, had been painted in grey with red letters (note white "shading" bordering the red, top three insets). These armored cars were named for former rulers of the Rus: Oieg (third inset down), Yaroslav (second inset down), Sviatostav (top inset) and Flunk. The names were retained after the Revolution. Oleg additionally received red flags painted on the front and right front plates and the inscription "RSDRP" or "Russian Social Democratic Workers Party" (bottom inset), below the machine gun turret that housed three Maxims (two front, one back). Earlier cars could be seen with 37mm anti-aircraft guns.

C1: MARK V COMPOSITE TANK, MUSCOVITE PROLETARfAN, SOUTHERN FRONT, NOVEMBER 1920

This is No. 9358, formerly For Holy Russia (see New Vanguard 83: Armored Units of the Russian Civil War: White and Allied, plate D). captured by the Reds and renamed after the battle of Kakhovka in October. New Red insignia can be seen in the upper left inset ("RSFSR" at top, tank name at bottom). At some point, the Russian tricolor markings on the front horn have been returned to the original British identification markings of white-red-white. Overall, the color is a heavily weathered olive, faded almost to a khaki tone. Soviet avant garde artiste Alexander Rodchenko (1891-1956) supervised the repainting of several Red tanks while holding dual posts at the Visual Arts Section of the People's Commissariat for Enlightenment and at the Institute of Artistic Culture in Moscow. See center and upper right insets (green-light green camouflage) for examples of his work. See "Colors and Markings" introduction above for explanation of the black alpha-numeric sequences.

Renault Tank
ABOVE First Red tank, Renault FT-17, Freedom Fighter Comrade Lenin, with 37mm gun, Moscow, August 1919. (Kolomiets)

BELOW Soviet painting, battle of Kakhovka, October 1920. White tanks are being counterattacked by elite Latvians. This painting illustrates the dangers posed to tanks inadequately supported by friendly infantry. Note exploding shell, grenades, the tank ditch to the rear of the main tank and the intervening obstacles between this tank and the Latvians. The artist has inaccurately painted the Reds in the post-1922 summer uniform. (Bullock)

Kakhovka 1920

C2: RENAULT FT-17, NO. 1930, AMURETS (WITH HOTCHKISS MACHINE GUN), 5TH PLATOON, 1ST AMURSK HEAVY TANK DIVISION, BLAGOVESCHENSK, EASTERN SSBERiA, 1920

These tanks, (upper right inset shows 2nd Platoon's No, 4320, Sivuch with Maxim machine gun and protective shields) originally transferred by the Americans to Kolchak, are in the earlier 1920 three-color pattern camouflage, based on the French style and sport a red scroll with tank names in black. By 1922, the tanks were painted in the two-color camouflage (dark green, light green) representative of the main tank forces in central Russia and had a white scroll with red letters.

D: MARK A WHIPPET TANK NO. A 322, STENKA RAZIN, 1ST TANK DETACHMENT, SMOLENSK, MAY 1920

Originally part of Denikln's Armed Forces of South Russia, No. A 322 fell to the Reds during the White retreat in 1920. Reformed Into the Red Army's 1st Tank Detachment at the tank school in Ekaterinodar, Stenka Razin conducted open-terrain exercises at Smolensk in May before seeing combat in the Russo-Polish War {see page 39). The tank Is in overall dark olive. The interior is white with wooden floorboards and leather seats for the driver and one machine gunner. The inset depicts the insignia as it would appear on the center of the turret. The designation A 322 is in weathered white, while the tank name Stenka Razin just below is in fresher white paint. Below is the insignia "R.S.F.S.R" which is itself above the red star with the center hammer and plough symbol in the center in white.

El: NO. 98, SOVIET RUSSIA

This three-wagon sequence had a "Chn" engine and tender and two identical gun wagons. Painted In light olive, the red Insignia on both gun wagons read: (top line) "First Armor-Turreted Train" (bottom line) "Soviet Russia." During the civil war, armored trains were sometimes repainted during repairs: for example, Soviet Russia appeared in one photo in dark olive with white letters. The Bryansk Engineering Works or "BMZ," had begun work on the "Ch" series locomotives in 1890 and the "Chn" was a later variant. The front piece on each gun wagon is a 107mm, while the rear turret guns are 76.2mm, Mode! 1902. One machine gun is on each gun wagon in the top turret. Soviet Russia served In 14th Army on the Southern Front in 1919. E2: NO. 96, RED HURRICANE

This four-wagon sequence included a "Chn" type engine and tender, gun wagon and two "tankette" gun wagons. The train appears in olive overall, with no apparent Insignia, The two

"tankette" gun oars carried 76.2mm field pieces and had two machine gun turrets on top of each of the gun turrets (ail rotating). The gun car had a 76.2mm anti-aircraft piece with ten machine guns in the body, five to a side. Note the silhouette inset: the gun turret faces the viewer, as does one of the machine gun turrets (thus revealing the front and side views of the machine gun turrets). Red Hurricane served in 12th Army on the Southern Front in 1919.

F1: NO. 6, (PUTILOVS) IN HONOR OF COMRADE LENIN

The pre-name Putilovs, or Putilovtsy, meaning constructed by the engineers of the Putilov Works in Petrograd, appeared in official records, but not on the train side {see top inset). Right Inset reads: "Ail Power to the Soviets." The train is in dark green overall, (note red locomotive wheels) and white lettering. This three-sequence train included an unusual "Ya" passenger type locomotive {BMZ Works design, 1917-18) with 50% more power than the more standard "O" series. The two almost identical gun wagons sported 76.2mm, Model 1902 artillery

1919 Red Army Armoured Car Crew Uniform
ABOVE Russian Austin Chutki (Eager), 1Sth Armored Car Detachment, Petrograd, igi9. Note chains on rear wheels. (Deryabin)

BELOW Armored train No. 87 International (in some records 3rd International), 1920. Camouflage may be two shades of green or khaki and green. Side insignia, seemingly faded white, top to bottom: star - "R5FR" - white rectangle with red numeric "550," train designation, then crossed and winged cannons. Note side entrance and gun, machine gun and command turret in or atop each revolving turret, (Kolomiets)

(two guns each) and two machine guns in each turret to either side of the main gun. Four machine guns were positioned on each wagon, two to a side. Constructed in 1918 at the Sormovo Works, Nlzhny Novgorod, the train spent 1919 either at base in Petrograd, or in service with 7th Army, Northwest Front. The silhouette inset depicts the train in 1920 with a new four-axle tender and commander tower behind the engine, slight armor variations on the gun wagons, and a 76.2mm antiaircraft gun on the second wagon. F2: NO. 36, COMRADE LENIN

This three-sequence train had an "Ov" locomotive and two identical gun wagons. Painted in olive overall, the name appeared in white letters on each gun car (note "Tov." abbreviation for tovarich, or comrade). Each gun wagon had one 76.2mm anti-aircraft piece and six machine guns (three to a side). Constructed at Tsaritsyn in 1918, the train battled the Cossacks on the Southern Front then spent the last half of 1919 in Nizhny-Novgorod, undergoing repairs.

G1: ARMORED TRAIN NO. 63, DESTRUCTION TO THE COUNTER-REVOLUTION, SOUTHERN FRONT, SPRING 1920

The engine and tender are between two different gun wagons. The front gun wagon has one rotating half-turret while the rear gun wagon has two revolving, fully-armored turrets (both wagons with 76.2mm field guns). Note the four machine guns with moving shields on each corner of this train (two to a gun wagon). The upper right inset slogan reads: (top line) "R.S.F.S.R," (center line) "Armored Train," (bottom line) Destruction to the Counter-Revolution. This slogan appears on the fully-armored engine, while the tender has the same slogan, except that a red star (upper left inset) is just under "R.S.F.S.R." The red star also appears on the side of the engineer's cabin. The two gun wagons have the same slogan on the sides, but in a two-line sequence, "R.S.F.S.R," appearing at the top. G2: ARMORED TRAfN NO. 86

Formed at Nizhny-Novgorod in late 1918, this four-sequence train with engine and tender has three different gun wagons. The gun wagon (right) is in a typical Sormovo Works armoring style and carries 76.2mm field guns. The gun wagon (far left) houses two 152mm pieces and bears the red Inscription (top) "RSFSR," and (bottom) Armored Train No. 85 (on both gun turrets). The same Inscriptions are on the engine and right gun wagon, but not on the gun wagon second from left, which has two 203mm guns. The original Inscription has been painted over with a darker green (center right inset).

152mm Railway Gun
ABOVE Naval 203mm gun, Metallurgical Works, Kramatorsk, southeast Ukraine. (Bullock)
Photo Armoured Trains Latvia

ABOVE Two different gun wagons of a captured and reformed armored train, believed to be No. 114, Southwest Front near Odessa, spring 1920 (camouflage pattern unknown). Side insignia (red): star - "RSFSR" - "Armored Train No. (114?) - winged wheel and crossed cannon barrels emblem - slogan "Glory to Red Armor." (Kolomiets)

ABOVE Two different gun wagons of a captured and reformed armored train, believed to be No. 114, Southwest Front near Odessa, spring 1920 (camouflage pattern unknown). Side insignia (red): star - "RSFSR" - "Armored Train No. (114?) - winged wheel and crossed cannon barrels emblem - slogan "Glory to Red Armor." (Kolomiets)

BELOW Mark V composite tank, winter 1921. (Deryabin)

BELOW Mark V composite tank, winter 1921. (Deryabin)

American Civil War Armored Trains

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