Confederate States Naval Ensign

Confederate States Navy Ensign

This Confederate States Navy Ensign of the Second Pattern was captured on the CSS Florida, a fully-rigged steamer, which served as a commerce raider, taking thirty-seven prizes, while her two sailing tenders added a further twenty-three. She was seized under cover of darkness in the neutral harbor of Bahia, Brazil, on October 17, 1864, by sailors from the USS Wachusett, a wooden-hulled screw sloop. Half of Florida's crew were ashore at the time of the attack, but the remainder were seized and taken, together with their ship, to the United States. The Florida sub-sequently sank in Hampton Roads.

Union Manuals

The Civil War was fought by enormous armies, covering a vast area, and with relatively poor communications. In addition, vast numbers of state volunteers and militias were embodied and dispatched to the battle zones. The only means of achieving some degree of uniformity of equipment and practice was through the written word, which gave rise to a huge amount of military literature. Many of these were official manuals published by the Government Printing Office in Washington, D.C., followed closely by J. B Lippincott & Co.. Philadelphia. Other major publishers were Harpers & Brothers and D. Van Nostrand, both of New York. Other publications were of the self-education "how to..." variety, covering subjects such as infantry and cavalry tactics, and drill. Today, Civil War manuals with owners' names, rank, and unit are particularly collectable and eagerly sought.

1 Various instructional manuals for the Army and Navy, including Scott's Infantry Tactics. Army Regulations. 1861. and Halleck s Laws of War

2 Instructional manual for the Model 1863 Springfield rifle-musket

3 Advertisement or "broadside" for Baxter's Volunteer Manual (see item 12 below)

4 Patten's Infantry Tactics, published New York, 1861. The manual features a personal endorsement by Major General George McClellan on the


5 Manual and drill book for enlisted men, written by "An Officer of the U.S. Army"

6 Manual of U.S. Army cavalry tactics

7 Illustrated edition of Hardee 's Tactics. published in New York

8 Congdon s version of cavalry tactics

9 Handbook of artillery, inscribed, with owner's name

10 Illustrated infantry drill manual. showing the movements for shoulder arms

11 Pair of reading glasses, probably very necessary to wade through all these books.

12 Baxter's Volunteer 's Manual for company evolutions, as advertised on broadside item 3. Manual published in Philadelphia, by King & Baird, 1861

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