With the advent of armored vessels, projectiles capable of penetrating or crushing such armor had to be developed. The breaking of masonry forts was also accomplished by the use of similar projectiles fired from large bore rifled guns. Many of these projectiles had specially hardened noses designed to punch through armor. Excellent examples are to be seen at West Point and the Washington Navy Yard. The result of bombardment by such projectiles can be seen at Fort Sumter, Charleston, and Fort Pulaski, Savannah, Ga.
Schenkl shell for 7 inch (178mm) rifle. Note that the papier-mach6 sabot is still in place over the projections cast on to the base of the shell to fit the rifling The fuse on top of the shell also appears to be in position Federal 5.1 inch (130mm) Stafford shell for a 50-pounder (23kg) Dahlgren naval gun Federal 5 inch (127mm) Whitworth shell for an 80-pounder (36kg) Whitworth rifle; this is, in effect, a sub-caliber round and far ahead of its time Stand of grape-shot for a 100-pounder (45kg) rifled gun. Grape was used for close "soft" targets, such as formations of infantry or cavalry Sawyer shell for a 5.8 inch (147mm) rifle. Note the cast-on projections designed to fit the rifling in the gun's barrel. The fuse also appears to be in position in this example
Aihlacts courtesy ot West Point Museum. West Pmnt. N Y
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