Experience in the Cavil War proved that the age of the smoothbore cannon was gone. Rifled cannon could tear down the strongest forts built in the age of the smoothbore. Navies developed iron ships to replace their wooden ones, and only rifled guns were able to penetrate this new armor.
At the same time, new casting methods allowed foundries to make guns of ever-larger calibers that could fire at greater distances. This meant that the forts used to defend American ports had to he placed even f urther from the cities so that they could defeat enemy fleets before their ships came in range of their targets. The old brick forts placed just outside American cities were suddenly obsolete.
More durable carriages able to Stand these larger guns, requiring less of the constant maintenance needed for wood carriages, were designed and made of iron. The result was that at the end of four years of war, American siege artillery and the fortifications it defended looked very different than at the beginning of the war.
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