the army's heavy caliber siege guns. Dress for the heavy artillerymen, as with the 1st US Artillery, remained what it had been before the war, with the same dark blue frock coat and light blue trousers as the infantry, a black felt Hardee hat, and black leather waist and cross belts. The piping on the collar and cuffs was in artillery red, as was the cord and knot on the hat. Since "heavies" also acted as infantry when not working their guns, they could also carry bayonets and cap boxes.
Union artillery underwent considerable change during the war, especially in its uniform regulation. It began the war as the smallest branch of the service, and artillerymen were looked upon as additional infantry, with only a few companies actually equipped with cannon. This soon changed, with light or "field" artillery designed for active campaigning, horse or "flying" artillery accompanying cavalry, and heavy or "foot" artillery manning fortifications and sea defenses, as well as serving
Above: A gun of any size was rarely hauled into place before a defensive work had been built to protect it. This piece, believed to have been an eight-incher, sat on a bank of the Tennessee Rover. Well protected in a remote spot, it may have constituted the entire battery.
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