Cs Organization

Initially, heavy artillery was organized the same as infantry regiments or battalions. Each company after November 1861, was set at a minimum of 7() men, with 10 companies in a regiment. This was raised to 150 men in a company as of October 11, 1862, A full regiment would rate a colonel, a lieutenant-colonel, a major, an adjutant who ranked as a lieutenant, a commissary who ranked as a captain, a quartermaster who ranked as a captain, a surgeon who ranked as a major, a sergeant-major, an ordnance sergeant, and a hospital steward. Each company would have a captain, a first lieutenant, a second lieutenant, an orderly or first sergeant, and a sufficient number of other noncommissioned officers.

On March 3, 1802, Adjutant & Inspector General Samuel Cooper wrote to the Secretary of War, Judah P. Benjamin, about a problem that arose from the small number of officers and NCOs in heavy artillery units: "The organization of these companies is the same as infantry, and some of them are assigned to batteries of from six to nine heavy guns. Eac h section of two pieces should be commanded by a lieutenant and each gun should be provided with a sergeant and corporal, so that a company serving a battery of eight guns should have four lieutenants, eight sergeants, and eight corporals; whereas at present organized the company consists of only three lieutenants, five sergeants, and four corporals." Benjamin agreed, sending the suggestion on to Congress, which also agreed, reorganizing heavy artillery to be the same as light artillery batteries on April 3, 1862.

The following Confederate units were specifically raised and served as heavy artillery units; 12th Georgia Artillery Battalion (Savannah Siege Train 1 leavy Artillery Battalion), 22d Georgia Artillery (Siege) Battalion, 28th Georgia Artillery Battalion, 1st Regular Louisiana Artillery Regiment, 2d Louisiana Artillery Battalion, 8th Louisiana Artillery Battalion, 1st Mississippi Artillery Regiment, 1st North Carolina Heavy Artillery Battalion, 3d North Carolina Artillery Battalion, 10th North Carolina Artillery Battalion (2d Battalion Heavy Artillery),

This 13-Inch mortar was mounted on a railway car so as to be able to be fired from different places into the Confederate lines around Petersburg. (Library of Congress)

Heavy Siege Artillery
The Navy mounted 13-inch mortars on schooners to use to bombard shore points, such as Forts St Philip and Jackson outside New Orleans in 1862. (Library of Congress)

10th Regiment North Carolina Volunteers Artillery (five companies), 40th Regiment North Carolina VoIumeers-3d Artillery, 1st South Carolina Heavy Artillery Regiment, 2d South Carolina Heavy Artillery Regiment, 3d South Carolina Heavy Artillery Regiment (1st Regulars), 15th South Carolina Heavy Artillery Battalion, 18th South Carolina Heavy Artillery Battalion (Siege Tram Artillery Battalion), 1st Tennessee Heavy Artillery Regiment, 1st Texas Heavy Artillery Regiment, 3d Texas Artillery Battalion, 2d Virginia Heavy Artillery Regiment (Home Artillery), 4th Virginia Heavy Artillery Regiment, 10th Virginia Heavy Artillery Battalion, 18th Virginia Heavy Artillery Battalion, 19th Virginia Heavy Artillery Battalion, 20th Virginia Heavy Artillery Battalion, and Johnston I ieavy Artillery (Virginia),

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