Private Co E 23rd Virginia Infantry CSA

Four years of heavy service characterized the 23rd Virginia Infantry, and by the end it showed on those fortunate few who could still answer the roll. Numbering perhaps 800 men when first mustered, the regiment had just 57 men and officers left to surrender with the

Army of Northern Virginia at Appomattox. Along the way it had left its dead in the Shenandoah Valley, at the Seven Days', at Cedar Mountain, Second Manassas, Chancellorville, Gettysburg, Cedar Creek, and many more. They were typical of the units that were raised in 1861, formed chiefly from companies called by such names as the "Brooklyn Grays" and "Louisa Grays." The regiment wore gray frock coats and trousers, with blue or black trim and distinctive yellow loops on their collars, and some wore a "B.G." on their kepis for "Brooklyn Grays." Their leather belts and accouter-ments were originally white, but hard service quickly soiled them.

Guerre Secession Uniforms

Men from the Confederacy's western regiments often wore very individualist dress, and even uniforms of whole regiments could vary considerably from the official regulations. The battle shirt, for instance, could sport oversize breast pockets, usually outlined against their plain or checked home-spun background. The 1st Texas was one of the better clothed western outfits, and at the beginning of the war sported gray frock coats and trousers, trimmed with blue, and gray kepis with stars and regimental numerals on the crown. Armed with Enfield rifles, the 1st Texas saw heavy service in the Army of Northern Virginia with John Bell Hood's Texas Brigade, from Seven Pines in May 1862 to the end at Appomattox. Consequently, clothing deteriorated with scant reissues, so that by the finish, uniforms, as such, had ceased to mean anything and the men simply dressed themselves in whatever came to hand.

Csa Palmetto Infantry

Above: Edmund Ruffin, fanatic secessionist.

Edmund Ruffin, Palmetto Guard, later Co. I., 2nd South Carolina Volunteers, C.S.A.

Old Edmund Ruffin led the pack among secessionists, even though he came from moderate Virginia. When secession came he could not wait to be at the center of it all and went to Charleston, where the members of the local Palmetto Guard happily made him a member of their outfit. Here he cuts a striking figure in the unit's black uniform, which is really little more than a civilian broadcloth suit with white military belt and cross-belt. The closest thing to a regulation item is his hat, with its

Above: Edmund Ruffin, fanatic secessionist.

distinctive "P G" surrounded by c wreath. When the Palmetto Guard was reformed as Company I of the 2nd South Carolina Volunteers, a more standard style of dress was adopted. The Palmetto Guard drew duty manning the so-called "Ironclad Battery" facing Fort Sumter, and it fell to Ruffin to fire the battery's first shot. Sadly, he also fired one of the war's last shots, committing suicide after the Confederate surrender.

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